Arthurs客户关系管理报告:Report on Arthurs’ Customer Relationship Man

时间:2019-06-21 10:01:24 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:9
1.0 Introduction介绍
网络、电子商务的兴起给传统零售业带来了巨大的冲击,互联网和移动网络的进一步普及,以及信息技术、虚拟现实技术、电子支付技术的不断发展,给当今零售业的发展带来了进一步的变化。世界零售业的发展将呈现以下一些趋势(Pantano、Priporas、Sorace和Iazzolino,2017)。它主要包括:首先,越来越多的零售企业采取全渠道销售模式,线上线下销售渠道联系更紧密。然后,随着物流成本、人工成本的不断增加,给零售业带来了巨大的挑战,越来越多的零售企业依靠大数据、人工智能、移动支付、物流服务等提供创新的解决方案来解决这些问题。最后,随着消费者对商品选择的增加和消费标准的提高,消费者对商品的需求越来越个性化,这给企业营销带来了挑战,零售企业依靠移动互联网、大数据、云计算等数字工具来寻找消费者的需求和趋势,这可以引起人们的关注。为提高企业的竞争力,需要大量忠诚的客户。The rise of network, e-commerce has brought a huge impact to the traditional retail industry, and the further popularization of the Internet and mobile networks, as well as the continuous development of information technology, VR technology, electronic payment technology brings further changes to the development of today's retail industry, the future development of the world's retail industry will show some of the following trends (Pantano, Priporas, Sorace and Iazzolino, 2017). It mainly includes first of all, more and more retail enterprises take full-channel sales model, online and offline sales channels are linked more closely. Then, with the continuously increasing logistics costs, labor costs, it has brought great challenges to the retail industry, more and more retail enterprises rely on large data, artificial intelligence, mobile payment, logistics services to provide innovation solutions to solve these problems. Finally, with the increase in consumer choice of goods and the improvement of consumer standards, consumer demand for goods is more and more personalized, which brings challenges to corporate marketing, retail enterprises rely on mobile Internet, large data, cloud computing and other digital tools to find consumer demand and trends, which can cultivate a large number of loyal customers to improve the competitiveness of enterprises.
Figure 1: Overview of the US retail industry
Sources: http://www.commpro.biz/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/US-retail-sales-by-channel-chart3.png?a110f5
从零售业的发展趋势来看,影响未来零售业发展的因素主要有以下几点:一是科技的发展和应用,零售相关技术能否持续发展,零售企业能否合理利用。这些技术在企业管理和营销中的应用。第二,消费者对零售企业的重要性日益增强,零售企业能否发掘消费者的潜在需求,零售企业能否最大限度地满足消费者的个人需求,提高其消费体验,与零售企业的成败有关(Rashid,A.HMAD和Othman,2014年)。最后一个因素是企业是否具有优秀的战略决策能力,帮助他们做出正确的决策,包括应对不断变化和不确定的外部环境,在激烈的市场竞争中提高消费者忠诚度,以及合理利用科学技术不断提高自身竞争力。爱等等。Considering from the development trend of the retail industry, factors affecting the evolution of the retail industry in future main include the following points, first is the development and application of science and technology, whether retail-related technology can continue to develop, whether retail enterprises are able to make a rational use of these technologies in enterprise management and marketing. Second, the importance of consumers for retail enterprises is growing, whether retail enterprises can explore the potential needs of consumers, whether retail enterprises can to the greatest extent to meet the individual needs of consumers to improve their consumption experience is related to the success or failure of retail enterprises (Rashid, Ahmad and Othman, 2014). The last factor is whether companies have excellent strategic decision-making capabilities to help them to make the right decisions, including  responding to changing and uncertain external environments, increasing consumer loyalty in the fierce market competition, and rational use of science and technology to constantly improve their own competitiveness and so on.
From the perspective of factors affecting the trends and evolution of retail trade, retailers' stakeholders are no longer just the business themselves and shareholders, there are also consumers, suppliers, third-party partners, logistics providers, HR, contractors involved. Only to attach importance to and meet consumer demand, can it bring sustained profitability to enterprises. Retail companies need to work closely with suppliers, logistics providers, contractors, and third-party partners to provide better services and products to consumers, as well as to reduce business costs to improve efficiency (Rezaei, Fahim and Tavasszy, 2014). HR can help enterprises to improve their competitiveness, laws provide good external competition conditions for retail enterprises, which can not be ignored by retailers.
In summary, in the evolution process of retail business, the strategic decision-making, as well as management methods and means of retail enterprises will change a lot, and consumers play an important role in this change, thus it is needed for enterprises engaged in retail business management and consulting work to pay a special attention (Artun and Levin 2015). This essay takes Arthurs as a research object to explore how they better meet and explore consumer demand in the process of its future development to help the enterprise to improve profitability to achieve sustainable development.
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Trends of retail trade
Figure 2 Theoretical framework
The development of the Internet and information technology has enabled the speed and scale of collection and dissemination of data to an unprecedented level, achieving global information and data sharing and interaction (Krishna and Ravi, 2016). The huge amounts of data are presented in front of enterprises and individuals, having an accurate access to the most needed information from the vast ocean of information become one of the key factors for enterprises to improve competitiveness in the data explosion era.
After the 21st century, computer performance has improved to a large extent. In the future, the development of computer will be characterized by high performance, networking, popularization, intelligence and humanization, functional integration and so on (Chaffey and Ellis-Chadwick, 2012). Enterprises use computers to collect, analyze data, which has become the work that the majority of enterprises must pay attention to.
The current market competition is becoming more and more intense. On the one hand, companies have to expand the opportunity to contact with consumers by taking full channel sales to carry out cross-channel and real-time marketing. On the other hand, companies pay more attention to consumer opinions and needs than ever before, and adjust their products and services according to their needs.
2.2 Challenges that retail trade faces
Although there is a lot of data provided to enterprises, how to quickly collect and analyze the relevant data to understand what customers really need and prefer, and according to the results of the analysis to find out customers’ consumption potential as much as possible is a big challenge for enterprises.
There are a large amount of options for customers, resulting in low customer loyalty, for enterprises, how to maintain long-term cooperation with customers, how to improve customer loyalty to achieve a win-win result of customers and enterprises is a major challenge.
Enterprises need to find their target customers from a large number of customers and based on the analysis results to provide personalized services for target customers to meet their needs, which is a big challenge for enterprises.
2.3 Customer relationship management
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a management mode take using information science and technology to optimize corporate marketing, sales, service and other activities, so that enterprises can more effectively provide customers with satisfactory and thoughtful service to improve customer satisfaction, loyalty for the purpose (Verhoef et al., 2010). CRM is not only a management philosophy, but also a software technology. Customer-centric management philosophy is the foundation of CRM implementation
2.3.1 Customer value journey
Customer value journey mainly refers to a customer’s experience, subjective response and feelings in the process of using products or services (Anderl, Schumann and Kunz, 2016). Customer relationship management system can help to collect and evaluate all existing knowledge and data about customers to understand what customers want at this stage, to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of products in all aspects, and according to the results of the analysis to optimize products and services processes.
2.3.2 Customer personas
Enterprises can collect and process data through CRM to create virtual customer personas, successful personas are beneficial in testing various marketing concepts, products or activities (Minami and Dawson, 2008). A persona refers to certain kind of mental model, it is an imaginary person who has a way of doing things, and it is given with a name, history, and story, allowing corporate marketing staff to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of their products and services from the perspective of persona.#p#分页标题#e#
Chart 1 Investigation of demographic information
It shows some spending habits of consumers of different age groups and different genders, according to these numbers, it can create virtual personas. For example, 40-50 year-old middle-aged man is the most group who are willing to buy technology products and male clothing, but the average cost of the group for male clothing consumption is low, while the consumption of technology products is high. 30-40 year-old women is the consumer group who are most willing to buy women's clothing and children's clothing, and their average consumption is high.
2.3.3 Market positioning
Data analysis and management in customer management can help market staff to analyze the existing customer groups, according to the frequency of customer consumption, value and other data to identify the industry, occupation, age and area of a main customer cluster, and help companies to understand the needs and preferences of this cluster, so that enterprises can focus their own resources to provide better services and create greater value for target customers.
2.3.4 Customer lifetime value
Customer lifetime value refers to the sum of benefits that each buyer may bring to an enterprise in the future, customer relationship management system helps companies to anticipate the lifetime value of customers by collecting and analyzing information such as personal information, lifestyle, behavior, needs, family and social relationships, and developing targeted marketing strategies based on the expected results (Nenonen and Storbacka, 2016).
2.3.5 Personalized service
CRM provides a comprehensive, personalized customer profile and enhances tracking services and information analytics to enable employees to collaborate on the establishment and maintenance of a series of "one-to-one relationships" with customers and business partners, so that enterprises can provide faster and thoughtful personalized service to improve customer satisfaction, attract and maintain more customers (Santoso and Erdaka, 2015).
2.3.6 Successful cases of CRM
Wal-Mart is taken as a case of make successful use of customer relationship management for data analysis and management to achieve a win-win situation with its customers, it is through CRM to master consumer data and quickly reflect it to product manufacturers, it discusses and develops product plans, delivery cycle with its upstream manufacturers, which means that Wal-Mart is always first to get the goods that consumers want most in the market (Imran, 2014). Its management staff is based on information collected by CRM, through timely organization of procurement, updating goods, improving the display of goods placed to create a comfortable shopping environment for consumers. Judging from the case of Wal-Mart, through the use of customer relationship management system, it is better to meet customer needs and create more value for customers.
2.4 Critical analysis
There are three main deficiencies in the current application and research of CRM. First, considering from the key elements of CRM, CRM is a powerful software, but if a company considers that using such a software can establish a good customer relationship and manage it will, which is one-sided. In fact, CRM mainly reflects a new marketing idea, a new corporate culture, a new management process, in the actual application process, CRM software must be combined with the corporate culture, management philosophy and work process optimization to achieve the desired purpose. Second, the data collected by using CRM is often a reflection of some of the habits and preferences of consumers in the past, enterprises are based on these data to make decisions for future marketing strategy. However, in some special period of time, consumer habits and preferences in a short time may change, which may mislead the development of corporate marketing strategy. Finally, the data collected by using CRM can reflect consumer preferences and characteristics, but these data can not explain why consumers have such consumer preferences and characteristics, and in fact, explaining the reasons for this information is also very important for enterprises, it is very helpful to predict consumers’ possible changes in consumer behavior and development in the future.
3.0 CRM tactics 
The short-term goal of Arthurs’ in implementation of CRM is increasing sales amount and retention levels; and the long-term goal is to increase customer base and to increase customer lifetime value. This section will be based on the goals to bring forward CRM tactics for Arthurs.
3.1 Tactics based on demographic information
Chart 1 Investigation of demographic information
Using CRM, it collected data on the consumption behavior of five consumer clusters based on age and gender differences. The above chart showed that only 3% of men of 25-34 years old bought technology products and spent less on it. There was 36% of consumption for purchasing men’s wear, the cost was medium. 65% of the 40-50 male consumers bought technology products, and they spent highly. 42% of consumers bought men's clothing, but spend less. Among male consumers who were more than 60 years old, only 3% of the consumers bought technology products, and spend less; 22% of them bought men's clothing, and the average cost was high. Among female consumers of 20-30 years old, 26% of the consumers bought technology products, the average cost was medium, 28% of the consumers bought women’s wear, the average cost was low. 3% of female consumers who were 30-40 years old bought technology products, 47% of the consumers bought women’s wear, the average cost was high; 100% of them bought children's clothing. Among female consumers of more than50 years old, 25% of the consumers bought women’s wear, the average cost was low. Judging from the data collected by CRM, male consumers of 40-50 years old and female consumers of 30-40 years old are the most two valuable consumer clusters. In order to increase sales revenue and fully explore the consumer potential of this part of the consumers, the following cross-selling and up-selling strategies are raised, for 40-50 male consumers, up to 65% of the consumers are willing to spend more money to buy technology products, therefore, sales staff can take up-selling strategy towards this part of the consumers to recommend them more advanced but more expensive technology products. Moreover, the middle and low men's wear and technology products can be put together to facilitate this part of consumers to purchase these two kinds of products at the same time, so as to achieve cross-selling strategy. For 30-40 female consumers, they are willing to spend more money on the purchase of clothing, while 100% of them will buy children's clothing, indicating that 30-40 female consumers often have children, they need to buy children's clothing. Therefore, middle and high-end women's wear and children's clothing can be put together to facilitate this part of consumers to purchase these two kinds of products at the same time, so as to achieve cross-selling strategy.
3.2 Tactics based on brand and product
Chart 2 Brand and product survey
Considering from the collection of sales data on February 6, the top five brands that consumers bought most were Amazon, Dorothy Perkins, Coast, Monsoon, Pierre Cardin. The first four brands focus on women's wear, accessories and shoes. These five clothing brands are middle and high-end clothing brands. Judging from the sales of products, footwear sales were far more than other products and ranked first, jacket, shirt, pants, dress sales ranked 2 to 5. The strategy for Arthurs is, first, it should be based on the popular elements to increase goods such as middle and high-end women's shoes, jackets, shirts, pants, dress and so on, so that consumers will have more choices. Second, the sales staff in the promotion should make more use of cross-selling strategy, for example: when consumers buy shoes, the sales staff can recommend shoes to match the pants in the color, style; when consumers buy jackets, sales staff can recommend a shirt; when consumers buy a dress, they can recommend relevant accessories.
3.3 Tactics based on attitude
Figure 3 Investigation on attitudes towards consumption
By investigating consumer attitudes towards consumption, it can be found that 4/7 consumers who were less than 32 years old believed that price was an important factor affecting their consumption, while consumers of other age levels mentioned that price was not an important factor affecting their consumption. The survey results showed that to sell middle and low-end goods to consumers under the age of 32 is more appropriate, and because consumers who are more than 32-year-old are less sensitive about price, sales staff can use more up-selling method, through the introduction of high-priced products to consumers in term of the superiority in function and quality to contribute to the realization of the transaction.
3.4 Strategies based on sales channel
Figure 4 Comparison of consumption channels
It can be seen from the above analysis that young consumers like shopping online, considering from customer lifetime value, in the future, value brought by consumers’ consumption through the Internet to enterprises will be increasing, so for Arthurs, the emphasis on the development of e-commerce is necessary. Male consumers of 40-50 years old are the most valuable male customer clusters, this part of consumers are most likely to spend a lot to buy a technology product, thus a cross-selling strategy can be used for online sales. For example, when customers buy a mobile phone, sales staff can recommend to customers mobile power, or PCs, mobile phone sets, etc. If consumers buy different mix of products, they will enjoy discount of different levels, so as to encourage consumers to buy more products. Women of 30-40 years old are the most valuable female customer clusters, this part of consumers like buying clothing, but because clothing generally needs to be tries to see if it is suitable, thus it is maybe this reason that leading to their much more offline shopping than online shopping. In order to make up for the lack of online clothing sales, Arthurs can make use of a combination of offline and online sales model, through improving the construction of the site to allow consumers to have a timely and detailed information products online, if consumers like what they have found online, they can come to the stores offline to try, after trying, if consumers are satisfied, they can choose online or offline payment, the clothes purchased can be sent by the logistics staff. After the completion of the transaction, consumers can also be based on their own experience to evaluate the products and services. Online and offline sales model is not only convenient for customers, but also expanding the scope of business influence in the market, it actually reflects ideas of building customer-centric long-term relationship between enterprises and consumers, which helps to improve consumers’ satisfaction to stabilize the relationship between consumers and Arthurs to improve consumers’ loyalty.#p#分页标题#e#
4.0 Conclusion
As the seller's market changes into the buyer's market, companies are facing more intense competition, for enterprises, how to find target customer bases to meet the individual needs of consumers, to meet consumer spending potential and improve customer loyalty has become the largest challenge for enterprises. Network and technology progress has brought the explosion of information, information explosion on the one hand brings opportunity for enterprises to meet the challenges mentioned above, on the other hand, too much information has also brought difficulties to enterprises in collecting and dealing with right information. The emergence of customer relationship management system on the one hand has brought convenience for enterprises to deal with and gather information, on the one hand, through data results by CRM analysis provides the basis for enterprises to develop correct business strategy to deal with the challenges.
This essay was from four aspects: demographic information, brand and product, attitude and channel to developed CRM strategy for Arthurs. The first three strategies helps Arthurs to meet the needs of target consumers and meet consumers’ personalized needs through cross-selling and up-selling strategies, and thus improving consumer satisfaction and loyalty to increase Arthurs’ income, which is useful for the realization of Arthurs’ short-term goal. Implementing online and offline sales strategies is in line with the trend of retail development, helping to improve the efficiency of services and fostering long-term relationships between Arthurs and consumers, and this strategy helps to offset the shortcomings of online sales, which can attract more consumers while stimulating consumers' willingness to consume, thereby increasing the lifetime value of consumers, which is useful for achieving long-term goals for Arthurs.
Arthurs’ future implementation of CRM will encounter the following challenges. First, whether the data collected by CRM can really represent the characteristics of customer behavior and preferences, if the data only reflects the situation of part of consumers, then CRM strategy developed based on these data may not be able to help Arthurs to achieve its goals. Second, the successful implementation of the future CRM strategy needs Arthurs to invest a certain amount of resources for improving the CRM system, improving the construction of Arthurs’ shopping site, strengthening the training of staff to improve their cross-selling and sales skills, improving logistics services and network payment services and so on. Finally, Arthurs’ organizational culture needs to be changed, and its workflow needs to be optimized and reconstructed. CRM is not just technology, it also reflects the customer-centric marketing ideas, Arthurs should also establish a customer-centric organizational culture, requiring each employee to provide customer service actively, with enthusiastic attitude to respond customer consultation and to collect customer-related data and information carefully. In addition, the implementation of the CMR strategy requires Arthurs to optimize the workflow, enabling the enterprise to discover customer needs in a timely manner and have the ability to respond to customer needs with the least time and to the greatest extent to satisfy them. 
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