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广告的解释 Advertising Explained-美国市场营销留学作业

时间:2017-02-16 18:56来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
广告的解释 Advertising Explained
 
广告无疑是一个宽泛的话题,这是一个营销人员做的最重要的决定。广告是商品或服务的销售和营销的最熟练的和最经济的帮助。广告是以书面或口头的形式,打算出售东西,并想赚取收入。广告包括所有主要的通信介质包括:电视、报纸、广播、杂志、互联网、电影和广告牌,这是通过发送消息。电视是最常见的媒体,因为它覆盖大,但同时它是非常昂贵的。广告一般是针对消费者的怀旧谁正在从事某些类型的广告,营销的目的是创造意识和品牌/产品在消费者心目中后来回忆和识别。有时当你看广告,你会很容易想起它可能是你的潜意识或因为名人或背景音乐吸引你,有时你不能记得你所看到的只是几分钟前。广告的目的可能是改变顾客的思维定势。广告有很大的作用的时候,有个坏名声,已经失去了他/她的客户可以利用广告让他们回到商业。因此,广告不仅提供关于产品或服务信息,但也造成了消费者心目中的产品/服务意识和识别中起着核心的作用。
 
1. Introduction 简介
Advertising no doubt is a broad topic (lyer, Soberman, and Villas-Boas, 2005) it is one of the most important decisions that marketers make. Burd (1959) Advertising is one of the most proficient and the most economical aid in the distribution and marketing of merchandise or service. Advertising is either in written or oral form, which intends to sell something and want to earn revenue. Jayasinghi & Ritson (2008) Advertising includes all major communication mediums which include: television, newspapers, radio, magazines, the Internet, movies, and billboards through which that message is transmitted. Television is the most common medium as it covers large but at the same time it is very costly. Advertising is generally aimed at consumer reminiscence who is being engaged with certain type of ads where the purpose of marketers is to create awareness and Brand/ Product recall and recognition later in consumer minds. Sometimes when you look at advertisement you will easily recall it may be it is in your subconscious mind or because of the celebrity or the background music that appeals you and sometimes you won’t be able to recall what you have seen just few minutes ago (Obermiller, Spangenberg, 2005; MacLauchlan, 2005.). An advertising objective may be to change the mind-set of the customers. Advertising has a great role when a business that has a bad reputation and has lost his/her customers can use advertising to get them back (Burd,1959). Pechpeyrou & Odou (2012) hence, Advertising plays a central role in not only providing information about the product or service but also creating awareness and recognition of the product/service in consumer mind.
 
Types & Purpose of Advertising 广告的种类与用途
McDaniel, 1986. Advertising has many forms; few of them are given below. However for the purpose of thesis the focus will be on consumer advertising.
 
Consumer Advertising 
 
It is a type of advertising that targeted at end consumers. All the offering and services are for the end consumers. Consumer advertising includes common commodities and what we usually find around us is all what comes under consumer advertising. The major aim of consumer advertising is to create awareness of brands and products that are of consumer use. In such sort of advertising emotional and rational appeal plays a vital role.
 
Trade Advertising
 
Trade advertising is also known as business/ professional advertising. This type of advertisement is not for consumers but for all those who influence the consumer like distributors, resellers or businesses. Medium for such sort of advertising is professional magazines and direct mail which do not involve end consumers.
 
Product Advertising
 
This sort of advertising communicates the promotion of the product. They push the consumers to purchase the product. Its major aim is to create brand awareness. Once awareness is created people tend to buy their product.
 
Non-Product Advertising
 
Non-product related advertisings includes surrogate advertising in it. Non product advertising depicts an idea or a cause.
 
Short term and long Term Advertising
 
There are two types of advertising one is short term and other is long term. The short term advertising has a direct impact on the product sales. Its aim is to increase sales, maximize revenues and create awareness. On the other hand the long term advertising focuses to maintain long term relations and customer loyalty.
 
Consumer Skepticism: 消费者的怀疑:
 
Definition of skepticism revolves around the questioning of the attitude towards the knowledge and opinion. Skepticism towards advertising is the distrust of advertising claims or promises and signifies a general market place that varies across persons. Hardesty, Carlson, 2002; Bearden 2002.
 
The effect that consumer skepticism has on advertising can be figure out through consumer response. Brands need to overcome massive stages of skepticism for consumers. In our society there prevails lot of mistrust and loyalty. Consumers can learn a lot from advertising and marketing. Skeptic consumers are quite unsatisfied hence research recommends that delivering enough information to consumers will lead to building trust and satisfaction, once that trust is created it will results in increase sales and profitability. Obermiller, Spangenberg 2005; MacLachlan 2005.
 
Milk Industry
 
Pakistan is the fifth largest milk producer. Pakistan dairy industry is one of the most vital sectors that is contributing almost 11 percent into the GDP. Dairy industry is swayed by number of factors that are size, growth and profitability. (Dawn newspaper; 2014). According to live stock census 2007, almost 80 percent of the milk is taken from the rural areas. Only 3-5 percent of the milk is marketed and distributed formally. 97 percent of the milk produced in Pakistan is distributed in loose form (Jalil, Sial and Hussain, 2009) .The role of livestock in the rural economy is very critical as farmers and villagers consume loose milk. They don’t prefer milk that is packaged. Whereas in urban areas people consume loose milk as well as packaged milk. Packaged milk has made the life of urban people easier as they are busy in their work so this packaged milk reduces the time of hassle to boil and utilize it. Buffaloes are considered to be the main animal in Pakistan that accounts for 75 percent of milk. Milk sources are cows, buffaloes and goats and the types of milk available is standardized, homogenized and skimmed. Milk is used for many purposes that is drinking, tea, desi ghee, yogurt, butter and in the making of many sweet dishes. As the inflation is increasing rapidly hence the milk prices are also raising quickly. In a very short span milk prices has shown a rapid increase of 25 percent. As the people are becoming aware of processed and packaged milk they are buying them and are not consuming loose milk that is delivered by gawallas.
 
Milk and its foodstuffs provide almost one third of world’s intake of animal protein. Milk and its foodstuffs represent almost 27 percent of total family expenditures on foodstuff in Pakistan. Milk Per capita availability is 82.4 kg per annum in Pakistan. During 1999-2000 roughly 80 thousand tons of dry milk that is PKR 1213.5 million was imported to Pakistan in order to meet local demands of milk. (FAO, 1998).
 
Pakistan dairy industry is in trouble now a days because of lack of commercial dairy farms, lack of dairy knowledge and due to lack of financial resources. In rural areas very few shopkeepers have facility of refrigeration. The containers that are used for transportation are very unhygienic. Almost 90 percent and above population consumes loose milk and hence the demand of loose milk is higher than the packaged milk. Also because of inflation and poverty level people are quite conscious about prices. (Jalil, Sial and Hussain, 2009) Packaged milk is in demand widely. [1]Mostly packaged milk is used in homes and powder dry milk is used in offices for the purpose of making tea.
 
Nestle:
 
Nestle is one of the largest food and nutrition company in the world. Nestle is derived from the Swiss German word which means little nest. It is the fifth largest company in the world. Currently it is present in more than 88 countries and has more than 522 factories. More than 700 products are produced under the umbrella brand of Nestle. Nestle was established in 1867 by Henri Nestle. Different brands of Nestle are Baby foods, Bottled water, Cereals, Chocolates and confectionaries, Coffee, Ambient dairy, Chilled Dairy, Drinks, Health care nutrition, Culinary and food, Ice cream, Pet care, Sports nutrition and Wealth management. Nestle is a world renowned company.
 
The company is taking milk from number of farmers and then process it further. Nestle Everyday is made from pure fresh milk sugar and Lecithin.
 
In 2011 the company has sourced more than 7.2 million tons of fresh milk from different milk districts in 31 countries widely. The company basically deals in food products as the logo states that “Good food, Good life “.


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