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新西兰essay:世界贸易组织会员资格对柬埔寨劳动就业的影响

时间:2016-01-10 17:54来源:http://www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业网 点击:
世界贸易组织会员资格对柬埔寨劳动就业的影响
Impact of WTO membership on Cambodia Labor and Employment


在世界各地,变化正在发生并随之带来了新的挑战。经济的重大变化是全球化的开始。全球化给工人和工会带来了极大的启示。联合网络组织(UNI)是在应对全球经济的剧烈变化和技术影响的日益增长中建立的。全球化对工人和大部分亚洲社会的影响可能会增长,而不是缓解。此外,国际货币基金组织、世界银行和世界贸易组织是国际机构,可能缺乏民主程序和体系,特别是WTO是推动全球化的一个主要力量,自由放任主义和比较优势是一种影响劳动力的手段并参与到发展中国家的市场当中(sotharith,2005)。与此同时,新自由主义支持市场无干预和放任经济似乎促进了全球化进程,但这需要为本地企业和发展中国家的国内市场采取一些保护措施。一个材料的复杂网络发展,在全球化的世界中体制思想意识的力量和强大的大规模跨国企业对资本积累和对资源的控制方式产生深远的影响。

Throughout the world, change is occurring and with change has come new challenge. The major economic change is onset of globalization. Globalization has brought with it significant implication for workers and trade unions. United Network Organization (UNI) was established in response to the dramatic change going on the global economy and the consequential impact of technology on increasingly. Actually, the impact of globalization on worker and a large majority of Asian society is likely to grow, rather than ease. Besides, the IMF, World Bank and WTO is the international institution that seem likely less democratic procedural and structure especially the WTO is a major forces pushing for globalization, laissez faire concept and comparative advantage that is kind of action affect the labor force that is work in the market in developing world (Sotharith, 2005). Furthermore, The neo-liberalism support the market without intervention and laissez faire economic seem promote the globalization process and this need to take some measure of protectionism for the local firms and domestic market in developing world. The development of a complex web of material, institutional and ideological forces and powerful massive multinational corporations in a globalizing world has profound implications for the accumulation of capital and for the way in which resources are controlled. However, the `debt trade' (and the way in which this has been created and its relationship to the arms trade), a major factor in perpetuating and intensifying poverty and ill health has been described as the modern equivalent of slavery. Most countries that were required by the World Bank to pursue structural adjustment programs are in greater debt than ever before. Third world debt, although accounting for a small proportion of total world debt, has reached obscene levels in relation to income levels in the third world, and is indeed un-payable. These adverse effects are felt most severely by 80% of the world's population (Solomon, 2002). In this context, the following is the impact on Cambodia labor and employment.
 
 
The implication on Labor Market and Employment--对劳动力市场和就业的启示
 
The trade off between economic development and labor benefit is understandable in the global capitalism, yet if Cambodia still pursuit the promotion of neo-liberal economy would lost of social safety net value and it required that the Social corporation responsibility from the MNCs or TNCs which operating in Cambodia as well as in developing world need to take some action to reduce the strains. With this regard, the laissez faire and promote of the capitalism is gradually affect the labor value and force in developing world. Furthermore, we have witness a lot of capitalists exploit the labor in the competitive market and the right of worker is diminishing in the market forces due to the foreign firms hold too much power in hand and the developing world seem to give too much privileged and adverse the investment losses. However, the interventions of the International Labor Organization (ILO) which aim to boost worker basis right and provide benefit to worker have restrained the opportunist (foreign firms) tricks. Besides, the Declaration of Fundamentals Principle and Right at work with reaffirms the basic right of workers, anywhere to freely organize unions, conclude the bargaining contracts, contest discrimination at the work place and expose employers using forced labor and extreme forms of child labor. In this context, this seems impossible for government of Cambodia as well as developing world which trade unions and labor law are underestimating in term of right and freedom of speech because of unqualified representative of leader in labor unions and less power of labor unions in public also the authority poor implementation particularly the lobbyist power. On the other hand, the majority of labor forces is unskilled and it need a lot time to train to become qualified workers. With regards to the productivity of the garment industry, Cambodia's can be generally classified as quite low. For instance, one manager of a garment factory in Cambodia evaluated Cambodia's labor productivity to be 65 percent of that of China, while Bangladesh and Vietnam were at 75 percent and 95 percent of China's, respectively. By the same token, USAID's study evaluated that productivity in Cambodia is low at all stages of garment manufacturing. This can be attributable to inefficient use of machinery. Typically, machines are operated at low level of efficiency, due to deficiencies in equipment and lack of investment in maintenance in Cambodia. This is despite the fact that the condition of the machinery is, on average, reasonably good. In addition, a World Bank study concluded that Cambodian firms and workers are generally less productive than China, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, and Cambodia's low labor costs do not wholly compensate for the lower productivity of its productivity (kaorun, 2009). Furthermore, this year employment rate has reached to over 20 percents due to the economic meltdown and the unqualified worker as well.
 
Conclusion Remark--结论备注:
 
Under the 4th legislative the Royal government of Cambodia tries to integrate the Cambodia economy into the world economy seems quite good and the GDP growth per capital in 2010 has reached nearly 700 dollars. This reveal that the accession of Cambodia membership into WTO has provided Cambodia a lot of outweighs benefits than risk and the economic performance is enhancing than before although it has some side effect of the world global crisis in 2008 which Cambodia GDP growth has been on the negative figure. In addition, Cambodia membership into WTO has upgraded this small nation state market economy more competitive which boost the economic growth quite remarkably and with Most Favor Nation credit (MNO), Cambodia seems likely improve its own economic performance and social welfare well-begin. On the other hand, recent news about the Sugar Company has granted the free tariff to import the sugar to European market is quite a good precession and reduce the unemployment and attract more Foreign Indirect Investment (FDI) to Cambodia despites some challenge and
reform of the domestic politic need to take part. Therefore, the future Cambodia economy will be a good outlook and it will benefit all the citizens as well as promote sustainable development.

Notes:

Kaorun.N. (2009). Challenge to the garment industry in the global garment value chain, RCAPS working paper, 9(3). Retrieved November 11, 2010 from
 



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