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英国国际商务专业assignment:A Study on the Internationalization Model

时间:2019-05-16 15:27来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
1.0 Introduction简介
自2010年以来,越来越多的中小型服装企业成功实现国际化,其国际化具有几个特点。首先,他们在成立之初就已开始国际化,而不是传统理论认为他们逐渐参与国际化(Birley,Cromie和Myers,1991)。然后,它们没有资本和规模优势,也没有所谓的核心技术优势(Narooz and Child,2017)。 Odlin和Benson-Rea(2017)的研究表明,这些中小型服装企业的成功国际化与网络的使用密切相关,尤其是阿里巴巴,eBay和其他平台的使用。本研究的目的和动机是,在没有资金,大规模和技术优势的情况下探索中小型服装企业如何通过网络实现国际化。
Since 2010, there are more and more small and medium-sized garment enterprises which have successfully achieved internationalization, their internationalization has the several characteristics. First of all, they have started internationalization at the beginning of their establishment, rather than as the traditional theory believes that they are involved in internationalization gradually (Birley, Cromie and Myers, 1991). Then, they have no capital and scale advantages, nor do they have so-called core technology advantages (Narooz and Child, 2017). Odlin and Benson-Rea’s (2017) research states that the successful internationalization of these small and medium-sized garment enterprises is closely related to the use of the network, especially the use of Alibaba, eBay and other platforms. The aim and motivation of this study is to explore, without funds, large scales and technological advantages, how small and medium-sized garment enterprises can achieve internationalization through the use of network.
2.0 Advantages brought to internationalization by network 网络带来的国际化优势
2.1 Reduce costs降低成本
Suh和Kim(2014)将交易成本定义为“合同成本”,信息搜索,讨价还价,监督,合同执行。由于资源的限制,中小企业信息搜索成本高,议价能力低,合同执行效率低,这些方面的制约严重影响了他们在国际市场上的业务发展。电子商务平台尤其是阿里巴巴,eBay等APP改变了传统的商业模式,极大地降低了企业的交易成本,加快了中小企业国际化的步伐(Bianchi和Mathews,2016)。凭借低成本,网络可以为中小型服装企业提供大量信息,帮助他们显着降低海外市场的不确定性,尽管它不能完全消除风险(Glavas和Mathews,2014);电子商务可以加快交易速度,使企业更加贴近全球市场进行定制化; B2B业务还允许海外用户在线访问产品,这使得企业也可以轻松访问新客户并提供更好的客户服务(Reuber和Fischer,2011)。此外,电子商务的应用也使得网络数据传输的准确性得到保证,既节省了时间又降低了人工成本,便于企业内部资源的重新分配。据统计,只有电子采购通常可以减少传统采购成本的1/3(Suh和Kim,2014)。
Suh and Kim (2014) define transaction costs as "contract costs", information search, bargaining, supervision, contract execution are included. Because of restrictions by resources, small and medium-sized enterprises have high cost of information search, low bargaining power and low efficiency of contract execution, constraints of these aspects seriously affect their business development in the international market. E-commerce platform, especially Alibaba, eBay and other APP change the traditional business model, which great reduces the transaction costs of enterprises to accelerate the pace of internationalization of SMEs (Bianchi and Mathews, 2016). With low costs, the network can provide a considerable amount of information for small and medium garment enterprises to help them significantly reduce the uncertainty in overseas markets, although it can not completely eliminate the risk (Glavas and Mathews, 2014); e-commerce can speed up the transaction, so that enterprises closer to the global market to carry out customization; B2B business also allows overseas users to have access to products online, which allows enterprises too have a easy access to new customers and provide better customer service (Reuber and Fischer, 2011). In addition, the application of e-commerce also makes the accuracy of network data transmission be guaranteed, which saves time and also reduces labor costs to facilitate re-allocation of internal resources of enterprises. According to statistics, only e-procurement can usually reduce 1/3 of traditional procurement costs (Suh and Kim, 2014).
2.2 Improve efficiency
Nordman and Tolstoy (2014) find that small and medium-sized garment enterprises often use the social network established by the enterprises to improve the speed of internationalization and reduce risk. Pinho and Prange (2016) are through research to find that the network can narrow the psychological distance between small and medium-sized garment enterprises and a host country, even in a host country in which the geographical distance and market characteristics are far from the mother country, the companies can successfully enter the market faster. Ripoll and Blesa  (2011) also think that in the process of internationalization of small and medium-sized garment enterprises, the network can help the enterprises to learn a lot about the knowledge and ability of internationalization, so as to make up for the lack of international experience and knowledge, speeding up their internationalization process. Pinho and Prange (2016) analyze that the establishment of social networks have played a key role in the growth of international start-up enterprises, which both helps the enterprises to overcome the drawbacks of small size, lack of funds and knowledge to reduce the risk of overseas business uncertainty, and help the enterprises to quickly establish credibility, find partners, establish strategic alliances and achieve strategic cooperation in the international market by providing favorable conditions to small and medium-sized garment enterprises to achieve international conditions in a short period of time (Nordman and Tolstoy, 2014) For example, China's coastal export-oriented small and medium-sized garment enterprises have chosen to use the international network model, most of them directly borrow mature distribution channels of foreign manufacturers to reduce market marketing costs and improve the speed and success of internationalization.
2.3 Find cooperative partners
Bianchi and Mathews (2016) point out that the successful internationalization of small and medium garment enterprises often need to find a suitable partner, right partners can greatly improve the success rate and the possibility of internationalization. However, finding a right partner is costly for small and medium-sized garment enterprises, because the limited resources of small and medium-sized garment enterprises do not allow them to pay a high cost to search for the potential customers. The use of e-commerce makes these costs significantly reduced, they can be through the visit to website to establish contact with overseas customers without any cost; they can also obtain past experience information of a target company through the Internet and then analyze whether it can become a good partner, so as to establish a suitable relationship with it. In addition, the network can help small and medium garment enterprises to consolidate the partnership with partners, it can effectively motivate inter-organizational communication (Odlin  and Benson-Rea, 2017), which is particularly important for internationalization of small and medium-sized garment enterprises.
4.0 Critical analysis
The advantage of the internationalization network model lies in the less barrier and fast speed of internationalization for small and medium-sized garment enterprises (Glavas and Mathews, 2014). The disadvantage is that the enterprises’ ability to control the international market is not strong and it is difficult to accumulate key resources and abilities effectively. If the international competitiveness of products and services can not be maintained for a long time, it will ultimately lose the competitive advantage (Suh and Kim, 2014). Past research is usually concerned about how small and medium-sized garment enterprises establish a social network in the internationalization process, but there is not much research on how to build social networks to accumulate key resources and capacity (Reuber and Fischer, 2011). The author believes that internationalization of an enterprise is a long process, the short term success of small and medium-sized garment enterprises does not mean that they can also be successful in the future, for small and medium-sized garment enterprises, how to accumulate key resources and capacity through the network to strengthen their control and impact on a local market is the key to their success of international business, the author will carry out further study based on this issue.
5.0 Conclusion
After entering 2010, small and medium-sized garment enterprises are through the network to achieve internationalization, this model is more and more common, the network help them to have a successful access to foreign orders in the absence of funds, large scales and technical advantages (Narooz and Child, 2017). However, small and medium-sized garment enterprises should not be satisfied with the short-term success of the internationalization process, how to accumulate key resources and capacity through the network is the key to the final success of the internationalization of small and medium-sized garment enterprises.
 
References
Bianchi, C. and Mathews, S. (2016). Internet marketing and export market growth in Chile. Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 426-434.


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