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美国作业:Transgressive Culture

时间:2016-07-01 10:14来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
美国作业:Transgressive Culture
 
Transgressive Culture是什么?文化是一个广泛的概念。它是指由学习知识、信仰、艺术、道德、法律、风俗习惯和习惯组成的社会各成员组成的一种社会生活的某种方式的精神因素。社会文化可以分为两种文化,主流文化和亚文化。主流文化是社区的主导文化。它是以社会的价值标准或社会规范为基础的。例如,社会主义精神文明是中国的主流文化,这有利于培养和形成一种良好的生活方式。亚文化是一种文化,它占据了社会的第二位置,是一种基于一些人的价值准则的非共享文化。亚文化,与主流文化相反,主张从文化的规范出发,这是社会共同体所认可的。可以称为“反文化”,即文化。由于Transgressive Culture具有反文化的性质,它往往促进越轨行为或犯罪行为,一些人的精神因素,这在小偏差组和犯罪团伙十分突出。所以一些学者称为“犯罪文化”进文化。
 
What is transgressive culture? Culture is a broad concept. It refers to the spiritual factors, related to a certain way of life of all members of society formed by learning the knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and habits (Moore, 2011). Social culture can be divided into two kinds of culture, mainstream culture and subculture. Mainstream culture is a dominant culture of the community. It’s based on the value criterion or the social norms of the society. For example, the socialist spiritual civilization is the mainstream culture in China, which is conducive to the cultivation and formation of a good way of life. Subculture is a kind of culture, which occupies the secondary position of society, and is a non-shared culture based on the value criterion of some people. Subculture, opposite to the mainstream culture advocates a departure from the norms of culture which is recognized by the social community. So it can be called “anti culture”, that is, transgressive culture (Yazdiha, 2010). Because transgressive culture has the nature of the counterculture, it tends to promote the spirit of the factors of deviant behavior or criminal acts of some people, which has been very prominent in the small deviant groups and criminal gangs. So some scholars call transgressive culture as “delinquent culture”.
 
Portland Street Blues (Chinese name: 古惑仔情义篇之洪兴十三妹), which is a famous, well-known, traditional movie in 1998 in Hong Kong. The film is a spin-off of the “Young and Dangerous” series of films. “Young and Dangerous” series of films, photographed in 1998, has gradually entered the trough. With the return of Hong kong, assertive gang culture began to become a low-key and subtle. However, it was the year when the “Young and Dangerous” whirlwind blowing exuberantly for three “Young and Dangerous” published works - the biography Enter the Dragon, the Prequel and the side story Portland Street Blues. As the rumored story, Portland Street Blues interprets the triad world from the perspective of a female. Of course, it will be quite different from the perspective of a male. In this film, Sandra Ng, the Hong Kong actress’s acting was so superb that people were deeply impressed by the performance. 
 
The actress who played 13 mui is a famous actress in Hong Kong cinema. Her nickname is Sangu. She was born in August 2ed in 1965 in Hong Kong with a native of Guangdong Panyu. Because of the film, the actress Sandra Ng and Shu Qi were awarded Hong Kong Film Award for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress award in 1999. This is a structured drama with coherent plots. In the film, the director Ye Weimin has showed his excellent skills and made the film exciting and enjoyable. The film not only represents the unknown bitterness of life of the underlying citizens in Hong Kong, but also the irony and sarcasm to profit people and the frustration and sadness of love. In addition to the protagonist of the film Sandra Ng, a lot of the actors’ play comes to a very high standard under the guidance of the director. Their performance is inspirational and all images are portrayed vivid. In the continuation of Young and Dangerous series to carry forward the mainstream values of the brotherhood, Portland Street Blues has a deeper mining and interpretation.
 
This film is focus on a female character – 13 mui, and she is one of the triad members called Hung Hing in Hong Kong triad society. The script is based on the popular comic book series named “Teddy Boy”. According to the website of Cambridge Dictionaries, “Teddy boy” means “a young man, especially in the 1950s in the UK, who typically dressed in narrow trousers, a long, loose jacket, and shoes with thick soles”. The Starring actors in this movie mostly copied the chic from UK, especially the “manners”. 
 
Portland Street Blues, in this film, showed a lot of real images of triad society and they dominated by man. The men especially the teenagers in groups would venerate a big brother as a symbolic figure and work for him. This sequel movie has a contrast to the other Young and Dangerous films with more female characters development. This time, the story is focus on a female as a triad member. For the synopsis, which mentioned online, “The film tells the story of how she faces trials and tribulations of rising to become the branch leader of Portland Street. The story shows the reasons she became a lesbian. The film also gives more details about the "Tung Sing" triad, and how the relationship between 13 mui and Ben Hon develops.
 
Between Zhang Meirun and 13 mui, as well as 13 mui and her women lovers, from the surface, 13mui is a real lesbian. She appears with a black suit and a short haircut, smoking a cigarette with several girls in her arms and snatches domains with men. Although this movie can’t hide the fact that “Teddy Boy” is male chauvinism of the drama, 13mui still reflects the strong domineering and lonely. Zhang Meirun and 13 mui go everywhere together. Every corner of Portland Street has left their footprints. For 13 mui, the feeling to Zhang Meirun is that nothing to prevent the organic whole heart heartless trust before Ke Le has intervened their feelings, But for Zhang Meirun is not only such feeling, it is more like same-sex love which is not easy to be aware of. 13miu is naïve and outgoing, and female intimacy is often regarded as the feeling of friendship and others reported to sympathy and understanding, which is difficult to detect. After many years, Zhang Meirun has become famous star in Taiwan, and she runs return to Porland Street, at the same time, 13 mui has been the big head there. They relieve the friendship in the past. Zhang Meirun tells 13 mui that she loves her for years. Li Jin defines the "lesbian" in the cultural connotation of the lesbian discourse in Chinese language movies, alleges this category contains two aspects: “one is the pure ‘lesbian’, specifically to women on women's erotic tendencies, especially some same-sex intimacy and sex; the other is "gay social relations", sisterhood, women's alliance, such as mutual support between friendly feelings, is focused on the women's power and close friendship groups and areas of space.” Due to 13 mui is actually a "pseudo lesbian" (she became the big head of Porland Street, and treat other women with the intimacy, whose motivation is distrust of men and direct reason is Ke Le's sudden departure), The love between Zhang Meirun and 13 mui cannot be materialize, so their feelings is only between lesbian and “gay social relations” (Butler & Judith, 1990). Freud once said: "the lesbian, though not so bright, certainly not less than men". 
 
From 13 mui’s "father" image deletion, emotional frustration the two angles, this movie reasonably explains why she didn't accept the gender mainstream discipline, making the process of her psychology and sexual orientation change authentic. In the body expression on lesbian T gender, the author Zhao Ran discusses: “Physical gender is different from physiological gender, emphasizing gender as a social construct and not from the physiological differences between men and women produce, but caused by society and culture” (Salih, 2004). Through a whole set of gender systems and mechanisms in society, the individuals learns that the acquisition of male or female gender characteristics, gender norms, the performance of the requirements of social norms consistent with the characteristics of men or women (Salih, 2004). The discipline of social gender has begun from birth, and continues to shape people's thinking and behavior, to be fixed in the gender position." In Porland Street such a porn industry developed place, external and internal factors from all aspects of the role, 13 mui gradually change in lesbian sex of "T" -- since she was born, there is no woman in her life. Her father does not have the ability to play the role of protector, and finally died for saving her daughter. Traditional mechanism of social gender difference does not make sense in 13 mui’s life. On the contrary, sex discipline drives her one step one step toward strong transformation, because this is the only way for her to survival and revenge. Ke Le leaves her without telling, while in the movie confessions of 13 mui voiceover pointed out: "probably because from my mom died, so I didn't know to get along with the woman. Later, I gradually like women more than men, but I only know the surface rather than what's inside." It can be concluded that the 13 mui is not a real lesbian, but the the life experience influences.


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