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英国课程coursework:亚洲的性别问题

时间:2016-07-17 20:00来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
在几千年的人类历史中,性别问题一直是一个热门话题。它已被证明在许多国家,男人和女人之间有不同的待遇。性别问题是许多国家的妇女的一个释放的过程。然而,令人惊讶的是,即使在发达国家开放的国家,性别问题仍然是非常明显的。此外,在旧中国,妇女工作者为了帮助女性变得强大的工会和不公平对待的姐妹团体战斗。此外,来自朝鲜的妇女加入了共产主义运动,以获得解放。加上这一点,日本妇女在旧时代也一直在努力争取政治上的包容。在这篇文章中,有四篇文章进行了综述,如下:在一个传统的世界开拓者:韩国的第一位女性大学毕业生,1910-45 ','烧香,承诺的姐妹:在上海棉花米尔斯,1919-1949的女工的社区,理想的解放:满洲里和韩国妇女明治国家政策对女性,1890-1910”。他们都讨论了性别问题,强调了女性地位的变化。In the thousands of years of human history, gender issue is always a popular topic. It has been shown that in many countries, there are different treats between men and women. The gender issue is a process of releasing women in many countries. However, it is surprisingly, even in the developed open country, the gender issue still has very obvious as well. Moreover, there are sisterhood communities of women workers in old China in order to help women to become stronger in the worker union and fight with unfair treats. Also, women from Korean have joined the communist movements in order to gain liberation. Added to this, the Japanese women have struggled to gain political inclusion in the old time as well. In this essay, there are four articles have been reviewed which are the following: 'Trailblazers in a Traditional World: Korea's First Women College Graduates, 1910-45', 'Burning Incense, Pledging Sisterhood: Communities of Women Workers in the Shanghai Cotton Mills, 1919-1949', ‘Ideals of Liberation: Korean Women in Manchuria’ and ‘The Meiji State’s Policy Toward Women, 1890-1910’. All of them have discussed the gender issue which has emphasized the change of women status. 
 
Firstly, in the article 'Trailblazers in a Traditional World: Korea's First Women College Graduates, 1910-45', it has been stated by Isabella Bishop, an adventurous traveler from England that women in Korea are experiencing unique confinements according to their status. Women can only go out in the darkness. There is obvious difference between the treat of men and women in old Korea. It has been shown that the name of Korean women is only a surname follow by the notification of the daughter, the sister or wife of the man. The status of women in old Korea is very low. In the article 'Trailblazers in a Traditional World: Korea's First Women College Graduates, 1910-45', the author has discussed first group of Korean women graduate from college. The movement of education of Korean women has demonstrated a way for Korean women to gain more social status and it has been recognized by both men and women as the only way to realize the emancipation of women in Korea. The education for Korean women is long and rough from 90% of most Korean women are illiterate in 1930 to 5,123 female students in girls’ high schools in 1934. Later one, there are some Korean women go to Japan to study and most of the graduates (around 80%) chose to further studies in Japan and the rest go to the U.S. and other countries (Kim and Lee, 1933:121). It has been indicated from this that most Korean women who go to Japan to study would like to stay aboard instead of going back to their home country, Korea. On the other hand, it means that Korean women prefer to release themselves from the social constraint and the confinement in their home country even though Korean women can only choose a limited number of faculties to study and some studies cannot grant them degrees (such as auditors). However, it should be acknowledged that it seems that there is a huge improvement of Korean women to study aboard in 1930, the percentage is still surprisingly low as only 173 Korean women in Japanese institutions compare to 1,042,493 Korea women who are age between 15 and 19. Added to this, the Ewha only has three departments which include music, home economics and literature which aims to educate women to become better wives and mothers in the future. Therefore, there is a need for further improvement of releasing Korean women. There is improvement for women education in Korea as in 1945, there is coeducational institutions occurring. Later on, there are more and more Korean women have been educated and live under high expectations by the public. 
 
In the article 'Burning Incense, Pledging Sisterhood: Communities of Women Workers in the Shanghai Cotton Mills, 1919-1949', it has been shown that there are many women workers who work in the cotton mills of Shanghai have formed the sisterhood societies in order help each other in many different ways. It is way for women workers to form together to depend on one another in the working environment. From this, it is not hard for us to understand that there is a working-class district inside the cotton mills in Shanghai and some of the women workers may suffer from their work. It has been indicated in the article that women in the cotton mills in Shanghai in the old time have to work 12 hours per day as a shift with only a ten minute lunch break. More importantly, even though when they have their lunches they cannot stop the machine, otherwise they would be grueling. Therefore, it is very essential and grateful for women workers to have sisterhood with others as they can help each other during the work and can help others to look after their machine while eating. However, it is very interesting; the working environment for women in the cotton mills is very difficult for most of the women workers due to strict rules, not all women workers are working together in order to fight with the unfair treat, they have formed to different groups according to their local areas. Workers from different locations have different habits, customs, ancients and dress styles. Therefore, the sisterhoods have been formed; they only interact within their own sisterhoods and hang out during weekends and holidays. Last but not the least, it has been indicated from the sisterhoods in the cotton mills in Shanghai that women workers are not passive victims in the industry work. Instead of being passive victims in the cotton mills, the women workers have formed the sisterhoods in order to resistance to the long work hours and unfair treats. 
 
For the article, ‘Ideals of Liberation: Korean Women in Manchuria’, it has been demonstrated that due to a series of natural disasters and crop failures in Korea, there is an increasing number of Koreans in Manchuria from 202,070 in 1910 to 1.5 million in 1945. There are many Korean peasants have participated in the Chinese Revolution in order to against the arranged early marriage. Also, the revolutionary and nationalist movements in Manchuria aim to expand the independence of women in order to release them from the family and change the structure of family. It is a way to proliferate the oppression of women. The new communist policy in Manchuria has emphasized the freedom and liberation of women through the revolutions. The policy for family has changed from anti-family to pro-family measures. The process is through the promotion for free divorce, marriage and end to trafficking in women. As a result, in 1933, the 'true revolutionary women' has been replaced by the 'new liberated woman'. It has influenced the views of Korean women and the new idea for women libration has become the moral basis for the society. The social status in both the society and the family has become more and more important and rights of women have been struggled in the revolution as well. 
 
Moreover, it has been indicated in the article ‘The Meiji State’s Policy Toward Women, 1890-1910’ that there is political suppression for women in the East Asian society. For example, in Japan, there is exclusion of women from politics in the Meiji State’s Policy. This has led to Japanese feminists to write the first histories in order to against exclusion from politics. From the article, it has been shown that from the two decades from 1890 to 1910, there is development for the state policy in Japan for the roles of women. However, the goals are still restricted in the twin ideals which are ‘Good Wife, Wise Mother’. Also, even though there is improvement for the women in order to affirm their hard work, care of the old, ill and young, efficient management and caring for their children, there is still no special rules which entitle political rights to women in Japan. Therefore, up to 1910, there is still no general sense of the society to realize the importance of political inclusion for women in Japan. The education of women until 1910 in Japan has been expanded fast and focus is still on the wife and mother functions of Japanese women. 
In general, from the review of different articles for the history in different countries, it has been shown that women in the old times have no political and social status in many different ways. Women has experienced many different treats in the history and many feminists have struggled to change their status in order to achieve equal status with men. The Korean women go to school, the sisterhood communities of women workers in old China in order to help women to become stronger in the worker union and fight with unfair treats, the women from Korean have joined the communist movements in order to gain liberation and the Japanese women have struggled to gain political inclusion in the old time are all good examples for their struggles. 
 


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