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来自剑桥的经验分享:如何在论文格式上先人一筹

时间:2020-09-12 11:05来源:未知 作者:Sienna 点击:
前几天小编在闲逛社交网站时,意外发现了一篇非常适合介绍给论文新手,帮助第一年进入英美教育体系的中国同学们快速上手论文写作,快速先人一筹的文章。小编立马决定将该篇文章分享给
前几天小编在闲逛社交网站时,意外发现了一篇非常适合介绍给论文新手,帮助第一年进入英美教育体系的中国同学们快速上手论文写作,快速先人一筹的文章。经过之后的细致调查,小编发现,该文章的写作者名叫Luke Huang,是一名剑桥大学英语教育系在读的优秀学长,而他的分享独到且精辟,饱含经验之谈,价值相当高。
小编立马决定将该篇文章分享给大家。因为原文为英文且较长,所以小编在自己的理解上截取了一些精彩片段并进行了翻译,希望没有接触过essay写作或论文格式的同学们可以通过本篇文章快速进行了解,接触过的同学们也可以加深理解。

论文格式分享
 
Structure: Hamburgers and Peel
One of the most important aspects of essay writing is having a structure that is clear, concise, and keeps the reader engaged the whole way through. A typical essay structure is like a hamburger, keeping the main meat of your argument wedged nicely between two lighter supports
简单来说,我们可以把一篇论文的结构比作汉堡包和果皮。
论文写作最重要的一个方面就是要有一个清晰、简洁的结构,让读者自始至终都能参与其中。典型的文章结构就像一个汉堡包,把你的主要论点牢牢地夹在两个较轻的支撑物之间。

Introduction

Your first couple of sentences should use your knowledge of context and understanding of the question to focus the essay. One tactic I have picked up is to have the ‘thesis’ (the statement that is the entire argument of your essay) at the end of the very first paragraph. As my professor once told me, ‘if you issue a bold opening statement, your reader will be compelled to continue just to see how you hope to support it’.
在介绍段落中,你的前几个句子应该利用你对上下文的了解和对问题的理解来突出文章的重点。我采用的一个策略是在第一段的末尾写上“主题”(即文章的整个论点)。正如我的教授曾经告诉我的,“如果你发表了一个大胆的开头声明,你的读者将被迫继续看你是如何支持它的。”
 
论文格式
 
Main Body

This is the longest part of your essay, and will consist of paragraphs arguing for and against the thesis you have made in your introduction. It’s important, even if you feel strongly about your answer to the question, to acknowledge alternative viewpoints in your essay, since it shows you have considered both sides of the argument. A good balance of main body paragraphs might be three reasons FOR, two reasons AGAINST, and you can alternate these however you think fits best. Each of your main body paragraphs should start with a point that addresses the question. You should then provide evidence to back up your claim (this could be from textual sources or even from pictures or pieces of art). The final sentence should link the paragraph back to the initial thesis you made, since that way your reader will see that your essay has a clear focus and won’t get lost. You may have heard the acronym P.E.E.L.? Point, Evidence, Explanation, Link!
主体部分是你的文章中最长的部分,它将由支持或反对你在引言中提出的论点的段落组成。即使你对这个问题的答案极其肯定,在你的文章中承认不同的观点也是很重要的,因为这表明你考虑了论点的多个方面。一个好的主体段落可能是三个理由同意,两个理由反对,你可以选择你认为最适合的方式。你的每一个主体段落都应该以一个解决问题的观点开始。然后,你应该提供证据来支持你的主张(这可以是文字来源,甚至是图片或艺术品)。最后一句话应该把段落和你最初的主题联系起来,这样你的读者就会看到你的文章有一个清晰的重点,不会迷失方向。你可能听说过缩写PELL?  就是Point论点,Evidence证据支持,Explanation解释和Link连接。
 
论文格式经验
 
Conclusion

Your final paragraph should sum up the arguments you have made and use them to give a final verdict on the answer of the question. You may be finishing strong. For example, if you do end up arguing FOR, it’s worth suggesting how the arguments you made AGAINST are insignificant in comparison. Of course, it’s always acceptable and often wise to have a more nuanced concluding answer that is somewhere in the middle of FOR and AGAINST, since essay questions can sometimes be on complex issues that have no easy answer. However, I personally find it fun to read up on material for my essay so much that I actually start forming strongly-held opinions of my own on something (e.g. my opinion that Classics is the best subject ever), so I want to make as clear a case as I can!
你的最后一段应该总结你的论点,并用它们对问题的答案做出最后的判断。你可以在最后一段提出一个比较强势的观点,例如,如果你最终赞成,那么值得指出的是,你反对的观点相比之下是微不足道的。当然,在赞成和反对之间得到一个更微妙的结论答案总是可以接受的,而且通常是明智的,因为论文问题有时涉及复杂的问题,不容易回答。然而,我个人发现阅读我的文章的材料是很有趣的,以至于我开始形成我自己的强烈的观点(例如,我认为经典是最好的主题),所以我想要尽可能清晰的回答。

 Though it may be cliché, the number one thing to remember is that practice makes perfect! Keep writing essays for school/ university – even write some extras on topics that really interest you – and you’ll soon discover your own style. One size rarely fits all, but with this structure firmly under your belt, not only will you increase your confidence and finesse under timed conditions, you’ll find shaping new responses easier with every try. Happy essay-writing!
 虽然这可能是陈词滥调,但最重要的是要记住:熟能生巧!继续为学校或大学写论文——甚至写一些你真正感兴趣的附加主题——你很快就会发现自己的风格。一种方法几乎不可能适用于所有的情况,但是当你牢牢掌握这种方法时,你不仅会增加你在时间条件下的自信和技巧,而且你会发现每一次尝试都更容易形成新的反应。论文写作快乐!


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