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加拿大高中作业:Academic Journal个人主义的危险

时间:2019-08-23 11:33:39 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:16
“个人主义”的解释是“一种政治和社会哲学,高度重视人的自由,广泛强调不受外国个人约束的自我控制或自我作为一种哲学,包含着个人主义的价值体系,一种人性论。“对一些政治、经济、社会和宗教行为的一般态度。”经过与四本书和ISU小说的比较分析,这四本书分别是《动物农场》、《老鼠与人》、《苍蝇之王》和《哈姆雷特》。通过对这些性格原型的比较分析,个人主义可能是危险的。
The interpretation of the "individualism" is "a political and social philosophy, attaches great importance to personal freedom, widely stressed self control which is not be bound by foreign individuals or self as a kind of philosophy, contains a value system of individualism, a theory of human nature, a kind of for some political, economic, social and religious behavior of the general attitude." After the analysis of comparison with the four books and ISU novels, these four books are Animal Farm, Of Mice and Men, Lord Of the flies, and Hamlet. After the comparison of these character archetypes, the individualism could be dangerous after analysis.
根据这种认识,个人主义作为一种人格参与社会生活的态度、倾向和信念,具有其历史性的必然表现。在人类文明进程中,个人主义作为一种生活方式、人生观和世界观,具有全局性和普遍性的意义。它构成了人们赖以掌握人与世界关系的主要方式和生存状态(Jha&Panda,2017)。具体地说,个人主义在社会生活各个方面的渗透可以概括为哲学上的人文主义、政治上的民主、经济上的自由主义、文化上的自我意识,这要求人格的独立性。
According to this understanding, individualism as a personality to participate in the social life of the attitude, tendency, and belief, has its historical performance of inevitability. In the course of human civilization, individualism, as a way of life, outlook on life and worldview, has a holistic and universal significance. It constitutes the primary way and existence state that people rely on to grasp the relationship between people and the world (Jha & Panda, 2017). To be specific, the infiltration of individualism in all aspects of social life can be summarized in the following aspects: humanism in philosophy, democracy in politics, liberalism in the economy, and self-consciousness in culture, which requires independence of personality. 
Gone with the Wind随风而逝
思嘉起初是个软弱的女人,任性而年轻。她的第一次婚姻是复仇的冲动。她嫁给了一个她不爱的男孩,并使自己成为一个年轻的寡妇。第二次婚姻是为了家庭的生存,夺走了她妹妹的心上人肯尼迪。肯尼迪虽然只有半个老人,但与思嘉不相称。最后,她因斯佳丽为可怜的白人报仇而遭受的侮辱而被枪杀。不幸的是,她白白死去,但她从未享受过思嘉的爱。于是思嘉又成了寡妇,又成了富有的寡妇。起初,一个软弱的女人,任性而年轻,第一次结婚是一时冲动的复仇,娶了一个不爱的男孩,使他成为一个年轻的寡妇。第二次婚姻是为了家庭的生存,夺走了她妹妹的心上人肯尼迪。肯尼迪虽然只有半个老人,但与思嘉不相称。最后,她因斯佳丽为可怜的白人报仇而遭受的侮辱而被枪杀。不幸的是,她白白死去,但她从未享受过思嘉的爱。于是思嘉又成了寡妇,又成了富有的寡妇。
Scarlett has initially been a weak woman, willful and young. Her first marriage was an impulse of revenge. She married a boy she did not love and made herself a young widow. The second marriage was for the sake of the family's survival and robbed her sister of her sweetheart, Kennedy. Kennedy, though half an old man, was no match for Scarlett. Finally, she was shot and killed for the insult Scarlett almost suffered in revenge for the poor white man. Unfortunately, she died in vain, but she never enjoyed any love from Scarlett. So Scarlett becomes a widow again, and a wealthy widow. Initially, a weak woman, willful and young, the first marriage was a moment of impulsive revenge, married to a boy who did not love so that he became a young widow. The second marriage was for the sake of the family's survival and robbed her sister of her sweetheart, Kennedy. Kennedy, though half an old man, was no match for Scarlett. Finally, she was shot and killed for the insult Scarlett almost suffered in revenge for the poor white man. Unfortunately, she died in vain, but she never enjoyed any love from Scarlett. So Scarlett becomes a widow again, and a wealthy widow.
 
Animal Farm
The catastrophe at the animal farm came when Napoleon took the stage. It gains its wealth by exploiting other supposedly inferior animals. He traded farm supplies for tasty food to feed his selfish desires, violating regulations and killing rebels. As the conflict builds up, the animals and ranchers, hungry for revenge, are fighting a third (presumably second) war. The victory of the war consolidated Napoleon's ruling status, and he began to make more significant efforts. However, the conflict was getting deeper and deeper. At last, the oppressed animals came together from everywhere and overthrew Napoleon, and the animation came to an abrupt end. Because I wear "politics" glasses to see, all sorts of code names enter seat at the beginning. At first, I thought it was about the struggle between capitalists and the oppressed working class (farmers and animals). Later, I thought it was the American revolution. 
 
Of Mice and Men
The invention of various rapid technologies, the progress of the social system and the change in people's minds are increasingly at odds with each other. The world began to become vulgar, hypocritical and aggressive. War, poverty, politics. People blindly drown in the people before them and follow the team to climb up... The body is nothing but a shell. A small heart in a big body... People feel lonely, anxious, scared. They are happy, healthy and perfect. Who are they? Who are the people who look so thin, so young, and don't feel shy or shy? In a world of constant competition, those who do not want to fight, who are considered unfit to live, begin to punish the world of evil.
 
Lord Of the flies
Jack has a mask, which means that the key to doing evil without fear is to have a fake face. Once a person wears a mask, he will have the desire to party, and the animal nature will be able to express himself freely. In fact, what covers up evil is not only the mask but also the excuse and reason of good, which is more threatening to human beings. The lousy incident on little sea island, Simon's murder, was the breach of a civilization that curbed destructive impulses by children's masks on their faces.
 
Hamlet
Shakespeare lived in this period when feudalism began to break down, and the new bourgeoisie began to rise. At that time, the obscurantism thought represented by religious theology in the middle ages was on the decline, and the world outlook of the bourgeoisie, with individualism as the center, became increasingly popular. It is in this context Shakespeare wrote Hamlet to reflect the tragedy of bourgeois humanism ideological struggle and struggle with the feudal forces, boldly criticizing the cruelty of feudal system and the darkness of human nature, and with advanced power temporarily fail to end, accusing feudal hierarchy and feudal ideas of sin. Shakespeare's works have significantly promoted the spread of humanism in England and Europe.
 
The value stipulation of individualism includes the proposition that "all values are people-centered, that is, all values are experienced by people," which is a humanistic concept. First, we should start with human beings, affirm human nature, and affirm the value and significance of human beings and their existence. The second is to emphasize that people are free. This freedom is philosophical, especially the freedom of man's spirit, soul, and will. Therefore, the individual's experience of value is unique and unconstrained (Minkov et.,al, 2017). It is in this sense that Aristotle holds that "man is free, living for his survival, not for the survival of others." 3 it is to advocate the individual as one of the most fundamental and most real existence states, when he was faced with nature, others, the triple survival circumstances, often not consciously he considered themselves as the standard of everything, even the nature of his move to those things, this has the instinct of "empathy" on the people to master the external world and the primary way of life of their own. However, the fundamental restriction on people's understanding and understanding of the world by the existence of the individual is to endow the existence of individualism with the humanistic connotation of logical preexistence.
 
The affinity between individualism and democratic politics can be summarized as follows: first, the individual rights and individual freedom advocated by individualism are the reasons for the existence of democratic politics, while "natural human rights" and "human being is born equal" are also obvious meanings under the premise. Second, based on the theory of social contract, contradictions and conflicts between individuals and organizations can be reconciled and restricted through democracy. Marx believed that "man is the most veritable political animal, not only a social animal but also an animal that can be independent only in society." This aspect reveals the essence of social existence, on the other hand shows that the moral equality of individuals is often isolated and independent, only by forming social relations become interconnected individuals, "in this interconnected, everyone is closely linked with others, and to some extent to make his or her life more uniqueness". In this way, the uniqueness and uniqueness of individuals can be reflected and obtain the power of reality. It is in this sense that we say that individualism opposes authority and all kinds of domination over the individual, especially the state over the individual; However, only extreme individualists believe in anarchism, and all individualists recognize the rationality of the state and believe that the government should intervene in people's lives to a minimum. The principal functions of government should be limited to maintaining law and order, preventing individuals from interfering with others and supervising voluntary agreements. In addition, this kind of self-consciousness is reflected in the individual between people, that is, the independence of personality; Reflect in social life, it is to ask to respect a person's personality and private space, admit that an individual has the right to be different from others, and have the right to choose his way of life. At the same time, cultural individualism is also highly confident, self-improvement, confident and enterprising in a positive sense. It does not adhere to the traditional and bold innovation spirit of personal struggle. Specifically, the cultural level of individualism has an extremely close relationship with western religious traditions, or rather, it is through the western religion (especially Christianity) as support, solid background makes individualism in the aspect of the spiritual life, and into a broad cultural psychology foundation, affects the person's ideas and behaviors.#p#分页标题#e#
This openness embodies a kind of rational spirit from two aspects: on the one hand, it is the rationalization of the process, that is, the requirement of such openness makes all people's activities, degrees and knowledge return to the hands of social groups gradually and put them under the eyes of all people. This kind of regular social supervision, involving not only the state administrative organs but also the creation of individual spirit, should be reflected in the right, secular level through controversy and public voting. On the other hand, the rationalization of the conclusion, that is, the result of the controversy and public voting will elevate the opinion with own color to the collective (public) will. Once established, it will be endowed with such regulation as a "sacred order." As a rule that applies to all but is higher than all, it can be discussed in the process of formulation, can be modified by decision, but the sanctity after establishment must be maintained, and it must bind the individual (Özbek, Yoldash, & Tang, 2016). This reflects a spirit of law and contract. Third, this political mode of proving or falsifying in the struggle of the citizens' congress or the court through the form of speech makes the internal need an exploration of "real logic" appear in the argumentation, to link politics with logos. This kind of real logic, namely truth, and its exploration is a kind of inevitable logic of causal argumentation, and its unremitting pursuit and exploration also constitute the old premise of the cultural character of westerners who dare to break away from tradition, actively innovate and forge ahead.
 
In summary, from the reform of religion in Greece to the formation and development of modern times, individualism has always been concerned with and grew out of the tension between individuals and groups, so as to establish the concept of self-restraint and abstinence under the influence of religious ethics on the religious edge starting from the freedom of individual soul. This kind of individualism, which is motivated by personal salvation, is restrained by religious ethics, which temporarily mitigates the economic behaviors of individuals at the level of economic liberalism in the initial accumulation stage of capitalism and regards it as a necessary secular effort to increase the glory of God. However, with the decline of the internal binding force of religion and the development of philosophical criticism, the distinction between the old and the new individualism caused by the so-called cultural division appeared in the modern western society.
Reference 
Jha, C., & Panda, B. (2017). Individualism and Corruption: A Cross-Country Analysis. Economic Papers,36(1), 60-74. doi:10.1111/1759-3441.12163
Minkov, M., Dutt, P., Schachner, M., Morales, O., Sanchez, C., Jandosova, J., & ... Mudd, B. (2017). A revision of Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(3), 386-404. doi:10.1108/CCSM-11-2016-0197
Özbek, M. m., Yoldash, M. a., & Tang, T. T. (2016). Theory of Justice, OCB, and Individualism: Kyrgyz Citizens. Journal Of Business Ethics, 137(2), 365-382. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2553-0
 


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