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Literature review格式范文:Literature Review On The Determination

时间:2021-08-31 10:18来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
Literature review是研究的重要内容之一,目的是获得更广泛的观点。根据Uma Sekaran的观点,Literature review可以定义为一种广泛的文献综述,通过文献综述,研究者可以从二次数据中获得研究者特别感兴趣的领域的已发表和未发表的工作。它讨论了课题的重要性,研究中使用的理论或方法的类型,以及提供特定领域的背景和历史。此外,Literature review 过程分为三个步骤。首先是确定各种材料和途径,其次是收集相关信息,第三是撰写文献综述。一项好的研究应该包括八个重要的要素,包括目的性、有效性、可复制性、可推广性、客观性、可靠性、可测试性,以及能够创造新事物或更好地称之为严谨性。我们可以通过书籍、报告、专著、论文、会议记录、工作论文等收集文献综述来源,其中最常用的是期刊研究论文。 下面小编就给各位提供一篇Literature review格式范文供参考。
Literature review格式范文
Literature review格式范文
Literature review is one of the important elements in research in order to gain broader ideas. According to Uma Sekaran, literature review can be defined as a broad documentation review by which published and unpublished work from secondary data in the areas of a particular interest to the researcher. It discusses the importance of the subject, the type of theory or method used in the research and as well as to provide with the background and history of a particular area. Furthermore, there are 3 steps in the literature review process. Firstly is to identify the various material and access, secondly to gather the relevant information, and thirdly to write up the literature review. A good research should consist of eight important elements including purposiveness, validity, replicability, generalisability, objectivity, reliability, testability, and able to create a new thing or better known as rigor. We can gather literature review sources through books, reports, monograph, thesis, conference proceeding, working papers, and the most commonly used by many is the journal research articles.
The Determination of Housing Price 住房价格的确定
房屋是人类基本生活需要的重要组成部分之一。人们需要一个远离危险、炎热天气、雨天的房子,以及一个保持平静的地方。只要人们能享受到住在屋顶下的舒适,那就叫做房子。然而,重要的是一个人能否买得起房子。有些人买得起一套住起来很舒服的房子,有些人买不起。被称为富人和名人的人能买得起一栋几乎被称为天堂的房子,有些人只能住在普通但舒适的房子里。但我们的房子看起来如何并不重要,因为房价才是最重要的。我们可以看到,随着时间的推移,房价在上涨。这可能是一个值得关注的重要领域,因为它或多或少会影响一个国家的经济水平。因此,房价可以定义为一个人为了购买一套房子而必须支付的支付率,当然有几个因素会导致房价的确定。
House is one of the important elements in basic human needs. People need a house to stay away from danger, hot weather, rainy day and as well as a place to stay calm. As long as people can fill the comfort of living under a roof then it is called a house. However, the things that matter is that the affordability of a person to purchase a house. Some people can afford a house that is really comfortable to stay in and some not. People who are called the rich and famous can afford a house that is almost called a heaven and some can only lives in an ordinary but comfortable house. But it doesnmatter how our house may look like because the price of house is what that matter. We can see that the housing price is increasing as the time goes by. This may be an important area to look upon because more or less it could affect the economic level of a country. Therefore, a housing price can be defined as the rate of payment that one has to pay in order to purchase a house and for sure there are several factors that lead to housing price determination.
以我个人的观点,我认为房价的上涨是由于原材料价格的上涨。许多人可能有类似的想法,但在为我的提议主题查阅了10份期刊作为参考之后,我发现了几个更重要的变量,导致了房价决定因素。很少有知识渊博的人能够找到影响房价的因素。一位使用实证分析进行研究的人指出,收入(人口统计趋势)和名义利率是房价的关键解释因素。另一方面,股票收益率也可能是决定住房价格的一个影响因素。其他研究表明,本研究采用了实证研究方法、面板单位根检验、面板协整和误差修正模型。收入水平和利率是主要影响因素,两者的结果相似。但它是用另一种方法测试的,即当前的收入水平和利率决定了个人可以从金融机构借多少钱来买房。借款人可以从银行或金融机构借款多少的决定是确定房价水平的一种方法。比如利率越高,房价就越高。然而,在Yazgi&Dokmeci的研究中发现了另一个不同的观点,在该研究中,应用多元回归模型,发现影响房价的最重要因素是建筑面积的大小。第二个和第三个最有效的因素是路面比率和建筑面积,第四个因素是住房到海边的距离。这意味着,楼层越大,购买者需要支付的钱就越多。本研究明显不同于以往的研究。它着眼于地理区域。Hiebert&Roma通过实证和回归分析进行的研究表明,尽管特定地点与设施相关,但不同城市的人口差异影响更大。因此,即使一个特定的地点是完全便利的,人们仍然会喜欢居住在人口中。使用新的季度区域面板数据集的其他研究表明,在14个地区中,有11个地区在住房服务和便利设施价值方面具有重大影响。可预测的价格预期是房价上涨的主要原因。因此,研究发现,住房价格受区域经济活动、区域住房存量和资本使用者成本的影响。
In my own point of view, I believe that the increment of a housing price is due to the price increment in the raw material. Many may have similar idea but after looking into 10 journals as references for my propose topic, I have found out several more important variables that leads to the factors of housing price determination. There are few number of knowledgeable individual turned up and able to find the contributing factors in determination of housing price. One who has studied using an empirical analysis has shown that income (demography trends) and nominal interest rates are the key explanatory factors in housing price. On the other hand, the equity returns may also have been an influential factor in the determination o housing price (Pages & Maza, 2003). In other studies shown that, the empirical approach, panel unit root test, panel co-integration, and error correction model were applied in the research. The result is similar in which the level of income and interest rate were the main factors. But it was tested in a different method whereby the current level of income and interest rates determine how much an individual can borrow from financial institutions in order to purchase a house. This decision of how much the borrower can borrow from the bank or financial institutions is one of a way to determine the level of house price (McQuinn & Rielly, 2007). For example, the higher the interest rate, the higher the price of housing. However, another different point of view can be found in the study of Yazgi & Dokmeci (2007), in which, applied the multiple regression model and it was found that the most important factor affecting the housing prices is the size of the floor area. The second and third most effective factors are the road surface ratio and the floor area, and fourth factor is the distance of housing to the seashore. This means, the bigger the size of floor the more money a purchaser will have to pay. This study is obviously different from the previous study. It looked upon the geographical area. The studies of Hiebert & Roma (2010) by using the empirical and regression analysis have shown that even though a particular location is associated with facilities, population differences across cities influenced more. Therefore, even if a particular location is fully facilitated, people will still prefer living among a population. Other studies that used the new quarterly regional panel data set shown that out of 14 regions, there were 11 regions that have the major impacts in term of housing services and amenity values. The price expectations that is predictable contribute to the increased of housing price. Thus, it was found that the price of housing is influenced by the regional economic activity, the regional housing stock and the user cost of capital (Grimes et al, 2004).
在另一个不同的研究中,相关分析和多元回归分析是由一个马来西亚人进行的。研究表明,马来西亚人均收入、失业率、住房贷款总额和KLSE综合指数对马来西亚房价的变动起着重要作用。这意味着,经济和金融因素被确定为适用于确定住房单位的需求和供应。在Allen等人的一项研究中,通过实证分析,得出了新房价格、工会工资、建筑许可证的发放情况。根据Yan等人的实证分析和误差修正模型的误差修正表明,土地供应对房价波动的影响较大,而需求因素如使用者成本、收入和住房抵押贷款对房价波动的影响较大。从长远来看,价格受土地供应和金融体系的影响。然而,在短期内,土地供应和金融体系的变化会对使用者成本、收入和住房抵押贷款产生影响。另外,由使用者成本、收入、住房抵押贷款等构成的需求因素对房价波动的影响更大。在麦克米伦的其他研究中,使用傅立叶重复销售方法,发现收入和人口可以影响房价。然而,他随后发现,由于住房成本的增加,收入较高的人搬到了芝加哥市的老城区。在Hilbers等人的另一项研究中,实证分析表明,用户成本、人口统计学(年龄、性别、收入)因素和产出对住房价格的决定有影响。结果发现,影响最大的因素是收入和用户成本。
In another different study, correlation and multiple regression analysis was applied by a Malaysian namely Tan. The study shown that the Malaysiansper capita income, unemployment rate, total loans to housing and KLSE Composite Index plays important role in the movement of Malaysian house price. This means, the economic and financial factors were identified as applicable in determining the demand and supply of housing units. In a study of Allen et al (2006), by using the empirical analysis, new house price, union wages, issuance of building permit. According to Yan et al (2010), an empirical analysis and the error correction model error correction shown that land supply has a major impact on house price fluctuations while demand factors such as user costs, income and residential mortgage loan have greater influences. In the long run, the price is influenced by the land supply and the financial system. However, in the short run, the changes in land supply and financial system will then effect on the user costs, income, and residential mortgage loan. To add more, the demand factors which consist of the user cost, income, and residential mortgage loan is found to give greater impact in the price fluctuations of housing price. Again in other studies of McMillen (2003) using the Fourier repeat sales approach, it was found that income and population can influenced the prices of house. However, he then found out that people with higher income moved into the older part of the area in Chicago city due to the increasing housing cost. In another study of Hilbers et al (2008), the empirical analysis shown that user costs, demographic (age, gender, income) factors and output gives impact in the determination of housing price. It was found that the most influential factors were the income and the user costs.
After went through the journals on housing, it helps to indentify and considered the contributing factors in the determination of housing price. I have found out several factors that contribute in the determination of housing price. Those factors I have found includes the interest rate, income, geographical area, population, unemployment rate, housing loan, KLSE Composite Index, user cost and as well the economic activity and regional housing stock. But, the most common factors are the interest rate, income, population, and user costs. In another way, it also helps to figure out the type of analysis or framework that had already been used as a method in research. As an advantage, it will help to determine which method is the best choice to be used in the research. Therefore, when the method to be used is already discovered, it will enable researcher to formulate suitable theory in order to test or formulate hypotheses.
Conceptual Framework 概念框架
Interest rate
Income
Housing Price
User costs
Land supply
Financial system
Population
Conceptual framework or better known as the Theoretical framework is a conceptual model of how one came up with a theory or to make a logical sense of the relationship among the identified factors of a particular problem. It consists of the independent variables on the left side while the dependent variable on the right side as the above sketches of theoretical framework. The independent variable can be defined as one lends itself. On the other hand, the dependent variable does not lend itself. In addition, variables refer to anything that differ values.
The independent variables consist of interest rate, income, user costs, land supply, financial system, and population. Interest rate refers to the interest rate on bank loans or land value. When interest rate increases, the house price will increase too. Income is one important element in determining the housing price, whereby, income may determine that a house can be afforded or not. User costs refer to the cost by a particular person. It plays an important role because the when user cost doesnexist then it is not easy to determine the price of house. Land supply is also an important factor whereby a land needed an approval before building a house on it. Financial system refers to the housing loan from bank, residential mortgage loan or the conditions of economic of a particular country. Population refers to the people living in an area. More population means demand on housing will increasing and therefore leads to supply of housing. On the other hand, the dependent variable only consist of one variable in which the housing price. The housing price depends on the any changes in the independent variables. Small changes in one of the independents variable will give effect in the determination of housing price.
 
Literature review中提出自变量包括利率、收入、使用者成本、土地供应、金融体系和人口。利率是指银行贷款利率或土地价值。当利率上升时,房价也会上升。收入是决定住房价格的一个重要因素,因此,通过Literature review总结收入可能决定一所房子能否负担得起。用户成本是指特定人的成本。它起着重要的作用,因为当用户成本不存在时,就不容易确定房价。土地供应也是一个重要因素,土地在建造房屋之前需要获得批准。金融体系是指从银行获得的住房贷款、住房抵押贷款或特定国家的经济状况。人口是指生活在一个地区的人。更多的人口意味着对住房的需求将增加,从而导致住房供应。另一方面,因变量只包含一个变量,其中住房价格。住房价格取决于自变量的任何变化。其中一个独立变量的微小变化将对房价的确定产生影响。本站提供各国留学生Literature review写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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