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美国高中作业:Analyze the impact of big business on the economy and

时间:2019-07-05 10:42来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
美国内战(1861-1865)废除了南方的奴隶制,确保了美国的统一,消除了奴隶制在经济和政策上的发展障碍。与此同时,西进运动扩大了国内市场,吸引了大量的欧洲移民,提供了大量的劳动力。美国率先在机械零部件上实施标准化生产,提高了机械的普及率,加快了工业发展的步伐。此外,优越的地理环境和丰富的自然资源为工业的发展提供了和平的生产环境。具体来说,在内战后的美国,公司的数量和影响力显著增长。根据Nash等人(2010年)大企业实现如此快速发展的主要原因是出现了大量廉价劳动力和政府对新兴企业的扶持政策。
The Civil War (1861-1865) in United States abolished the slavery in the south and ensured the unity of the United States, which cleared the obstacles of slavery for development on both economy and policy. At the same time, the Westward movement expanded the domestic market and attracted a large number of European immigrants, which provided a lot of labor. The United State has firstly applied the standardized production on machine component, which improve the penetration rate of the machine and accelerated the pace of industrial development. Moreover, the excellent geographical environment and rich natural resource provide a peaceful production environment for the development of industrial. Specifically, in the post-Civil War United States, corporations grew significantly in number size and influence. According to Nash et al. (2010), the main reason for achieving such a rapid development on the large enterprises are the emergence of a larger number of cheap labor and the government support policies for emerging enterprises.
 
The impact of big business on the economy of United States大企业对美国经济的影响
从1870年到1900年,美国发展了大型企业,成为大规模生产技术时代的领导者。具体来说,美国内战(1861-1865)废除了南方的奴隶制,确保了美国的统一,扫清了奴隶制对两个经济发展的障碍。战后,全国市场统一,国内市场迅速扩大。南方数百万奴隶的解放为工业提供了巨大的劳动力。此外,随着奴隶制的瓦解和北方资本的渗透,南方工业发展迅速。同时,南方农业为北方工业提供了源源不断的工业原料。美国率先在机械零部件上实施标准化生产,提高了机械的普及率,加快了工业发展的步伐。战后,小农经济逐渐被大企业所取代。整个农业实现了系统的机械化,美国拥有世界上最高的劳动生产率。也就是说,农业不仅满足了国家的需要,而且有很大一部分农产品出口。例如,根据美国1870年至1899年的历史统计数据,食品价格、燃料和照明价格以及生活成本指数从1870年至1890年都有显著下降,从1890年至1899年保持了相对稳定的价格。换句话说,大企业使农业价格下降。此外,在工业生产中,大企业采用了一体化的大批量产品。具体来说,他们运用科学的管理方法,制定了长期的计划,使用成本最低、质量高的标准材料。
During the period from 1870 to 1900, the United States has developed large-scale enterprises, and became leader in the era of mass production technology. In specific, the Civil War (1861-1865) in United States abolished the slavery in the south and ensured the unity of the United States, which cleared the obstacles of slavery for development on both economy. During the post-civil War ear, there is a unified national market, the domestic market has expanded rapidly. The liberation of millions of slaves in South provided a huge labor force for the industrial. In addition, with the collapse of slavery and the infiltration of capital in the north, the southern industry has developed rapidly. At the same time, the south agriculture has provided a steady stream of industry raw materials for the north industry. The United State has firstly applied the standardized production on machine component, which improve the penetration rate of the machine and accelerated the pace of industrial development. During the post -civil war ear, the small-scale peasant economy has gradually replaced by the large-scale enterprises. The entire agriculture has realized the system mechanization, and the United States had the highest labour productivity in the world. In other words, the agriculture had not only meet the national needs, but also had a large part of agricultural products for export. For example, according to the historical statistics of the United States in 1870 to 1899, all index of food prices, fuel and lighting prices and cost of living index shown significant decrease from 1870 to 1890 and stayed relatively stable prices from 1890 to 1899. In other words, the big business made the price of agriculture down. Moreover, in the industrial production, the big business had used the integrated mass product. In specific, using the scientific management, they developed long term planning, and use the standard material with minimum cost and high quality. 
 
On the other hand, a large number of immigrants created the favorable conditions for the industrialization process of United States. The immigration community provides a large number of skilled workers and engineering and technical personnel for the industrialization of the United States, and had promoted the innovation of American production technology. The United States had organized the product factors of finance, resource and human, and had fairly use these product factors to play higher production efficiency. Thus, the immigrants have created enormous wealth, which provide the necessary funds for the realization of industrialization. Moreover, more and more females began to go to work, which also provide a larger number of labor resource. 
 
The impact of big business on the policy of United States
In the post-Civil War United States, corporations grew significantly in number size and influence. Specifically, during the post-civil War ear, the industrial bourgeoisie monopolized the state power and implemented a series of powerful policies for economy development. The policies mainly include the policy of supporting trade by adopting preferential measures, the policy of constructing the railway for developing the western land, the policy of the continuation on the protective tariff, the policy of encouraging foreigner immigration, the policy of introducing foreign capital, absorption of foreign advanced technology and management system, the policy of concerning technology and developing education, and so on. The implementation of policies and measures accelerated the pace of economic development, which make the United States a highly developed capitalist country. 
For example, based on Joseph Keppler (1889), the bosses of big business have controlled the Senate. These bosses of big business had very large power, whose whim is law. They can even control legislative bodies, dictate legislation and guide the policies of government. In other words, the big business implemented a series of policies to protect their profits in United States to the period 1870 to 1900George and McNeill (1887). 
 
The responses of American to these changes
These changes have brought three of these most serious social responses. The thirst response is the polarization of society and the increasing gap between rich and poor. The poverty of the majority American workers is due to the owner of the enterprise pocketed most of the profits, so that the polarization of the community is inevitable. This would promote the American workers to fight against the factory owners by forming trade unions. In specific, according to Nash et al. (2010), during the period from 1881 to 1905, the total number of American workers’ strikes is 36757, and the number of involved American workers is as much as 6 million. The wanted to develop the People’s Party Platform and to end the oppression, injustice and poverty. On the other hand, the United States also created a number of middle class, which became the stabilizer of American society. For example, according to David (1889), the individual in this ear was no longer independently works, and each one was only part of society. 
 
Secondly, due to the big business, the United States remains a cyclical economic crisis. During the post-Civil War ear, there were two big economic crisis, the first economic crisis is in 1873-1879, and the second economic crisis is in 1893 – 1897.  Lastly, the massive industrialization brought a variety of industrial pollution. For example, by the end of the nineteenth century, the pollution of rivers and lakes in the Midwest and Eastern United States had been very severe. 
 
Conclusion 
The Civil War abolished the slavery in the south and ensured the unity of the United States, which cleared the obstacles of slavery for development on both economy. The small-scale peasant economy has gradually replaced by the large-scale enterprises.On the other hand, a large number of immigrants created the favorable conditions for the industrialization process of United States.To sum up, in the post-civil War ear, there was rapid economic development and the United States had been translated into industrialized country from agricultural country. In addition, during the post-civil War ear, the industrial bourgeoisie monopolized the state power and implemented a series of powerful policies for economy development. Lastly, the big business had caused he polarization of society and the increasing gap between rich and poor. The United States remains a cyclical economic crisis and the massive industrialization brought a variety of industrial pollution.
 


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