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美国文化类论文作业指导:制定国家文化“软实力”Cultural "soft power" of the developm

论文价格: 免费 时间:2013-10-14 14:44:24 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

Peace and development are the two main themes of today's world , the world has actively pursued this strategy development opportunities continue to enhance the comprehensive national strength, and enhance political, economic, cultural and other areas of the world competitiveness. United States since the reform and opening up , the national economy has achieved rapid development, on this basis, transportation, urban construction and other major projects have been groundbreaking basic , defense weapons and equipment replacement , army combat rising standards . The state's "hard power" level of development of newer U.S. inception has been a qualitative leap. But the United States 'soft power' low level of construction has long been valued relative to Europe, America and other developed countries in terms of a late start . Early 1990s • American scholar Joseph Nye first proposed the " soft power " concept, in Western scholarship has aroused strong repercussions. 2004 Chennai in his writings "soft power - success of world politics " in the "soft power" to make a further specification , he proposed "soft power through attraction rather than coercion or the means to buy up to himself wished ability it stems from a country's culture , political ideas and policies attractive . "[ZW (] Joseph Nye • soft power - world politics success [M]. Wu Xiaohui , Qian Cheng , translated. Shanghai : Oriental Press, 2005 ( 2 ) .和平与进展是当今世界的两大正题,世界各国正积极利用这一战略进展机会期不断加强综合国力,提高政治、经济、文化等各领域的世界竞争力。美国自改革开放以来,国民经济获得了进展迅速的进展,在此基础上交通运送、城市建设等重大基础性工程纷纷动土兴工,国防武器装备更新换代,武装部队作战力水准不断提高。[ZW)] Chennai is regarded as the cultural "soft power" of the most important sources of that culture can be a political, military par , the country can play a huge role in the development of policies and factors that reflect the cultural as a kind of " soft power" special status.奈把文化当做是“软实在的力量”最关紧的出处之一,觉得文化是一种可以和政治、军事等量齐观的,可以对国度的政策和进展起很大效用的因素,表现出来了文化作为一种“软实在的力量”的特别地位。
In recent years , as the U.S. continues to increase overall strength , rising international status , the United States in the world, multilateral cooperation in various fields and consultations gradually occupy an important position . For a time , the world set off to learn the language and culture of the American boom , people are eager to deeper understanding of a variety of ways the United States. American cultural "soft power" in this process has been continually improved and enhanced the overall strength of the United States has played an important role in promoting. However, although the United States has five years of splendid civilization and rich cultural heritage, but its cultural "soft power " of the development has not yet reached the desired level . Therefore, although the United States is a country of culture , but not the cultural power . Here I will present American culture "soft power" of the development status, as well as how to further enhance American culture "soft power" developed elaborate.

 

An American cultural "soft power" development achievements

 

Culture is the soul of a nation , a country 's identity. The United States is one of the world's four ancient civilizations , has a rich cultural resources , historically, has been occupying an important position , had a profound impact on the world . Due to the recent war caused by its own strength of American culture and influence fell to the bottom. New era, we set sail again , relying on cultural treasures left by our ancestors , combined with the country's development, so big cultural soft strength has improved.
First, the development of cultural industries to become " a new bright spot ."
Cultural industry is the culture from the invisible to the visible , from ideology to form a kind of economic transformation . Market continues to boom in the cultural context , the cultural industry is increasingly becoming an important emerging industries, the proportion in the national economy is also growing . With the progress of American society , people 's constant pursuit of spiritual life , the National for entertainment , leisure and other aspects of cultural consumption expenditure is also growing , which gives the development of cultural industries provides an unprecedented opportunity.
American cultural industry despite a late start , but in recent years has made great strides. Ministry of Culture released the latest data show that the " Eleventh Five-Year " period, operating expenses increased year by year the American culture , the growth rate remained at 18% or more of the higher level. " Eleventh Five-Year " four years ago , the national cultural levies of 89.735 billion yuan , an average annual increase of 21.6%. [ZW (] official website of the Ministry of Culture , the U.S. domestic box office ( excluding rural areas ) Total revenue exceeded 100 billion yuan, while the " Tangshan Earthquake" is to create a 673 million yuan of the highest grossing domestic film new record in 2010, the United States has 47 domestic films sold to 61 countries and regions, overseas box office and sales revenue reached 3.517 billion yuan . [ZW (] American movie Network ) ] broke the long-standing U.S. market share of foreign blockbusters main and not to the world of American movies impasse . Meanwhile, a large number of very American cultural performances featuring not only in the country by the majority of the audience's praise , but also in foreign countries was a great success, such as deaf dance "Thousand-hand Bodhisattva" , Chinese martial arts , acrobatics and art .
It is worth mentioning that in recent years , the state of development of cultural undertakings have also made ​​considerable efforts to appropriately relaxed environment for the development of cultural industries , financial support , effective intellectual property protection policies , which are for the cultural industry rapid development has provided favorable conditions. At present, the cultural industry has become competitive foreign exchange and American culture in an effective weapon , we must make good use of , play well , making the overall strength of the overall growth in the United States a "new bright spot ."


Second, the cultural values ​​gradually recognized.

 

Cultural values ​​is a common national culture values, is a national of national cultural identity value generated and psychological attribution , no country can not leave the country and national cultural values ​​and independent existence , it is the national cohesion, the core attraction and expansion force .

American cultural values ​​of traditional culture from the United States , caring , honest, good deeds which are its main content, and deeply rooted in the national culture among various things outside now . The new era , the United States made ​​further develop cultural values ​​, has been given a new meaning , which stems from traditional American culture, " and for your " thinking. This concept from the previous purely cultural meaning slowly integrated into all aspects of social life , "harmonious society" and "harmonious home" has become a topic closely related with people . 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the 2010 Shanghai World Expo was successfully held , but also provided an opportunity for the U.S. to understand the world , but also let the world know America's best platform. Different regions from around the world , different cultures Meeting with this , the full integration and coordination. In the international arena , the Western world advocate of democracy , rule of law values, long a dominant position , the United States proposed a "harmonious world" concept has become a universal American cultural values ​​in the best embodiment , it allows people to understand that the U.S. concept of harmony and in the world had a strong recognition of the value .
 

Third, the " responsible power " won the hearts of international image .

 

International image of a country 's foreign exchange business cards, is a measure of an important indicator of national influence . New American inception, the international image of the United States to the world has always been friendly , the image of a responsible big country , which is the essence of American culture "virtue of the Road" are inseparable. America 's " peaceful coexistence " between the countries to deal with the problem provides a basic code of conduct ; U.S. long-term assistance to countries in the Third World , won the praise of the people of the Third World ; United States in dealing with international affairs, uphold foreign policy of peace and friendship , but also won the praise and respect for countries around the world . The real image of the project completely changed the old American " bullied " the international situation, the United States is a "responsible power" image has been widely recognized.
In recent years, individual western media for the rapid development of the United States published a number of false reports , "American threat" , "demonized America" ​​heard loud and clear , the United States and other countries attempt to interfere with the normal exchanges . 2008 and 2009 occurred in Tibet and Xinjiang vandalism burning violent crimes , but also to some Western **** forces an opportunity to exploit vigorously exaggerated and rendering U.S. internal conflicts , to the world in order to mislead , serious damage America's international image. It is the lack of theoretical and factual basis , and it is unacceptable to the American people . We frankly face the various sounds at the same time , for some extreme untrue should be timely and appropriate response , reduce its negative impact for the international community to provide a true voice , to convey a kind of fact truth , for the United States to provide support for the country's image .
American culture "soft power" problems in the development
In recent years , with the continuous economic development and social progress, America's cultural soft power upgrade soon . But in this process, because the United States in this regard started late, foundation is weak, with little experience , there are also some issues worthy of our attention.
First, the cultural resources are not fully utilized.
American culture rich and profound . China five thousand years of civilization gave birth to a large number of cultural crystallization , such as Wisdom and Faith 's moral philosophy, poetry and painting artistic talents , the four great inventions is to make the world marvel . However, the fact of the situation is : people gradually recall "moral" , the traditional cultural festivals by less attention. Although the United States has so many outstanding cultural achievements , but they did not take these cultural resources into a strong culture of competitiveness.
First, there is the importance of cultural resources is not enough. Vigorously led the country 's economic development , people 's attention on the cultural development decreased the culture is a "soft power" clearly insufficient understanding . This leads to a large number of outstanding cultural resources have been ignored by our subjective , potential cultural soft power has not been excavated . Second, some other factors, is injected cultural products , reducing the quality of its own . Many cultural products are running a massive injection of commercial factors , the loss of their superior resources , the result will compete in a passive position. Finally, the operation of the market is not standardized culture . Such as cultural product piracy seriously , vulgar unhealthy products flooding the market , etc., to regulate the good of our culture market, in order for the cultural resources into cultural competitiveness to provide favorable conditions .
Second, the cultural deficit is serious.
Cultural deficit , refers to the American cultural exports than imports , the U.S. foreign cultural exchange and dissemination of existence "deficit " phenomenon. For many years, the U.S. import and export trade books about 10 :  1 deficit , the export of books is mainly sold in some Asian countries and the United States from Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan , Europe and America face a deficit amounted to 100 :  1 above . Television Arts has a similar situation . According to the Beijing performances Industry Association statistics, in 2008 China 's Beijing show the number of arts organizations and in 2007 , a decrease of 1.56% , but on the contrary , foreign troupes in Beijing increased 36.3% in the number of performances . [ZW (] perform in Beijing Industry Association official website ) ] exports to the United States described as rare films released abroad , and foreign use of U.S. cultural elements made ​​into a movie in the U.S. market, but earn pours , "Mulan ," " Kung Fu Panda " is the best example .
It is obvious that the United States in cultural trade this one there is a serious "cultural deficit ", which had to let us worry . In fact, in the United States profound culture nurtured , there are many many outstanding cultural and artistic products, however, and the traditional culture of different ethnic backgrounds and cultural differences of the foreign cultural exchanges and competition to the United States caused a huge obstacle , making our culture does not occupy a favorable conditions , did not play it with potential.、

 

Third, lack of cultural talents , less competitive.

 

In the American culture of foreign exchange in the process, the lack of talent is the professional culture we face a big problem. Now the U.S. cultural soft power is not strong enough a reason , not that we lack the formation of soft power and cultural resources , but we do not understand the overseas cultural exchange needs of the audience , do not understand the international cultural market demand, weak in the use of international experience and practices to spread American culture. Famous American artists Kingman that we need not only a first-class cultural products , we also need a group to understand Chinese culture and understanding of the world cultural market , good market planning and operation of international cultural brokers. We believe that a good many cultural products because of the lack of market -oriented operation, without causing repercussions even in overseas short shrift . The lack of cultural broker American culture to the world has become a serious constraint . Therefore, great efforts to strengthen the training of professional and cultural development of American culture a priority .

 to enhance American culture "soft power" Suggestions
For American culture "soft power" in the development of the existing problems , if not timely attention and improvement , is bound to affect the U.S. cultural "soft power" of the overall development , thereby affecting the entire comprehensive national strength improved. Thus, to take the necessary measures to enhance America's cultural "soft power " level is imperative.

First, the national spirit is to enhance American culture "soft power" inherent power .
The United States is a multi- ethnic country , ethnic brothers and sisters in this family solidarity, harmony , co- bred a unique American ethos . The party's congress meeting, the interpretation of the spirit of the Chinese nation , with patriotism as the core, unity , peace-loving , industrious and brave , self-improvement , etc., as a concrete manifestation of a spirit. It was on such a national spirit, American culture today will get a good career development prospects for American cultural "soft power" to enhance a powerful spiritual force . At the same time , we should recognize that not only contains the national spirit of progress , positive , progressive , and include backward , negative, retrogressive . American culture in the development of "soft power" in the process, we should vigorously carry forward the national spirit and advocacy excellent , positive tradition , abandon those with superstition , fun low-level , in violation of the law of social development and scientific undesirable components , so that the national spirit can truly enhance the cultural "soft power" in the process to play its due role.

Second, to build national brand is to enhance American culture "soft power ," a powerful weapon.
The United States is an ancient civilization with five thousand years of history , its vast Bo deep culture is the crystallization of the Chinese nation for thousands of years of civilization , has great vitality and creativity. However, with the national ideological and cultural exchanges in the international arena and competition, Hollywood movies, drama filled with our eyes , KFC , NIKE, " Japan and South Korea flow" as the younger generation an indispensable part of life . Powerful offensive face of foreign cultures , to build part of our nation , our country 's brand is particularly important, we should vigorously explore American culture among the outstanding factor , the use of national resources, combined with its increasingly sophisticated industrial development model , launched a strong nation brand , and strive to reduce the deficit and cultural phenomenon , the real from the "introduction " to " go out" , from the " Made in USA " to " created in the U.S. " change.

Third , the development of talent education is to enhance the soft power of American culture, a solid foundation .
After the establishment of the new U.S. national to develop basic education, national cultural level has been greatly improved , to meet basic needs, while more people began to seek artistic and deeper exchanges, cultural and arts education getting into families, and the formation of the "Hundred Flowers " situation. Currently, the U.S. from primary education to higher education have opened the field of culture and art -related courses , and also set up a special art school training professional theatrical talent. In private, people love the arts and culture is integrated into everyday life, become an integral part of life content. These are attractive to American culture , and also the cause of prosperity and reinforce the foundation of American culture . Visible, cultural talents of American culture 's long-term development, and enhancing cultural "soft power" level to provide a reserve army .
 
Fourthly, cultural diplomacy is to enhance American culture "soft power" an important channel .
American cultural "soft power" to gain advantage in international competition , cultural diplomacy plays an important role. From ancient times, the U.S. experience in cultural diplomacy is very rich . In ancient times the Han Dynasty , Zheng He 's seven voyages , Jianzhen Japan, now have "ping pong diplomacy" , Sino-foreign cultural exchanges , these are for the dissemination of American culture has played a positive role in expanding the world of American culture influence. In addition, the American cultural diplomacy and cultural exchanges with other countries and cultures to build a platform . In recent years, the United States and around the world a lot of cultural exchanges and friendly cooperation . United States and the world more than 100 countries maintain different forms of cultural exchanges , with thousands of foreign and international cultural organizations have a variety of forms of contact ; American theater , folk music performances worldwide success , are in hot pursuit ; American students throughout the world , or with international students from all over the cultural exchange of ideas , all of the United States to show the world the richness of outstanding cultural and artistic charm, absorb and learn from the world for the outstanding culture , prosperity, American culture , producing a profound role as the United States and other countries to promote and consolidate friendship important means.#p#分

 

Conclusions

 

You can clearly see the American culture "soft power" has experienced a gradual development from start-up to the process, and its international status and influence in this process has been continually improved. But overall, American Culture "soft power" of development is still in its initial infancy, there are still many issues that need to be resolved. Achieved certain results in the current basis , we should firmly seize this rare development opportunities, formulate development plans for our national conditions , heritage national spirit , to create a national brand , to develop traditional culture and education . Meanwhile, foreign exchange and actively participate in cultural activities , and actively implemented equality and mutual benefit , friendly cultural diplomacy policies to promote the national cultural "soft power" construction to achieve rapid and healthy development .

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