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Final Essay on MLK’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail

时间:2019-06-12 14:04来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
在伯明翰监狱,马丁·路德·金博士作为反对种族隔离的非暴力示威的参与者被监禁,他写了这封信,表达了他对南美洲白人宗教领袖发表的公开关注声明的回应。正如你所看到的,任何地方的不公正都是对正义的威胁。在没有坚决的法律和非暴力压力的情况下,黑人在公民权利方面并没有取得任何单独的利益,尽管他在监狱里,但他并没有放弃在黑人权利和法律正义方面的斗争。马丁·路德·金博士说,伯明翰严重隔离的非暴力直接行动计划不会因为不公正和监禁而停止。
From the Birmingham jail, where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was imprisoned as a participant in nonviolent demonstrations against segregation,  he wrote this letter expressing his response to a public statement of concern  issued by the white religious leaders from south America. As you can see that injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Negroes have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure.Although he was in prison, he was not gave up his struggling on Negro’s rights and justice in law. Dr. Martin Luther King stated that the nonviolent direct-action program in the heavily segregated Birmingham will not stop because of the injustice and his imprisonment.
Martin Luther King would like to answer the letters from Church  in what he hopes will be patient and reasonable terms.马丁·路德·金希望教会的信能有耐心和合理的回答。
Injustice is everywhere. Privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily.不公正无处不在。特权群体很少自愿放弃特权。
The writing is about the struggling for the justice in law and racial equality of the Negroes in American through the nonviolent direct-action program.这篇文章是关于通过非暴力直接行动计划为法律公正和美国黑人种族平等而战的。
Final Essay on MLK’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail. As you can see that injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. Although he was in prison, he was not gave up his struggling on Negro’s rights and justice in law. Dr. Martin Luther King stated that the nonviolent direct-action program in the heavily segregated Birmingham will not stop.最后一篇关于MLK来自伯明翰监狱的信。正如你所看到的,任何地方的不公正都是对正义的威胁。虽然他在监狱里,但他并没有放弃对黑人权利和法律公正的斗争。马丁·路德·金博士说,在高度隔离的伯明翰,非暴力直接行动计划不会停止。
Dr. Martin Luther King stated that the nonviolent direct-action program in the heavily segregated Birmingham will not stop because of the injustice and his imprisonment.
we find it difficult to wait. The urge for freedom will eventually come. This is what has happened to the American Negro.
Millions of Negroes, out of frustration and despair, will seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies, a development that will lead inevitably to a frightening racial nightmare. 
History shows fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture. So the current situation the author dealing with now is to fight with the equal the injustices for Negroes and struggling for the equality.
Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The urge for freedom will eventually come.
First, principle Statement of the principle extracted from something said by the author. Specifically, The urge for freedom will eventually come. This is what has happened to the American Negro. Second, quotes from the writing from which the principle is extracted.Specifically, “millions of Negroes, out of frustration and despair, will seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies, a development that will lead inevitably to a frightening racial nightmare.”  Thirdly, contextualizeits historical context and answer the question, “What is the author saying about the current situation he is dealing with?”. Specifically, history is the long and tragic story of the fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. so the current situation the author dealing with now is to fight with the equal the injustices for Negroes and struggling for the equality. Finally, restate your principle based on the context.
First, principle Statement of the principle extracted from something said by the author.  Second, quotes from the writing from which the principle is extracted.Thirdly, contextualizeits historical context and answer the question, “What is the author saying about the current situation he is dealing with?”. So the current situation the author dealing with now is to fight with the equal the injustices for Negroes and struggling for the equality. Finally, restate your principle based on the context. So the author said that the urge for freedom will eventually come.
Although society is developing, the gap between the rich and the poor in the United States is widening. Racial discrimination still exists. Gender inequality is common.
He have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek.
“Over the last few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. So I have tried to make it clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or even more, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends ”. Dr. Martin Luther King stated that the nonviolent direct-action program in the heavily segregated Birmingham will not stop because of the injustice and his imprisonment.
In my opinion,the author’s words/principles are still important for our world today, because there are still many injustices existing.
Just apply like what Dr. Martin Luther King stated that the nonviolent direct-action program in the heavily segregated Birmingham will not stop because of the injustice and his imprisonment. So the audience should apply the principles into their injustices in daily life.
Yes, we should. We should still listen to the author in this situation. No matter in the past and present, the injustices in races are still exist. So people still need a guidance or principles to help them to struggle and fight with the inequality in the world.
 
阅读原文如下:
 AUGUST 1963  
Letter from Birmingham Jail 
by Martin Luther King, Jr. 
 
 From the Birmingham jail, where he was imprisoned as a participant in nonviolent demonstrations against segregation, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., wrote in longhand the letter which follows. It was his response to a public statement of concern and caution issued by eight white religious leaders of the South. Dr. King, who was born in 1929, did his undergraduate work at Morehouse College; attended the integrated Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, one of six black pupils among a hundred students, and the president of his class; and won a fellowship to Boston University for his Ph.D. 
 
1 WHILE confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling our present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom, if ever, do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all of the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would be engaged in little else in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would like to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. 
 
2 I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the argument of "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every Southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliate organizations all across the South, one being the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Whenever necessary and possible, we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago our local affiliate here in Birmingham invited us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct-action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promises. So I am here, along with several members of my staff, because we were invited here. I am here because I have basic organizational ties here. 
 
3 Beyond this, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the eighth-century prophets left their little villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their hometowns; and just as the Apostle Paul left his little village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to practically every hamlet and city of the Greco-Roman world, I too am compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my particular hometown. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. 
 
4Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial "outside agitator" idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider. 


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