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英国本科essay范文-行为研究

时间:2016-07-21 09:28来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
Introduction 介绍
 
在现代工作中,团队合作越来越重要。因此创建一个有效的组是实现高性能的基础。在长期的环境中领导和下属之间的关系是特别重要的。领导风格与下属互动,以及在这种情况给领导的控制和影响的程度决定了小组是否有效。考虑到这一点,激励是掌握和影响员工行为的一个重要途径。除此之外,公平感、期望值和目标设定感也会影响员工的工作积极性。因此,有必要根据工作需求调整自己的互动风格。一个好的领导是可以根据情况调整分类的,但不能被情况所控制的。在群体形成过程中,适应包括每个人的能力、角色知觉等需要很长的时间来实现。作为一个领导者,他负责储备这种平衡。员工的态度和能力会影响一个群体的稳定性和有效性。
During the modern work, team cooperation is increasingly important. So creating an effective group is the basis to achieve the high performance. In term of this, the relationship between leaders and subordinations is particular important. The style of a leader to interact with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader determine whether the group is effective. This essay is going to discuss the dependency of effective groups on leaders’ style and the influence of situation. For leaders, there is a big responsibility to drive the whole group. Considering this, motivation is a vital way to master and influence the behavior of employees. Besides this, the feeling of equity, expectation and goal-setting also impact the working positivity of the staff. Therefore, it is necessary for leader to adjust his style of interaction according to job demand. Not only the leaders’ style, but also the easness to be influenced by the situation. A good leader is ok to adjust the categories in accordance with the situation but not ok to be controlled by the situation. During the group formation, the adaption including everyone’s ability, role perceptions and so on needs a long time to realize. So as a leader, he is responsible to reserve this kind of balance. The attitude and the capacity of the staff can influence the stability of a group and its effectiveness. 
 
Leaders’ style领导风格
 
在处理公司问题的过程中,领导者可能是理性的或情绪化的。前者更喜欢感性,后者更喜欢感性。虽然本集团的有效性取决于追随者的行动,领导是一个至关重要的作用,团结他们争取一个共同的目标。一个领导与下属互动的风格可以分为几个方面,如人员分配结构、人事变动、奖惩制度、人际关系和组织沟通等。所有这一切都关系到领导者是否是以任务为导向,还是以关系为导向的。
In the process of dealing with the company issues, a leader may be rational or emotional. The former prefers sense while the later prefers sensibility. Though the group’s effectiveness depends on the actions of the followers, leadership is a crucial role to unity them to strive for a common goal. A leader’s style of interacting with subordinates can be divided into several aspects, such as personnel distribution structure, personnel alteration, system of rewards and penalties, interpersonal and organizational communication and so on. All of this is related to whether the leader is task-oriented or relationship-oriented. 
 
Personal distribution structure 个人的分配结构
 
The structure is mainly determined by the scale of a company, but also influenced by the leadership. If the leader tends to be more rational and task-oriented, more people of high ability would be allocated together, which does benefit to the high efficiency but does harm to the communication. On the contrary, if the leader tends to be more emotional and relationship-oriented, the distribution would be more disperse to satisfy everyone’s demand for coordination. Both of this two kinds of distribution have advantages and apply to different tasks or different stages. For example, a leader can adopt the former when the task is difficult and urgent. 
 
System of rewards and penalties奖惩制度体系
 
Our motives are major determinants of our behavior. If a leader can understand subordinates’ motives, he can influence their behavior. Thus the motivation is vital in the system of rewards and penalties. There are three concern to determine whether to do something which are expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Expectancy is the belief that effort can lead to a specific level of performance. It gives people confidence to do the effort. Instrumentality is the belief that performance is related to rewards. Valence is the value of a reward or outcome and its attractiveness to people. And it is the direct impetus to promote a person to fight for a goal. For example, if a company only provides much bonus for those do wonderful jobs, then the reward is not attractive to those who needs more vacation though they regards it to be valuable. Besides this, the different levels of demand influence the effectiveness of motivation. A leader tends to be relationship-oriented may pay more attention to the humanistic care which can strengthen their loyalty to the company. And for leaders tend to be task-oriented, more financial rewards would be offered. As a good leader, no matter he is task-oriented or relationship-oriented, he should take the difference of demand levels into considerations. 
 
Interpersonal and organizational communication人际与组织沟通
 
The attitude of employees can influence the output indirectly. There are three basic components to an attitude which includes cognitive component, affective component and behavioral component. A good leader can deal with the negative attitude in the informal organization like organizational communication among employees. For cognitive component, it is the perceptions of an attitude object. In terms of this, the company culture would occupy a considerable portion in the influence of employees’ concept. As for affective and behavior component, the workplace would have a big impact. A rational leader may prefer strict communication system which can guarantee the timeliness and accuracy of the information. Oppositely, a emotional leader may prefer the harmony among the staff which may lead to the disorder of message passing or even the rampancy of the hearsay. 
 
The influence of the situation
The situation of work place cannot be constant, so the categories formulated by the leader should be dynamic according to the change timely. For the situation factor is not controllable, a good leader must be in consideration of the variability. The situation can be divided into two parts: internal and external. 
 
External situation外部情况
 
The external situation mainly refers to the market changes which includes the changes of price, customers and supply and demand. This section cannot be controlled by leaders. On the opposite, leaders can be controlled and influenced by the external situation easily. For a good leader, he can predict the expected fluctuation to guarantee the validity of a policy in a permissible range. 
 
Changes of price: Prices are mainly determined by the supply and demand. To analysis prices, a overall knowledge of the products on market must be possessed. In addition, the customers’ preference and the government policy also contribute to the price change. If leaders ignore the price changes, the company can be hit once the change occurs. 
 
Customers: The target-consumer cannot be changeless. So regular surveys are necessary to understand customers’ requirement in order to make the corresponding changes. If not, the leader would be in a passive position and controlled by the changed situation. 
 
Supply and demand: On one hand, the company should adjust its supply according to the demand changes. On the other hand, it can do more innovation to attract more demand. 
 
Internal situation 
The internal situation is referring to the work staff and the workplace. During the formation of the groups, the adaptation could spend a long time and not everyone in the group could be satisfied. In addition, the comfort of the workplace and the process of learning affect the influence of internal situation. 
 
Group formation: A group is generally not a psychological group, each of them has a particular idea. What the leader could do is to coordinate their behavior to reduce the loss caused by group conflict and turmoil. Task fragmentation could provide a solution to allot people by their character. If the group formation is disorder, then the leader can be easily influenced by the situation which leads to the turmoil. 
 
Comfort of the workplace: Employees work in a comfortable place are more likely contribute more to the company issues beyond rewards. For example, some firms provide family area for those who need to take care of their children. Because of this, sense of identity and belonging emerge. This can promote employees try their best when a crisis takes place. 
 
The process of learning: Learning can be divided into two kinds: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. A good leader does well in taking advantage of the later to regulate employees’ behavior. 


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