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英国coursework代写:苹果公司服务运营管理研究

时间:2019-03-12 15:34:23 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:21
Chapter 1 Introduction about customer operation management第一章客户经营管理介绍
1.1 The research about customer operation management1.1顾客经营管理研究
顾客经营管理是指对企业提供的服务的开发和设计的管理,以及对服务经营过程和操作系统的策划、组织和控制(Barthel,2010)。顾客经营管理已成为当代企业吸引新顾客、留住老顾客、提高顾客忠诚度、提高市场占有率的重要手段之一(库克,2008年)。
Customer operation management refers to the management towards the development and design of services provided by enterprises, as well as the planning, organization and control towards service operation processes and the operating system (Barthel, 2010). Customer operation management has become one of the most important means for majority of contemporary enterprises to attract new customers, retain old customers, improve customer loyalty and increase market share (Cook, 2008).
1.2 Customer operation management in Apple1.2苹果客户运营管理
苹果公司(简称苹果)是一家美国高科技公司,成立于1976年4月1日,其业务在20世纪末陷入困境(Kubilay,2015年)。进入21世纪,公司再次成为世界电子产品生产和设计的领导者,也是世界上最成功的公司之一。苹果公司再次成功,主要是由于公司的客户运营管理,因此本研究对其客户运营管理策略进行了研究(Kubilay,2015)。
Apple Inc. (Apple for short) is an American high-tech company founded on April 1, 1976, its business fell in trouble in the late 20th century (Kubilay, 2015). Entering the 21st century, the company once again becomes the world's electronic production and design leader, as well as one of the world's most successful companies. Apple succeeds once again, which is largely due to the company's customer operation management, thus this study carries out research on its customer operation management strategy (Kubilay, 2015).
Chapter 2 Literature Review第二章文献综述
2.1 The origin of customer relation management2.1客户关系管理的起源
20世纪,随着卖方市场向买方市场的转变,企业的经营战略必须由“以产品为中心”向“以客户为中心”转变,实现以客户为中心的经营战略,需要企业将各种与客户有关的信息整合起来,实现全面的管理。与客户有关的数据和信息。在此背景下,CRM出现(Barthel,2010年)。
In the 20th century, with the transition from a seller's to a buyer's market, an enterprise's business strategy must be transformed from the "product-centric" to the "customer-centric." To implement a customer-centric strategy requires an enterprise to integrate customer-related information from its various to achieve the comprehensive management of customer-related data and information. In this context, CRM appears (Barthel, 2010).
2.2 The research about customer relation management
In marketing process, CRM system can effectively help marketers of an enterprise to analyze the existing target customer groups, so as to help marketers to choose accurate marketing tools. At the same time CRM helps marketers in dealing with cost-benefit analysis to help the company to choose a more effective marketing tool (Barthel, 2010). Through contents recorded by CRM system, marketers can establish a schedule for appointment reminder, effectively shortening their working hours, and large business reminders, sales filler analysis, performance index statistics, as well as other functions and can effectively help management personnel to improve the ratio of achieving transactions, shorten sales cycles, so as to achieve the business growth with maximum benefit (Cook, 2008).  CRM system can help companies to have a quick and timely access to information on customer complaints, which can be targeted and efficient for companies to solve problems for customers to improve customer satisfaction and enhance corporate image. Satisfaction survey function of CRM system allows the most senior managers to be kept informed of the company's level of customer service (Daffy, 2001).
2.3 The degree of satisfaction of customers
Customer satisfaction refers to the feeling status of a customer’s pleasure or disappointment after he compares the perceived effect of a product or service with the expected value. The higher the degree of customer satisfaction there is, the stronger the competitiveness the enterprise providing the product or service has, and it has greater market share and better business efficiency. CRM is an effective way and means to improve customer satisfaction, it helps companies to better find consumer demand to help companies to provide better services, it also contributes to improving the perceived value of consumers towards products and services (Harris, 2006). 
Chapter 3 The customer relation management in Apple company
3.1 The basic introduction about Apple company
Apple mainly provides personal computers such as MacBook, ipad, mobile communications, for example: iphone and multimedia devices, such as: ipod, these three aspects of products, By 2016, Apple's market value is over 230 billion US dollars, which is one of the highest in the world (Hartigh, 2016).
3.2 The organization structure of Apple company
 
Figure 1: Organization structure of Apple company
Apple's organization structure is shown as the above figure 1, the organization structure is characterized by that the management of various departments are directly connected with the CEO Jobs, and the bottom staff are directly connected with the management of each department (Lazonick, Mazzucato and Tulum, 2013). As a result, the CEO is at the core of information transmission. For Apple, because of the simple organization structure, it can take quick action and achieve quick information transfer. 
 
3.3 The management concept and business indicators of Apple company
The most important feature of Apple's management philosophy is to encourage individualism, in the early days of its establishment (Montgomerie and Roscoe, 2013), Apple has formed a dynamic and creative corporate culture. Apple's culture encourages hard work, emphasizing individual achievement. The employees believe that Apple's power is from them, and the role of the management is to be able to create the best working environment for them to stimulate their creativity (Montgomerie and Roscoe, 2013). This management concept makes Apple be able to develop incredible products.
Chapter 4 The analysis about the customer relation management in Apple company
4.1 The positioning of valuable customers in Apple company
As a brand of high-end products of computers and mobile phones in the market, Apple’s target customers are young business people, those who are demanding and affordable in entertainment, creative workers who have special requirements for computers (Kubilay, 2015). Apple’s consumers are young people with strong spending power and high educational background. 
4.2 The analysis about customer relation management
4.2.1 Customer information management in Apple company
Apple is through a powerful database-GCRM system to achieve the global network management system of the customer service center, as long as a customer has dialed the number of the customer service center, his customer information, information of using the product and issues consulted will be recorded in the database, Apple’s engineers around the world can have an access to relevant records of the customer. Thus in every global region, the most efficient technical services of the customer service center are available to each customer.
Clover CRM of Apple integrates with customer management, market management, sales management, purchasing management, inventory management, after-sales management, product management, cost management, schedule management, user-defined report analysis, user-defined custom statistical chart analysis and other functions (Hartigh, et al., 2016). Apple company is through the use of the Clover CRM to analyze and record customer data in purchase and sale process, using these data and information for transformation and optimization of sales and customer service processes.
4.2.2 Communication management in Apple company
If a user has bought their products, Apple will periodically send them formally e-mail to show their respect for the user, and it is attached with a questionnaire to understand the user’s opinions about whether he has comments and suggestions on the recent purchase of apple products.Users who fill in the questionnaire conscientiously will have the opportunity to get a beautiful gift, of course, and they will also receive a thank you letter and invitation to experience Apple's new product release conference.
Apple franchise stores also provide users with a fun free classroom-"i- genius", through it, users can have an access to technical expertise and experience the process of using the latest products or software, through this communication, many customers may not make purchasing decisions at the moment, but they will remember the experience in the franchise stores and first consider Apple products in the next option to purchase (Hartigh, et al., 2016). This mode of communication has laid a good foundation for the training of potential customers.  
Apple launched Appstore in 2008. The software developers provide a wide variety of application software, a variety of financial payment service providers provide transaction and payment service, Apple provides software platform, consumers are through Apple's products and platform to purchase and use a variety of application software. Appstore greatly facilitates consumers’ access to application software, saving time and costs for consumers. Meanwhile, Appstore helps Apple's integration of resources to have an access to considerable economic benefits, it also allows consumers and software companies to benefit from that to achieve a win-win development pattern. (Lazonick, Mazzucato and Tulum, 2013).#p#分页标题#e#
4.2.3 The degree of customer satisfaction and loyalty in Apple company
American Consumer Satisfaction Index released its annual telecommunications and information report. The report showed that in 2015, Apple’s and Samsung's overall customer satisfaction scores were 80%, Samsung showed a downward trend of the loss of 1%, when it compared with last year, while Apple increased by 1%.
Brand loyalty refers to that in the purchase of a product category, consumers have biased behavioral responses for a brand, it is one of core factors for a company to achieve success. Apple has always wanted to build their loyalty with a good product experience, it now appears that Apple has done pretty good in this aspect. Brand Keys conducted a survey towards 42,792 respondents, the results showed that the brand loyalty of Apple in terms of its notebook, tablet PC and smart mobile phone, these three categories ranked first (Brandkeys, 2016). Considering from the survey results, satisfaction and loyalty of Apple products are belong to the top, the results show that Apple's products are excellent in terms of their quality, design, the services and experience offered by Apple to consumers are also ideal.
4.3 The measurements of human resources in Apple company
4.3.1 The measurements about improving customer relation managements
With the global expansion of the business, Apple began using the Internet for human resources management in order to achieve a worldwide network of human resource management (Lazonick, Mazzucato and Tulum, 2013). 
Apple has specially set up an employee assistance center to help employees to handle routine learning and consulting matters. If the employees encounter any problems in the use of the CRM system, they can ask the center for help by iPod, iPhone, iPad at any time, after receiving signal of asking for help from employees, the center will make timely answer. 
To motivate employees’ bold innovation to produce products which can meet consumer demand more, Apple has created the Apple Fellows Program. It is the highest honor given to Apple's electronic scientists, it is awarded to Apple employees who have made outstanding contributions. It is not just an honor, but also means high salaries and a large number of stock options.
4.3.2 The analysis about these measurements
In the present, the real competition is the competition for talents. It would be better to create an internal environment that its competitors can not, like what Apple does, this environment is more about the charm of management and the respect for employees. If a company can reach this level, then the enthusiasm, loyalty, satisfaction of the staff are very likely to be increased.
4.4 The problems in the customer relation managements in Apple company
4.4.1Technology issues 
The source code of Apple’s IOS system is not made public and it does not accept non-official software (Hartigh et al, 2016). All along, because of the highly closed IOS system, it provides users near-perfect operating experience. The closeness of IOS has brought Apple a lot of loyal customers. However, with the reduced ability of Apple's innovation and the enhanced innovation ability of software from other companies, more and more Apple's mobile phone users want to use other companies’ software, but closed IOS system brings them trouble.
4.4.2 Management issues
When Jobs was the CEO, the customer satisfaction and loyalty of Apple products were much higher than its competitors’, after the death of Jobs, the consumer satisfaction with products or services has been caught up by its competitors. There are two reasons, first, its innovative ability is declining and it is unable to better meet consumer demand. Second, the decline in the quality of service makes it have no obvious advantage when it compares with its competitors.
Chapter 5 Conclusions and suggestions
5.1 Main points
CRM has become one of important means for most contemporary enterprises to attract new customers, retain old customers, improve customer loyalty and increase market share. In the 21st  century, the reason for Apple's success once again greatly lies in the company's CRM strategy. Through CRM strategy, Apple effectively tap new customers, enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty. However, there are still some flaws in Apple's CEM strategy, which needs to be further improved.
5.2 Suggestions
5.2.1 Improving customer relation managements technically
There is a growing number of Apple's mobile phone users who want to try other companies’ software, so Apple should consider to find a balance in the closeness and openness of IOS,  limited increase the openness of IOS might be a better choice for current Apple. For example, those non-official Apple software welcomed by consumers can also be included in IOS platform, while those software who are not so popular can continue to be excluded from IOS system.
5.2.2 Improving customer relation managements systematically
Apple should further tap consumer demand, strengthen product innovation, through more innovative products to meet the individual needs of consumers and maintain product diversity with their competitors, which has a positive meaning for improving customer satisfaction and loyalty. Quality of service is a key factor to maintain long-term relationship between businesses and consumers, Apple should further improve and strengthen after-sales service management to ensure the stability of the quality of service.
 
References 
Barthel, M. (2010) Customer Relations Management: Busidate.
Cook, S. (2008) Customer Care Excellence: How to Create and Effective Customer Focus (5th Ed.), London: Kogan-Page. (Available as an e-book from the Institute of Hospitality library).
Daffy, C. (2001) Once a Customer, Always a Customer (3rd Ed.), Dublin: Oak Tree Press
Harris, E.K. (2006) Customer Service: A Practical Approach (4th Ed.), New Jersey: Pearson.
Hartigh, E., et al. (2016) Platform Control during Battles for Market Dominance: The Case of Apple Versus IBM in the Early Personal Computer Industry. Technovation, (48–49), 4-12. 
Kubilay, I. A. (2015) The Founding of Apple and the Reasons behind Its Success. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195(3), 2019-2028.
Lazonick, W., Mazzucato, M. and Tulum, O. (2013) Apple's Changing Business Model: What should the World's Richest Company Do with All Those Profits? Accounting Forum, 37(4), 249-267.
Montgomerie, J. and Roscoe, S. (2013) Owning the Consumer-Getting to the Core of the Apple Business Model. Accounting Forum, 37(4), 290-299. 
Brandkeys. (2016) Brand Keys Customer Loyalty Engagement Index. Available from: http://brandkeys.com/portfolio/customer-loyalty-engagement-index/ (Accessed on April 16, 2016)
 


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