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代写英国经济学assignment:Business Model

时间:2019-07-08 14:15来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:

(a)当我们使用术语“商业模式”时,我们谈论的是一个企业是如何赚钱的,即使你在某种程度上有一个社会性的企业,钱也必须进门,因为钱将要出门。在战略方面,你有很多其他的因素,其中很多是关于竞争差异化的,在传统的战略世界,人们会谈论可持续的竞争优势。有很多理由可以说,没有可持续优势这样的东西,但更重要的是,随着你的发展,你必须不断地重新创造你的竞争优势,但可持续利润的想法很有意义。它是企业长寿的关键。这让人困惑的原因是,精益创业运动,特别是商业模式的产生,对商业模式是什么有了更广泛的看法,它实际上是一种批发商业战略。商业模式意味着一个组织是如何赚钱的,它是如何花钱的,它需要多少钱才能继续前进,并实际增长,最后是与商业模式相关的东西。
这是关键的成功因素,如果一个人做对了或错了,这些因素将对财务产生重大影响。例如,收入来源。首先,单流是显而易见的;对于一个业务线,一个拥有一组产品。人们来回购买。对于多个收入流,它是不同的业务线或不同的产品,而其他时候它是关于需要来自同一来源的其他产品的产品。在制造业中,一个设备制造商出售大量或实际上是有意磨损的部件,即所谓的消耗品,这并不罕见。这是两者相互依赖的一个例子,或者说,在这种情况下,一个人提前向别人推销东西,而且随着时间的推移,有某种订阅关系,当然,总会有损失领导者的想法。(a) When we use the term business model, we are talking about how a venture makes money and even if you have a social venture in some way, money has to come in the door because money is going to be going out the door. On the strategy side, you have got a lot of other factors and a lot of them are about competitive differentiation and in the traditional strategy world that people would talk about sustainable competitive advantage. There is a lot of argument to say that there is no such thing as sustainable advantage, but more that you're constantly having to reinvent your competitive advantage as you're going along, but the idea of sustainable profits makes a lot of sense. It is very key for the longevity of a business. The reason this gets confusing is because the Lean Startup movement and specifically the business model generation has taken a much more expansive view of what a business model is, and it is really a wholesale business strategy. Business model means how does an organization make money, how does it spend the money, how much money does it need to go forward, and actually grow and then finally something related to the business model
It is about the critical success factors in terms of the things that are going to have major financial impact if one does them right or wrong. For instance, revenue sources. First, single streams are the obvious ones; with one line of business, one has a one set of products. People buy it back and forth. For multiple revenue streams, it is different lines of business or different products, and other times it is about products that require other products from the same source. It is not unusual in the manufacturing world for a an equipment manufacturer to also sell the pieces that are out a lot or actually purposely are made to wear out -- so-called consumables. That would be an example of an interdependence between the two, or there is the situation where one sells people something up-front, and there is some kind of subscription relationship over time, and of course there is always the idea of loss leaders.
There are any number of revenue models; a lot of these are very straight forward, e.g. subscription or membership, meaning paying a certain amount over up for a certain period of time and then renew volume or unit based. Advertising base is something we see a lot with Google and a number of other websites and certainly in traditional media like newspapers and magazines. That is become a tired form of revenue except for Google. So there are more and more creativity going on in it there, such as more embedded stuff like product placement content, marketing things like that. Licensing is basically paying royalties to somebody else, usually based on a percentage of sales; and finally the last one which has been a big thing in the internet world, and it doesn't have a really great term for it, and they use this term transaction fee. When you have a seller, and you have a buyer and the buyer is giving some amount of money to the seller, who is giving some kind of good or service, whereas the facilitator take a certain amount, often a very small fraction from each interval. Examples of this are real estate sales, where the person who gets back five or six percent commission, or that the two people that the buyer and the seller representatives. Another example might be eBay, in which taking some percentage or visa or mastercard or american express taking some percentage, so it's a very common methodology but it's kind of hidden away because it's so small from the buyer and it's what makes this market possible. 
 
(b) What the company tries to do with Spotify was the creative service that was actually better than piracy; it was simpler it's easier for people to discover and share music and consume music legally and by doing that um you know getting a music industry back to growth again, where artists can keep making great music that we all can enjoy and in a nutshell that product offering is how much money for which services here in the US. The vast majority of people in the world does not spend any at all music. Music obviously is spreading and they're spreading through people sharing music with each other no longer through radio and so on and by them doing that and if they can do that in a legal way, whether the company monetize that with advertisements or get a few percentage points of people to start converting into paying for it like becoming subscribers, the company can grow in the music industry so that was the idea so the music industry itself though.
The purpose of the Spotify interface is to build the shortest way between point from point A to point B as much as possible for the user in that process, for making that journey shorter. Spotify has gone through iteration of designs until getting the ideal one with its really rigid testing infrastructure. The company makes three or four of interfaces and test them at the same time, and see how users are reacting to it, and a lot of people can try it, and the product is the shortest way from point A to point B. The platform makes use of these data to find optimal ways for customers; if it knew everything about customers, the application can instead suggest music, so that customers can just get it and just press play, and it would work and customers just got perfect music. if users give a song so that the platform can then in turn recommend customers more songs, or in some cases get users to search the song, and then show customers related songs and related artists, so that customers can keep navigating and kind of going deeper and deeper.
What Spotify really has is a music platform and what it realizes is that music is something that's really really broad. It means something it's really unique to each customer as an individual and there's a lot of different use cases, such as in the context of going to a party, a user wants to figure out with friends what kind of songs do people want to listen. It is like a Leanback radio type experience, and a third use case is lyrics which is really popular, especially in Asian countries where users want to sing karaoke next to the songs out of tune, or users are just curation of content, like Rolling Stones pitchfork for more kind of indie audience. So, the company help to overcome many problems with licensing and getting all these intellectual property ownership problem, and just get users exposed to music and let people hack their own solutions on what they want to do with Spotify, and basically crowdsource the innovation. There are many possibilities, from games, music quiz type of games to a dating app where it compares people's music tastes and thereby going to match users better.
Spotify wants to make an open music platform available across the entire web and across all these different platforms; it is integrated closely with Facebook in terms of the playlists and then being an open graph partner. It is tied so deeply into Facebook that the identities were shared and all the content was really streamed directly into the social graph, and it is got more than million registered users playing around with all the features offered in the app and sharing them around all the destinations around the web where people upload their profile pages, wrote about themselves, had their interest displayed and music in particular was one of the most social objects there is, as spotify users make use of pieces of music that others can relate to even if it was in a different language, whether it's a happy song or if it's sad song. It really transcends cultures, geographies and all that, so it's a really powerful social object that communicates an emotion, and allow people to more easily share stuff on Facebook around music
It is one of the platforms that pioneer the trend of start giving away music for free where there were record label precedents who might have been year old that have all their life sold physical disks and had just got around the idea to selling it on itunes for cents apiece, so it was a tough sell, as a response to increased piracy. What most people do want is convenience and easy access, and if they can get it for free of course more people will do that then they're not but if something is easy enough and this is you know again the big innovation around Spotify it's not the fact that it was like oh it's this Hail Mary moment where something was really really different innovation for me is taking two things that are already known and putting them together and creating something new, so the new thing with Spotify was basically like itunes put in the cloud where users can put all the world's music behind it, so that they can access within half a second, so users feel like having all the world's music in their IQ fiber.


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