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心理学Essay范文翻译:Theories Of The Nature Versus Nurture Debate

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-03-18 13:24:07 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的Essay范例,题目是Theories Of The Nature Versus Nurture Debate(心理学中的意识理解)”,先天与后天的争论是心理学领域中最复杂的争论之一。在17世纪,一位法国哲学家René笛卡尔提出:“我们所有人,作为个体,都有某些固有的思想,这些思想持久地支撑着我们对世界的看法”(Crawford, 1989 p 64)。“先天”和“后天”这两个术语的使用从此分别指的是遗传和环境在人类发展中的作用。一些科学家认为,人类的行为是对遗传易感性作出的反应。这被称为人类行为的自然理论,是自然主义者所拥护的观点(Scott, 1995)。其他科学家则不这么认为;人们以特定的方式思考和行为,因为他们被教导这样做。这被称为人类行为的培养理论,是经验主义者的观点。本文提出了先天与后天理论、知觉、智力和人格的阐释。此外,本文还讨论了后天培养和环境对行为和道德的影响的证据。作者在探究先天与后天之争的过程中认为,先天赋予人类与生俱来的能力和特质,后天则利用这些遗传倾向,随着人类的学习和成熟而逐渐形成。

The nature versus nurture debate is one of the most convoluted in the field of psychology. In the 17th century, a French philosopher, René Descartes posited that we all, as individual human beings, have certain innate ideas that enduringly underpin our approach to the world(Crawford, 1989 p 64). The use of the terms natureand nurturehenceforth has referred to the roles of heredity and environment respectively in human development. Some scientists believe that human beings behave as they do in response to genetic predisposition. This is known as the nature theory of human behavior and is the view espoused by naturalists (Scott, 1995). Other scientists think otherwise; that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as nurture theory of human behavior and is the view of empiricists. Presented in the paper are the theories of nature vs. nurture, elucidation of perception, intelligence and personality within the debate. In addition, the paper discusses eevidences in favor of nurture and the influence of environment on behavior and morality. In exploring the nature versus the nurture debate, the writer presumes that nature endows human beings with inborn abilities and traits while nurture takes these genetic tendencies and molds them as humans learn and mature.

心理学Essay范例

According to naturalists, personality is natural. This group believes that personality is a result of evolutionary process. Human beings, it believes, inherit behaviors due to a complex interaction of genes. As such, genes control their behaviors. They believe that form and characteristics measured with personality tests remain stable throughout human life. They further believe that human beings may sharpen their types or personality but can never change them altogether. Darwins Theory of Evolution led naturalists such as George Williams, William Hamilton, and many others to the idea of personality evolution. They proposed that physical organs and personality is a result of natural selection (Herschkowitz, 2002). Human beings do as their genes dictate. In support, Steven Pinker (2004) includes conservativeness, religiousness and liberalism as gene related traits. William Paley, in agreement, believes cognitive capabilities, temperaments, and cheating behaviors are inheritable.

 

There are however various assumptions about nature. Evolutionary psychologists believe that behaviour is a result of natural selection in the environment of evolutionary adaptation (EEA). Interpersonal attraction therefore can be explained as a consequence of sexual selection men and women select partners who enhance their reproductive success (Crawford, 1989).

然而,关于自然有各种各样的假设。进化心理学家认为,行为是进化适应环境(EEA)中自然选择的结果。因此,人际间的吸引可以被解释为性选择的结果——男人和女人选择能提高他们繁殖成功率的伴侣(Crawford, 1989)

 

Arguments for the supremacy of nurture posit that personality is nurtured. This group argues that one does not get personality from inheritance. They argue that the mind is a blank slate at birth. The definition of nurture has extended to influence of development that emanates from prenatal, parental, peer influence and extending to the role of media, marketing and socio-economic status (Scott, 1995). They dispute that types and characteristics measured with personality tests change incessantly throughout ones life. Harvard psychologist B. F. Skinners, experiments, produced birds that could dance and play tennis. Today, known as the father of behavioral science, Skinner ultimately went on to prove that human behavior could be conditioned in much the same way as animals. If environment did not play a part in determining an individuals traits and behaviors, then identical twins should be the same in all respects, even if reared apart. However, a number of studies show that they are never exactly alike, even though they are remarkably similar in most respects (Michaels, 2001).

 

Assumptions about nurture are also present. Radical psychologists such as Skinner and Watson, for instance, claim that all behaviour can be described in terms of experience alone. Skinner (1957) suggested that acquisition of language by a child could be explained entirely in terms of rewards and shaping. The double bind theory of schizophrenia, for instance, suggests that schizophrenia developed in children who frequently received contradictory messages from their parents.

关于后天培养的假设也存在。例如,斯金纳(Skinner)和沃森(Watson)等激进心理学家声称,所有行为都可以仅用经验来描述。斯金纳(1957)提出,儿童的语言习得可以完全用奖励和塑造来解释。例如,精神分裂症的双重束缚理论认为,精神分裂症是在经常从父母那里收到矛盾信息的孩子身上发展起来的。

 

Nature vs. Nurture Perception

Two main theories of perception are advanced to explain the debate about nature versus nurture. Gibson (1979 as cited by Cardwell and Flanagan, 2004. P 262) [1] argued that perception is innate because the sensory array is sufficiently rich in information for perception to take place without any additional cognitive input. Gregory (1972) on the other hand pointed to the ambiguous and fragmentary nature of most sensory input, which must thus rely on expectations (derived from experience) to complete the perceptual process (Michael, 2001).

 

Intelligence and Personality- Nature vs. Nurture智力与个性——先天与后天

Evidence in favor of nature has been reinforced by hypothesis on IQ that has been tested on twins and adoptees. Monozygotic twins raised apart are highly similar in IQ (0.74), more so than dizygotic twins raised together (0.6) and much more than adoptive siblings (~0.0) (Crawford, 1989). In other studies done in Harvard, identical twins reared separately exhibited likeness in the timing and pattern of development and maturation. Further was a likeness in some of the foundations of temperament and behavior, from sensitivity to activity to emotional response (Westen, 2002). This denoted that the personality of twins was influenced by their genetics than the environment they were raised.

通过对双胞胎和被收养者进行的智商测试,证实了支持大自然的证据。分开抚养的同卵双胞胎的智商非常相似(0.74),比一起抚养的异卵双胞胎的智商(0.6)要高,比收养的兄弟姐妹的智商(~0.0)要高得多(Crawford, 1989)。在哈佛大学的其他研究中,分开抚养的同卵双胞胎在发育和成熟的时间和模式上表现出相似。此外,气质和行为的一些基础也很相似,从敏感到活动再到情绪反应(Westen, 2002)。这表明,双胞胎的性格受基因的影响大于成长环境的影响。 心理学Essay怎么写

Environment on the other hand does play a role in the formation of who we are and does effect the development of our personality and intelligence. By altering the environment in which a person is raised, there can be some effect on the persons developing intelligence and personality. While this is true, the results of the twin studies cannot be ignored (Westen, 2002). These studies show that our genetics have a stronger influence than our environment. Across a variety of traits, including IQ, personality indicators such as political conservatism, conviviality, and even religiosity, homosexuality, and neuroticism, identical twins are more similar to one another than are fraternal pairs. This indicates that genes affect these aspects of personality. Gene mapping studies (Crawford& salmon, 2004) have identified individual genes associated with high IQ. There is strong evidence for the effects of nurture, for example, the fact that IQs all over the world have increased as much as 20 points over 30 years.

另一方面,环境确实在我们是谁的形成中发挥作用,也确实影响我们个性和智力的发展。通过改变一个人成长的环境,可能会对一个人的智力和个性的发展产生一些影响。虽然这是事实,但双胞胎研究的结果不能被忽视(Westen, 2002)。这些研究表明,我们的基因比环境对我们的影响更大。从智商、性格指标来看,如政治保守主义、欢乐、甚至宗教信仰、同性恋和神经质等,同卵双胞胎比异卵双胞胎彼此更相似。这表明基因会影响性格的这些方面。基因定位研究(Crawford& salmon, 2004)已经确定了与高智商相关的个体基因。例如,有强有力的证据证明后天培养的影响,全世界的智商在过去30年里都提高了20分。

 

No matter where human beings are raised, it cannot completely change the genes that they are born with. These studies have produced substantive evidence of heritability. What varies from study to study is the quantity that can be attributed to heritability. Indication suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance. On the other hand, by late adolescence this relationship disappears, such that adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers are (Westen, 2002).

 

Evidence in Favor of Nurture有证据支持后天培养

John Watson in 1924 attempted to challenge nature beliefs by asserting that if given a dozen of healthy infants and his own world to nurture them, he would be able to take each infant and train them to be any type of specialist he might select-doctor, lawyer or even a thief. This became a famous quote in the heyday of behaviorism, when the child was considered a tabula rasa(blank slate) onto which anything could be sculpted through environmental experience. This would be a 100% environmental view, but virtually no psychologists would accept such an extreme position today (Crawford& salmon, 2004).

约翰·华生于1924年试图挑战自然的信念,声称如果一打健康的婴儿和他们培养自己的世界,他可以把每个婴儿和训练他们的任何类型的专家,他可能select-doctor,律师或甚至一个小偷。这在行为主义的全盛时期成为了一句名言,当时的孩子被认为是一块“白板”,任何东西都可以通过环境经验雕刻在上面。这将是一个100%的环境观点,但几乎没有心理学家会接受今天这样一个极端的立场(Crawford& salmon, 2004)

 

Influence of the Environment on Behavior and Morality环境对行为和道德的影响

A variety of explanations might account for this. From a biologic or developmental perspective, one might argue that pre-homosexual children are more likely to be targets for molestation. In a sociological perspective, children who have pre-homosexual experiences are most likely to experience confusion over their sexual identity and later define themselves as homosexuals. From the perspective of the moral environment, one may argue that a society with a progressively more neutral outlook of homosexual behavior will grant fewer and weaker checks on those who associate early homosexual experience with a homosexual identity (Scott 1995).

有各种各样的解释可以解释这一点。从生物学或发育学的角度来看,有人可能会认为,同性恋前的儿童更有可能成为性骚扰的目标。从社会学的角度来看,有过同性恋前经历的孩子最有可能对自己的性别身份感到困惑,然后将自己定义为同性恋者。从道德环境的角度来看,人们可能会认为,一个对同性恋行为越来越中立的社会将会对那些将早期同性恋经历与同性恋身份联系在一起的人给予越来越少和越来越弱的检查(Scott 1995)

 

Levy, a psychologist, examines the roles played by nature and nurture in the origin of moral dispositions. He asserts that evolution gives human beings a precondition of morality. However, he states that Evolution gives us the preconditions of morality, but it is only as a result of the cultural elaboration of this raw material that we come to be moral beings. He further states that human beings are animals and can never free themselves of their biological heritage. He states that human beings have no need since it enables flexibility, rational and caring behavior which they could want and allows them to seek to become more moral beings (Carlson, 2005).

 

Conclusion结论

Researchers on all sides of the nature vs. nurture debate concur that the link between a gene and a behavior is not the same as cause and effect. While a gene may increase the likelihood that you will behave in a particular way, it does not make people do things (Scott, 1995). This means that we still get to choose who we will be, when we grow up. Social scientists gradually understand the extent of the interactions that take place between nature and nurture. The presence of genes does not by solely ensure that a particular attribute will be evident. Genes require the suitable environments for natural tendencies to be fully articulated. These proper environmentsconsist not only of natural environs but also of individualssocial and symbolic setting (Westen 2002). But even for intermediary heritabilities, a trait is always shaped by both genetic dispositions and the environments in which people develop, merely with greater and lesser plasticities associated with these heritability measures. All in all nature relies on nurture and vice versa and hence both coexist together.

在先天与后天的争论中,各方面的研究人员一致认为,基因和行为之间的联系并不等同于因果关系。虽然一个基因可能会增加你以某种特定方式行事的可能性,但它不会让人做事(Scott, 1995)。这意味着,当我们长大后,我们仍然可以选择成为什么样的人。社会科学家逐渐理解了先天和后天之间的相互作用的程度。基因的存在并不仅仅是为了确保某一特定的属性是明显的。基因需要适当的环境才能使自然倾向得到充分表达。这些“适当的环境”不仅包括自然环境,也包括个人的社会和象征环境(Westen 2002)。但即使是中间遗传力,一种性状也总是由遗传性格和人们发展的环境决定的,只是可塑性的大小与这些遗传力指标有关。所有的自然都依赖于后天培养,反之亦然,因此两者共存。

 

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