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APA参考文献格式范例 Example Essay with APA Referencing

时间:2021-09-20 16:08:45 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:www.ukassignment.org 点击:174
APA参考文献格式是指美国心理学协会的参照风格第6版,是心理学研究文献中最流行和最常用的参照风格形式之一。下面的文章将讨论APA style 的参考在心理学文献中的重要性,以及学术论文中的一致性。除此之外,这篇文章可以作为一个基本的指导,让学生正确引用和引用一篇文章使用这种特殊的引用风格。为此,本文将以APA的参考文献格式引用所有资料。
APA参考文献格
APA参考文献格
APA style referencing refers to American Psychological Association’s referencing style 6th edition, and is one of the most popular and frequently used forms of referencing style within psychological research literature (Dryjanska, 2017; Gaffney, 2016; DeCleene & Fogo, 2012). The following essay will provide a discussion of the importance of APA style referencing within psychological literature but also in terms of consistency within academic essays. In addition to this, this essay can be used as a basic guide for students to properly cite and reference an essay using this particular referencing style. To this end, all sources will be cited and referenced within this essay in APA style.
使用APA格式引用的最重要原因之一是,它确保学术文献和研究报告标准化,并支持对科学理想的承诺。从这个意义上说,使用APA格式的引用是很重要的,以符合如何研究论文和文章在硬科学,如化学引用,并特别重要的是提出复杂的信息和研究结果以简洁和逻辑的方式。此外,这种引用方式意味着引用和引文是标准化的,并且在使用APA引用的论文中具有连续性。
One of the most important reasons for using APA style referencing is that it ensures that academic literature and research reporting is standardised and supports a commitment to the scientific ideal (Safer & Tang, 2009; Madigan, Johnson & Linton, 1995). In this sense, using APA style referencing is important in order to conform to how research papers and articles are referenced in the hard sciences like Chemistry, and is particularly important with regards to presenting complex information and findings in a succinct and logical manner (Simmons, 2004; Madigan, Johnson & Linton, 1995). Furthermore, such a referencing style means that referencing and citations are standardised and there is continuity within papers that use APA referencing (Walsh & Shapiro, 2006; Simmons, 2004; Polkinghorne, 1997).
在这一点上,适当的引用是很重要的,以便向读者展示或告知信息或证据的来源,并防止剽窃的指控。合法引用向读者表明,这些陈述或论点不是作者的独立思想,而是先前研究者的独立思想。因此,如果读者希望进一步阅读该主题,适当的参考使他们能够使用参考文献列表来搜索信息的来源。因此,使用APA格式的恰当引用可以保证所有的资料都被恰当地引用和引用,并使读者能够理解什么是其他研究者的论点,什么是作者的独立思考和批判性分析,从而避免抄袭。
On this note, proper referencing is important in order to demonstrate to or inform the reader where the information or evidence has come from and prevent accusations of plagiarism. Legitimate referencing shows the reader that the statements or arguments are not independent thoughts of the writer, but rather those of previous researchers (Dryjanska, 2017; Simmons, 2004). Due to this, appropriate referencing enables the reader to search for the source of the information by using the references list if they wish to read up further on the subject (Simmons, 2004; Kazdin, 1992). Therefore, proper referencing using APA style guarantees that all sources are properly cited and referenced as well as enabling the reader to understand what are arguments of other researchers and what is independent thought and critical analysis from the writer, thus avoiding plagiarism.
APA格式的参照是一种相对容易学习和记忆的参照风格,例如在引文和参考文献中使用“&”代替“and”。此外,在引用资料来源时,应提供作者姓名,后跟出版日期。首先,所有作者的名字都应该被引用,除非有6位以上的作者,其中前6位被引用,然后是“等人”和日期。初审后,对于3位以上的作者,应引用来源为第一作者,然后是“等人”和日期。因此,APA风格是最常用的引用形式之一,了解这种风格意味着学生可以快速浏览期刊文章或书籍,并立即知道谁说了什么,什么时候说了什么。
APA style referencing is a relatively easy referencing style to learn and remember (Cook & Murowchick, 2014; Adair & Vohra, 2003), such as the use of ‘&’ instead of ‘and’ in citations and references. Further to this, when citing sources, the name of the author or authors should be provided followed by the date of publication. In the first instance, all authors’ names should be cited unless there are more than 6 authors wherein the first 6 are cited followed by ‘et al’ and then the date. After the first instance, for more than 3 authors, the source should be cited as the first author and then ‘et al’ and the date (DeCleene & Fogo, 2012; Adair & Vohra, 2003), such as Smith et al (date). Therefore, as APA style is one of the most frequently used forms of referencing (Dryjanska, 2017; Gaffney, 2016; DeCleene & Fogo, 2012), having knowledge of this style means that a student can quickly scan through a journal article or book and instantly know who said what and when.
尽管如此,实证研究表明,引用和引用工作的技能在大学里发展了两年。例如,Gaffney进行了一项定量研究,以了解两年来本科生在APA的参考文献格式中的技能是如何进步的。研究发现,“第二年的数据显示情况有所改善”。因此,这段简短的引语很有用,因为它提供了有关研究结果的简明信息,但也可以作为研究中APA格式引语的一个例子,其中作者、日期和页码必须被引用,引语必须用语音标记和斜体。使用APA格式引用的引文不应该太长,也不应该很少使用,通常是在没有其他方式来陈述或解释来源中所说的话时。
In spite of this, though, empirical research has indicated that skills with referencing and citing work develops over two years at university (Gaffney, 2016). For example, a quantitative study by Gaffney (2016) was performed to see how undergraduates’ skills in APA style referencing progressed over two years. It was found that “Data from year two demonstrated improvement” (Gaffney, 2016, p.148). As such, this short quote is useful as it provides concise information about the findings, but can also be used as an example of APA style quotations within research in which the author, date and page number must be cited and the quote within speech marks and in Italics (Cook & Murowchick, 2014). Quotations using APA style referencing should not be overly long and used infrequently, generally when there is no other way to state or explain what has been said within the source (Walsh & Shapiro, 2006).
另一方面,在心理学研究和学术写作中,还有其他引用风格同样流行,例如哈佛引用风格,在英国和英国大学中尤其流行。尽管如此,许多研究人员和心理学家认为,APA格式的引用是最好的风格之一,而且这种技能已经被证明很容易转移到其他形式的引用风格和学科。同样,通过学习APA格式的引用,学生将符合许多科学和学术期刊的引用标准,这意味着在未来,如果他们希望发表一篇科学文章,他们将已经拥有必要的参考技能,以帮助他们提交。因此,获得APA参考技巧对于以标准化和经常使用的样式进行报告非常有用,但也可以用来轻松地选择其他参考样式。有鉴于此,《美国心理协会手册》第6版是遵循标准化指南以科学和标准化的方式呈现报告和心理文献的有用手段。
On the other hand, there are other referencing styles that are just as popular within psychological research and academic writing, such as that of Harvard referencing style, which is particular popular in the UK and in UK universities (Martin, 2007). Nonetheless, many researchers and psychologists believe APA style referencing to be one of the best styles, and such skills have been shown to be easily transferred to other forms of referencing styles and disciplines (Cook & Murowchick, 2014). Likewise, by learning APA style referencing, students will conform to the standards of referencing for many scientific and academic journals (Gaffney, 2016; Cook & Murowchick, 2014; Simmons, 2004), meaning that in the future if they wished to publish a scientific article, they would already possess the necessary referencing skills to help with their submission. Consequently, gaining APA referencing skills is highly useful for reporting in a standardised and frequently used style, but it can also be used to easily pick up other referencing styles. In light of this, the 6th edition of the Manual of the American Psychological Association is a useful means by which to follow a standardised guide to presenting reports and psychological literature in a scientific and standardised manner (Dryjanska, 2017; DeCleene & Fogo, 2012).
In conclusion, this essay has discussed of the importance of APA style referencing within psychological literature, but also acted as an example of how to cite and reference a psychology essay in APA style. Following a particular referencing style is important within psychological literature as it sets a standard of reporting by which all psychological research can follow, making it easy for psychologists and students to understand where evidence and information has come from. Likewise, within academic essays, the use of APA style referencing means that the evidence presented within essays reflects scientific research reporting. To close, this essay can be used as an example for students to learn how sources should be cited and referenced in the APA style.

References:
Adair, J. G., & Vohra, N. (2003). The explosion of knowledge, references, and citations:
Psychology’s unique response to a crisis. American Psychologist, 58(1), 15-23.
Cook, K. E., & Murowchick, E. (2014). Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One
Course to Another?. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 13(1), 3-11.
DeCleene, K. E., & Fogo, J. (2012). Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association. Occupational therapy in health care, 26(1), 90-92.
Dryjanska, L. (2017). An organizational scandal in psychology: social representations of
Hoffman Report in Europe. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-15.
Gaffney, A. L. H. (2016). Revising and Reflecting: How Assessment of APA Style
Evolved Over Two Assessment Cycles in an Undergraduate Communication Program. Journal of Assessment and Institutional Effectiveness, 5(2), 148-167.
Kazdin, A. E. (1992). Research Design in Clinical Psychology (Vol. 3). US: Boston: Allyn
and Bacon.
Madigan, R., Johnson, S., & Linton, P. (1995). The language of psychology: APA style as
epistemology. American Psychologist, 50(6), 428-436.
Martin, D. W. (2007). Doing Psychology Experiments. UK: Cengage Learning.
Polkinghorne, D. E. (1997). Reporting qualitative research as practice. In W. G. Tierney. &
Y. S. Lincoln. (Eds). Representation and the text: Re-framing the narrative voice. US: State University of New York Press.
Safer, M. A., & Tang, R. (2009). The psychology of referencing in psychology journal
articles. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(1), 51-53.
Simmons, B. A. (2004). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Technical Communication, 51(1), 113-115.
Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western
psychology: a mutually enriching dialogue. American Psychologist, 61(3), 227-239.
 
综上所述,本文论述了APA参考文献格式引用在心理学文献中的重要性,并举例说明了如何引用APA格式的心理学论文。在心理学文献中,遵循一种特定的参照方式是很重要的,因为它设定了一个报告标准,所有的心理学研究都可以遵循这个标准,这使得心理学家和学生很容易理解证据和信息的来源。同样,在学术论文中,使用APA格式的引用意味着论文中呈现的证据反映了科学研究报告。最后,本文可以作为一个例子,让学生学习如何引用和引用APA参考文献格式的资料。


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