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加拿大教育学作业:Critical Commentary play,thinking and communication

时间:2019-08-05 10:21:10 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:6
Abstract 摘要
下面的写作是基于在演讲过程中获得的经验以及问答部分。根据提出的问题进行了理论讨论。然后,在提供政策或系统变更时,对确定的主要兴趣进行了批判性分析。提出的主要问题是元认知的识别以及自我调节的概念性误判引起的混淆。制度或条款变更的实际含义是基于在艺术制作过程中积极为儿童创造有利的环境。
The following writing is based on the experience obtained during the presentation as well as the question and answer section. The theoretical discussion was done based on the issue raised. Main interest identified was then critically analyzed in providing policy or systematic changes. The main issue raised was confusion caused in relation to the identification of metacognition as well as the conceptual misspecification of self-regulation. The practical implication for the system or provision changes were based on taking an active role in creating an enabling environment for the children during the art-making process. 
The main issue 主要问题
提出的主要问题是元认知的识别以及自我调节的概念性误判引起的混淆。
理论讨论与研究成果
The main issue raised was confusion caused in relation to the identification of metacognition as well as the conceptual misspecification of self-regulation.
Theoretical discussion and research findings
元认知的概念最早出现在弗拉威尔、弗里德里奇和霍伊特的一篇论文《记忆过程的发展》(布鲁纳,1983:12)中。Flavell提出元认知的定义是“个人主动对自己的认知过程进行监控和持续的调整与协调,反映或调节知识或认知活动的任何方面的认知活动”(Coates,and Coates,2015:25)。他认为,个体可以通过元认知知识、元认知经验、任务和策略四个方面来反映其认知控制能力,同时指出元认知知识包括三个方面:个体元认知知识分类帐、任务元认知知识和战略元认知知识。根据Flavell的模型,元认知经验的丰富和积累可以部分转化为元认知知识(Wright,2007:45)。
The concept of metacognition first appeared in a paper by Flavell, friedridge and Hoyt, in the development of the memory process (Bruner, 1983:12). Flavell put forward the definition of metacognition is "personal initiative for their own cognitive process monitoring and continuous adjustment and coordination, reflect or regulate any aspect of cognitive activities of knowledge or cognitive activity" (Coates, and Coates, 2015:25). He believes that individuals can reflect their abilities in cognitive control through the following four aspects: metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive experience, task and strategy; At the same time, he pointed out that metacognitive knowledge includes three aspects: individual metacognitive knowledge, task metacognitive knowledge and strategic metacognitive knowledge. According to Flavell's model, the enrichment and accumulation of metacognitive experience can be partially converted into metacognitive knowledge (Wright, 2007:45).
 
Metacognition consists of three parts: metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive experience and metacognitive regulation. Metacognition has a dual state, which is both a static knowledge entity and a dynamic process. Metacognitive knowledge is the basis, metacognitive experience and metacognitive regulation interact with each other from different angles, and the three organically combine to become metacognition. In essence, metacognition is a different phenomenon from cognition, which reflects the cognition of "cognition" rather than "cognition" itself (Fillippini, And Vecchi, 1996:7).
Based on the above analysis, the contents of metacognition include the following three parts: metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive experience and metacognitive adjustment. Metacognitive knowledge is "subject through experience and accumulated to the general knowledge about cognitive activity, namely, the effect factors of cognitive activity, the result of the interaction between the factors and action knowledge". It mainly consists of three aspects: individual metacognitive knowledge, task metacognitive knowledge and strategic metacognitive knowledge. Individual metacognitive knowledge, refers to the learners' understanding of their own learning ability, cognitive characteristics, on learning ability between learners to themselves and others, the differences between the cognitive characteristics of understanding, and this difference understanding of learning activity produces different effects; Task metacognitive knowledge refers to the learner's understanding of learning tasks, learning materials, learning objectives, learning content, learning characteristics, and factors restricting learning. Strategies, metacognitive knowledge is refers to learners of the content and characteristics of learning strategies, use method, using effect, use different learning strategies itself and the effect of differences of understanding. In terms of metacognitive experience, learners may not clearly realize their metacognitive experience, but positive metacognitive experience helps to stimulate the enthusiasm of learning, to mobilize students' subjective initiative. Metacognitive regulation is the same as that of metacognitive strategies in learning strategies. Comprehensive O Malley&Chamot strategy study of metacognitive strategy in classification results, in the whole learning process, metacognitive regulation should include: the early stage of the learning phase: setting goals, planning, strategy choice; Middle stage of study: focus attention, choose attention, self-management, self-monitoring; Late stage of learning: self-evaluation and self-adjustment.
Case analysis- Mary's art-making  
Key questions raised during the presentation was regarding the identification of metacognition during Mary’s art-making process. I believe that metacognition was observed in different components of the process. Firstly, the children’s creative processes and representational practices are actualized through the open-ended resources offered through drawing. When children interact with the drawing medium, there is reciprocity between the child and the materials (Kolbe, 2000:51). The use of straws as representations demonstrated the explicit expression of one’s knowledge in relation to strategies used or performing a cognitive task where a strategy is a cognitive or behavioral activity that is employed so as to enhance performance or achieve a goal. Such as using bendable straws to represent joints. More importantly, Mary said during her process of creation “Using straws are more interesting, more realistic because people are not flat”. This verbalization also demonstrated the explicit expression of one’s knowledge in relation to cognition or people as cognitive processors (Whitebread, 2011:13). It might include knowledge about cognition in relation to self, others or universals. 
 
Similar examples 
With the development of metacognitive strategy research, autonomous learning has begun to attract the attention of the majority of educators, while cultivating students' autonomous learning ability is recognized as the ideal target of education. For autonomous learning theory, the most influential should be the definition of Holec (Forman,1994:46). Holec sees autonomous learning as a cognitive tool, and "learners are responsible for their own learning." Boud sees the ability of cultivating learners to be responsible for their own learning as both the goal of teaching and a method of teaching practice. In essence, the independent learning ability is the self-monitoring ability, its development mainly reflected in the understanding level and yuan to raise the level of understanding and knowledge level and the improvement of yuan cognition is by cultivating cognitive strategies and metacognitive strategies. In order to cultivate students' autonomous learning ability, some experts have done a lot of research on strategy training (Matthews,1999:32). The cultivation of metacognitive strategy to stimulate students' learning motivation, improve the level of students' metacognition, optimization study way, enhance students' self-monitoring ability, and improve the students' academic performance and so on has a very positive role.
The students' autonomous learning is essentially the process of adjusting and controlling the students' learning in every aspect, even the whole learning process. Students' independent learning depends on students' self-learning awareness, metacognitive level, learning motivation, learning strategies and other learners' factors. The research of Pressley M and ArcherJ shows that metacognitive factors, motivational factors and strategic factors influence students' autonomous learning. Other studies have shown that the difference in learning ability between two groups of students with the same basic knowledge level and different learning ability is the difference in metacognitive level. In the relationship between metacognitive ability and academic performance, the higher the metacognitive level, the better the academic performance. Therefore, if we help students improve their metacognitive level, we can make them a good and successful autonomous learner. It seems to a cognitive psychologist, student learning is a construction process, the students in the process of the construction of organized information storage, and the text or teachers imparting knowledge into useful skills. Learning is not only a cognitive process for the recognition, processing and understanding of the material, but also a metacognitive process that actively monitors and adjusts the process. English autonomous learning requires the learners have a strong self learning consciousness and social consciousness, aware of their English learning needs, choose their own English learning material, establish their own English learning goals, choose and improve their English learning methods and strategies, and reflect on their English learning and learning effect, assessment (Vygotsky, 1978).#p#分页标题#e#
 
Discussion
Mary’s act of breaking the boundaries applied in the current provision could let us think deeply about the type of tools or mediums provided for the children’s meaning-making a play. The ability to make improvements to these areas could cultivate creativity in the children while developing other areas of development such as the three-dimensional visualization and problem-solving skills. Adding on, Mary’s capability of creativity and three-dimensional thinking was also illustrated during the meaning-making process. The ability to use other tools for better representation demonstrates her creativity through thinking out of the box. Furthermore, this action of using other materials could illustrate her courage to express herself to others. The three-dimensional thinking capability Mary possesses is also shown through thinking humans are not flat. However, this leads us to think further that is the current provision sufficient in helping the children to develop creative thinking capabilities, through providing wide choices of tools are the fundamental passive step in an attempt not to restrict a child’s thinking. However, none was done in cultivating their creative ability. Thus, further policies or system could take on an active role through applying methods such as mind mapping at the simplest form in helping children in idea generations. 
Main metacognitive regulation impact on student learning on the ability of learning, the monitoring refers to the students to engage in learning activities actively and consciously plan, inspection, evaluation, feedback, control and adjustment. In recent years, study psychology and education psychological research show that students' self-monitoring of their learning is the main aspect of students' learning ability, which is the key factor affecting their academic performance.
Reference list 
Bruner, J. (1983). Play, thought, and language. Peabody Journal of Education, 60. 
Coates, E. and Coates, A. (2015) Recognising ‘the sacred spark of wonder’: scribbling and related talk as evidence of how young children’s thinking may be identified in Robson, S. and Flannery Quinn, S. (eds) The Routledge International handbook of Young Children’s Thinking and Understanding, Abingdon: Routledge.
Edwards, C. P., Gandini, L. & Forman, G. E. [Eds.] (1998).  The hundred languages of children:  the Reggio Emilia Approach - Advanced reflections [2nd Ed.] Greenwich, CT:  Ablex.
Fillippini, T. And Vecchi, V. (Eds.) (1996). L. Morrow (trans.) The hundred languages of children: narrative of the possible. Reggio Emilia: Reggio Children.
Forman, G. (1994). Different media, different languages. In L. G. Katz & B. Cesarone (Eds.) Reflective essays on the Reggio Emilia  approach, (pp. 43-49). Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.
Kolbe, U. (2000). Seeing beyond marks and forms: Appreciating children’s visual thinking. Thinking through the arts, 48-60.
Matthews, J. (1999). The art of childhood and adolescence. London: Falmer Press.
Vygotsky L (1978) Mind in Society.  Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Whitebread, D. (2011). Developmental psychology and early childhood education: a guide for students and practitioners. Sage.
Wright, S (2007) Young Children’s meaning making through drawing and ‘telling’ Australian Journal of Early Childhood vol 32 no 4 pp37-49
 
Appendix
 
Bruner’s three stages of representation discussed during the presentation was further supported by my teacher and classmates. The identification of Mary’s drawing at the iconic stage was agreed upon. Although her representation of her iconic meaning-making through images such as sword and flags, no languages or clear symbols was used. Nonetheless, I performed further research in clearly identifying and partition between the symbolic and iconic stage in Mary’s context. I found that the symbolic representation often refers to children between the age 7 and above while often associated with the use of words or symbols as representation. Mary’s use of visual images such as flags and sword could still fall into the iconic stage, however, the use of these iconic images to represent personal attribute illustrate the very early stages of meaning-making in symbolic representation (Bruner, 1966:12). 
 
Key questions raised during the presentation was regarding the identification of metacognition during Mary’s art-making process. I believe that metacognition was observed in different components of the process. Firstly, the children’s creative processes and representational practices are actualized through the open-ended resources offered through drawing. When children interact with the drawing medium, there is reciprocity between the child and the materials (Kolbe, 2000:51). The use of straws as representations demonstrated the explicit expression of one’s knowledge in relation to strategies used or performing a cognitive task where a strategy is a cognitive or behavioral activity that is employed so as to enhance performance or achieve a goal. Such as using bendable straws to represent joints. More importantly, Mary said during her process of creation “Using straws are more interesting, more realistic because people are not flat”. This verbalization also demonstrated the explicit expression of one’s knowledge in relation to cognition or people as cognitive processors (Whitebread, 2011:13). It might include knowledge about cognition in relation to self, others or universals. 
 
I have also reflected on this issue raised and identified that the confusion of this concept during the representation was mainly due to the lacking emphasis placed on the main point (the verbalization above). If I were to do it again, I would have placed the action of using Demark flag without thinking to the end after self-planning discussing it as an interesting observation rather than placing it completely into metacognition section. The additional slide could be placed in to discuss the relations between the straws and its human representations in illustration of Mary’s metacognition abilities. 
 
After further reading on the Bruner’s ideas and self-regulation, the concept clarifies and the last question raised in the presentation were not adequate. The question which links the act of self-regulation to critical thinking and creative thinking were not appropriate. Furthermore, Vygotsky (1987:34) also identified that children’s self-directed or private speech as the main medium for the transfer of behavior regulation from others to self as well as the primary tool for self-direction and self-guidance. Hence, his theory stated that self-regulation begins when the child integrates adult prompts, explanations, strategies and demands into their play, actions or speeches thus controlling cognitive processes such as memory, planning, self-reflection and attention in redirecting their own behavior. This leads me to think of the two types of regulation in a place where one could initiate internally or with the environment by the child and the other initiated by the teacher or other adults. The functions of each type of regulation onto the child’s cognitive and social development are also further questioned. 
 


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