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现代化、全球化和工业化的社会essay

时间:2015-09-07 22:08来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:pesixxj 点击:
数字经济指的是以数字技术为基础的经济。数字经济的新概念,提出了几个关键的当代人文地理问题,如弹性、可持续发展、地方问题、社会技术纳入/排除和贵族性与可达性。本文将重点放在社会技术的纳入/排除,并将批判性地评估和检查这种现象。

在一个非常基本的水平下,为了生存和繁荣,我们都需要食物、水、住房和工作。随着时间的推移,人类从基本的需要发展和进步到了更复杂的需求,一个更唯物的性质,以便我们在日常生活中当其他方式没有被满足时获得一个更深层次的意识。在我们现代化、工业化、全球化、(有些人会认为有疑问的,有待确定的)数字化的世界,那里是一个充斥着不平等、贫穷和富裕的社会,这些差距变得越来越明显,特别是当你看到谁拥有那些非必要的资产和财产,如电视、冰箱、微波炉、汽车、游戏机、洗衣机、洗碗机、烘干机等,在当今社会变得更重要。

The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies. The new concept of the Digital Economy raises questions about several key human geographical contemporary issues such as resilience, sustainability, place, socio-technical inclusion/exclusion, and nobilities and accessibilities. This essay will focus on socio-technical inclusion/exclusion and will critically evaluate and examine this phenomenon.

At a very basic level we all need food, water and shelter and a job that pays to survive and prosper. As time went on, human needs developed and progressed from basic needs to more complex needs of a more materialistic nature in order for us to gain a deeper sense of satisfaction in our everyday life that was somehow not being fulfilled in other ways. In our modernised, industrialised and globalised and (some would argue debatably and contestably) digitised world, there is rife inequality and a rampant gap between the richer and poorer in society that is becoming ever more noticeable and detectable, especially and particularly when you look to who has the non essential assets and possessions that seem ever more important nowadays in society such as televisions, microwaves, fridges, freezers, cars, gaming consoles, washing machines, dishwashers, tumble dryers and so forth. The positives of this are clear in that this is an additional factor that can make you feel similar and inclusive with other people you know, however, it can heighten your isolation and exclusion and separation and distance (depending on how much or how little you have). It has never been a more pressing time currently to be seen as being equal to others and not distinct or separate to mainstream society and its normal patterns (due sometimes to hostility and aggression that this sometimes leads to) The social, political, economic and cultural contextual circumstances and situations can and does have a real impact upon your perceived and actual levels of inclusion or exclusion. It is as much about personal (your own customs and traditions and habits and beliefs) as well as societal factors.
Socio-technical inclusion transcends the level of the individual in the digital economy age and is also about services and activities and how it is ever more important to be inclusive (not just on sexual, religious, ethnicity and gender lines) but also on less easily seen lines of educational levels and social hierarchy and position. On accessibly issues Bertacchini and Morando (2013) suggest that digital collections provide for wider access to materials than on shelf collections at museums but that it is really very important to decide upon where to allocate collections to and that not everything can or should or could be digitised due to age, fragility and so forth. Even teaching and learning interactively online is becoming widely popular and utilised and this can exaggerate the differences between well funded and well equipped modern schools and underfunded and under equipped and traditional schools be increased in difference and distinctiveness (and is becoming another marker of inclusion and exclusion), as supported by Tranos (2013, p59) who argues that"...The teaching concept of network information environment is a multi-media teaching method and educational philosophy with a series of changes and transference. It is a neo-strategy to adapt the information society, information financial system, marketplace contest and fight, hightech,digital??environment with their application type, compound and imaginative training mode of education as well...". But the term of digital economy is so fresh and recent that it has not been fully developed and discovered and explored yet in a quantifiable (either qualitatively or quantitatively) way and Yang (2013, p1976), suggests more academic and experiential research is needed.

Instead of a lessening of the inclusion and exclusion segregation and separation, in fact a novel and innovatory societal structure is taking its place (ordered and valued according to who has and who does not have) as Lukacs (2013, p44) states that a new balance of power is emerging amongst sectors of society and is being created in Japan by who has access to the latest gadgets and gizmos and technologies especially and particularly mobile phones. Continuing with the modern theme of mobile phones and accessibility and techno-social inclusion and exclusion, Dobusch and Quack (2013, p52) strike some interesting conclusions in that "...Cell phone writers do not simply voice their age group's suffering over their lack of power. Rather, by writing these novels, they produce a conjuncture at which writers and readers come to understand themselves as new collectives and begin to develop critical insights about employment, unity, and expectations and potentials for their lives". New inventions and new technologies may in fact not be a rebellion against social norms, but may in fact be a search for self discovery and self reflection of personal strengths and weaknesses.

On the internet (a further marker of inclusion or exclusion in today's society) information and knowledge is available in a very short period of time and also you do not even need to see someone face to face and in person anymore and a growing proportion of people communicate electronically alone and so Anon (2013) states that businesses and companies and organisations could and should use social networking sites in order to prosper and survive in the modern digital economy. There is a whole new series of moral values, principals and codes to deal with in the digital economy era and Wu and Yang (2013) state that morals and ethics were much higher in Taiwanese students than in Chinese students towards illegal downloading of music and films and so on. On the contemporary issue of worldwide inequality and poverty in access and availability of digital resources and materials (and the socio-technical inclusion or exclusion of this) Mwitondi and Bugrien (2012) argue that scientific methods and techniques are needed for all Africans to get a better quality of life and better wellbeing. The digital divide between developing countries and developed countries has grown even larger recently. Freeman (2012) states that bettered communication networks will not necessarily correlate to greater online use, and the local authorities in particular and especially and specifically will need extra guidance and support when moving forward and utilising e-government policies and procedures.

But, there is a more fundamental level to socio-technical inclusion or exclusion which is not just about accessibility but to have enough money to in order to pay for the latest technologies is equally as important as one another, as Morsillo (2012) states that broadband needs to be more widely available and cheaper and more affordable to all levels of society.
The digital economy raises a wide variety and diversity of issues about exclusion and inclusion even on the political level and Moatshe and Mahmood (2012, p464) state that in developing countries there is reluctance and hesitance but that "...The potential for eGovernment in developing countries remains largely unexploited despite that information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs) offers considerable potential for sustainable development of eGovernment. Developing countries in comparison to developed countries lack in (1) history and culture; (2) technical capabilities; (3) Infrastructure; (4) e-citizen development and (5) public service focus..." This would better facilitate this type of system. Inclusion or exclusion boils down to fundamental questions of capability and ability and potential to facilitate and even to afford large scale techno-socio systems in the first place before any questions of inequality of access are made.

However, real grounds for change in intervening and amending the digital divide of accessibility and inclusion or exclusion may be possible and that there are some available strategies and methods and techniques on a very practical level that may help and assist in this aim and objective. Graham (2011, p15) states that the digital divide of accessibility may be bridged by "....The consequences of being excluded from the Internet can in many cases be brutal and ruthless. People can be left out of networks and flows of information, thereby reinforcing active societal, financial and governmental power structures. While ICTs cannot alone flatten structural and communal forces of keeping and leaving out and difference and discrimination they can, however, be a powerful momentum and force behind positive monetary and collective group change..." Graham (2010, p1) argues that the world we live in today is "...The virtual Earth that has been constructed is more than just a collection of digital charts and plans, imagery and pieces of writing that have been uploaded into Web 2.0 cyberspaces; it is instead a flowing and flexible impressionable varying facet and aspect that both has power and authority and is inclined by the substantial world". Inclusion and exclusion does not just happen on a techno-social level alone and is often also prevalent in transportation choices as Kenyon et al (2002, p11) suggests an incorporated and included transport strategy, which has the lessening and decrease of elimination and segregation and weakness and difficulty as its intention.


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