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代写美国作业:American agriculture

时间:2018-11-07 15:58:12 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:3
导读:这是一篇美国作业范文,讨论了美国农业。作为一个发展保护性耕作多年的国家,美国仍然在广泛而深入地开展试验研究,为进一步发挥保护性耕作的潜力而努力,他们的不少经验和做法值得我们借鉴与思考。美国农业发达的国家,长期的农业自由贸易,促进了农业的飞速发展,并积累了大量先进的科学技术的致富经验。农场主要在市场的要求下,生产出市场所需要的产品,营销公司将农场的产品加工后推向市场,消费者最后买到的是最适合自己消费习惯的农产品,正是这种良性的生产、销售体系使农业生产进入到了良性循环之中。
 
As a country that has developed conservation tillage for many years, the United States is still carrying out extensive and in-depth experimental research to further realize the potential of conservation tillage.
作为一个多年来开展保护性耕作的国家,美国仍在进行广泛而深入的实验研究,以进一步发挥保护性耕作的潜力。
New ideas on the best conservation tillage scheme are put forward. At the annual conference of agricultural engineering, American scholars proposed that the best mode of conservation tillage suitable for the United States is not no tillage, but deep pine and large amount of straw mulch. They argue that 30 percent of the crop is not covered enough, and that more than 70 percent or even 100 percent of the crop should be covered to give full play to the benefits of conservation tillage. The function of covering is more important than that of no-tillage. It is believed that deep pine is beneficial for rainfall infiltration, erosion reduction and water storage, and has obvious effects on dry farming. Another reason for the emphasis on deep pines in the United States is that the trampling and need to become loose during the winter and spring when livestock graze on the ground.
提出了最佳保护性耕作方案的新思路。在农业工程年会上,美国学者提出,适合美国的最佳保护性耕作方式不是免耕,而是深松和大量的秸秆覆盖。他们认为,30%的作物没有得到足够的覆盖,应该覆盖超过70%甚至100%的作物,以充分发挥保护性耕作的优势。覆盖功能比免耕更重要。认为,深松有利于降雨入渗,减少侵蚀和蓄水,对旱作农业具有明显的效果。在美国强调深松的另一个原因是,在冬季和春季牲畜在地上吃草时,践踏和需要变得松散。
We will vigorously develop covered crops. A one-year crop called ryegrass, which covers farms across Indiana in the winter, is not herbage, but a protective farming system. Covering crops has become an important part of America's efforts to improve conservation tillage systems.
 
Quantitative study of drought resistance. In auburn, Alabama, for more than 100 years, conventional and conservation tillage on each side of the plot was found to be less than half a metre high for conventional maize and more than a metre high for conservation tillage. Some plots of conservation tillage and traditional crops are dry. The purpose of the experiment is to let farmers know that conservation and conservation tillage can improve drought resistance, but it is also limited. For example, during the drought in this county, farmers can survive for about 3 weeks longer. Some experimental stations are studying the drought resistance of conservation tillage quantitatively, which can be used as reference for farmers' production decisions.
 
Pay attention to the conservation tillage system research Georgia experiment stations, a report said the local farmers would not cover crops, because of the need to spending the extra cost, but with cattle, cattle can eat spring cover crops, income more than the cost of planting cover crops, conservation tillage with cattle in the local development direction. More papers suggest that conservation tillage should become an integrated production system, combining farming, crop mulching, crop rotation, and pest control techniques.
 
Six scientists at the U.S. department of agriculture's research station in auburn, Alabama, have spent more than $3 million a year studying conservation tillage for nearly a decade, according to the chief scientist. At two of the meetings, American scientists presented papers on conservation tillage, mostly project findings. This is a far cry from the notion that conservation farming in the United States has been going on for decades, and is now primarily applied. Conservation tillage, it seems, is a technology that is constantly being enriched and developed. It is far from being realized. Conservation tillage is developing in the same way around the world, with new conservation tillage patterns, techniques, tools and benefits being reported.
 
Some American scientists question the growth of conservation tillage in the United States, arguing that it has been slow in recent years, especially with no tillage. It is much lower than South American countries such as Brazil and Argentina. As the first country to carry out conservation tillage, the area of no-till till now is still around 20%, while the area of conservation tillage is still around 60%.
 
They argue that the lack of state-level planning, guidance and promotion may be an important reason. Although there is a national conservation technical information center in Indiana, there are only four employees. Another reason is that experts' voices are inconsistent. Some say that increasing production, others say decreasing production, some say that no tillage is good and some say no tillage is not good, which may have some influence on farmers' decision-making.
 
The United States is a country with advanced agriculture. Long-term free trade in agriculture has promoted the rapid development of agriculture and accumulated rich experience of advanced science and technology.
 
In the United States, large quantities of agricultural products are available to consumers quickly, as producers, have their own way.
 
The fresh oranges from the trees were covered with dust and uneven. After processing plant, change, smooth and attractive, uniform and neat, has become a qualified commodity. This has to go through cleaning, corrosion, waxing and other processes. This is naturally much more expensive than the fruit that comes from the trees and goes to market. The quality is high, of course, and the price is good. This is the advantage of deeper processing and higher added value, real income increased.
 
In fact, from another point of view to increase income, the production of processed agricultural products is also much higher. The loss of processed fruits and vegetables can be controlled within 5%, otherwise the loss may be about 20% to 30%.
 
Deep processing, not only in the vegetable and fruit preservation technology, but also in the development and utilization of some agricultural products. Take ma ling rong as an example: the price of potato fresh sales is 1 kg of l yuan; Processed frozen fries can reach 15 to 25 yuan a kilogram, up 15 times in value. If further processed into French fries, a kilo can be sold for 40 yuan, a gain of 30 times.
 
In the United States, agricultural production tends to be concentrated in one region, such as the citrus belt, and citrus is grown in several hundred kilometers. If it's a vegetable belt, there are hundreds of farms around. It's easy to think about the question of whether such a large farm in the United States, with such a high yield, would lead to low prices for agricultural products because of the concentration of the market.
 
In fact, as long as a reasonable product system can overcome this problem. The reasonable product system mainly includes: the service of the whole process of agricultural means of production; Post-harvest processing, storage and transportation services; Technical guidance service; Market information service; Sales services; The entire agricultural product circulation service. In California, for example, 70% of the total agricultural production is after delivery, while only about 30% is before production and harvest. After a farm finishes picking, a professional company will be responsible for your sales. Although farmers invest more after giving birth, the returns are comparable and the risk rate can be said to be zero.
 
The farm produces the products required by the market mainly under the requirements of the market. The marketing company pushes the farm products to the market after processing, and the consumers finally buy the agricultural products most suitable for their consumption habits. It is this kind of benign production and sales system that makes agricultural production enter a virtuous cycle.
 
The American almond society is a successful example of agricultural industrialization. More than 200 years after its founding, the society has matured and perfected itself, and now it's no longer a simple farm to grow and manage, but to think about how to effectively sell almonds across the region to the world. As a member, farmers can earn considerable gains simply by concentrating on increasing their output while ensuring quality.
 
In many supermarkets in Europe and the United States, agricultural products storage and transportation companies and wholesale markets can be seen everywhere with the words "organic food". Organic food has become a natural and healthy choice for many consumers in Europe and the United States.
 
Before organic food enters the market, must pass the strict examination of certification authority, just can obtain the certification that is qualified to use organic food standard. With this label, the average selling price of such vegetables and fruits can be increased by 25 to 35 percent, but as producers of organic farms, they must produce according to strict production requirements, all of which are guided by the instruction manual. Because it is grown organically, not only do the fruits and vegetables taste good, but they are also resistant to storage.#p#分页标题#e#
 
The United States has a specialized organic farming association, whose members are organic farmers. Starting an organic farm takes at least three years, from application to final certification. After the farm's application, the organic society organizes a committee to evaluate whether the farm's location, soil and water resources are suitable for organic food production. During the transition period from conventional production to organic planting, the commission shall inspect the products twice a year, including production site, purchase record of agricultural materials and sales record. All the inspection shall be passed before being accepted as a member of the association and qualified to use the label of "organic" in fruits and vegetables produced by the farm. After becoming a member, the annual inspection is needed once a year. Only through the annual inspection can the continuous production of organic food.
 
It's not easy to get the name "organic." it's under this rigorous testing system that the quality of organic food is guaranteed. Strictly speaking, the green food produced in China cannot be compared with organic food, because there are some differences in the production link. Thus, green food grade A and AA came into being, and AA was the organic food in A complete sense.



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