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英国课程作业:Discussing The Knife Crime In Britain 论英国的持刀犯罪

时间:2021-07-27 09:47来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
英国课程作业-论英国的持刀犯罪。通过四个部分来分析英国的持刀犯罪,包括犯罪范围,原因,以及如何减少持刀犯罪。本文是一篇典型的英国留学生课程作业格式范文,作为Criminology Essay,通过案例分析研究问题,并且通过文献阅读找出问题的原因,最终得出解决问题的方法和建议。对于广大英国留学生们而言是一篇值得参考的英国论文格式范例。
英国课程作业
英国课程作业
第一节:英国刀具犯罪问题。2006年6月,15岁的亚历克斯·穆伦布(Alex Mulumbu)在庆祝普通中等教育证书考试结束后,又成为英国刀子文化的牺牲品。受害人在伦敦南部的兰贝斯与朋友下车后,与一大群青少年发生了争执。在争执期间,该团伙成员失踪,并带着刀、棒球棍和曲棍球棍返回。亚历克斯的心脏被刺伤,躺在人行道上的血泊中。他的父亲参观了儿子被杀的现场,他对媒体说亚历克斯是个好孩子,与刀子和帮派无关。
Section 1: The Problem of Knife Crime in Britain. In June 2006, 15 years old Alex Mulumbu after celebrating the end of his GCSEs exams became one more victim of Britain’s knife culture. The victim after he got off a bus with friends in Lambeth, south London had an argument with a larger group of teenagers (Woolcock, 2006). During the dispute members of the gang disappeared and returned armed with knives, baseball bats and hockey sticks. Alex was stabbed in the heart and was left lying in a pool of blood on the pavement (Verkaik, 2006). His father visited the scene of his son’s killing where he stated to the media that Alex was a good boy and had nothing to do with knives and gangs (Sturcke, 2006).

上面的案件小插曲清楚地说明了媒体是如何描述持刀犯罪的。一个正在下公共汽车的少年碰巧被肇事者刺伤了。然而,持刀犯罪的现实并不是简单的好与坏的黑白问题。这样一个问题的性质是复杂的,因此对它的反应必须是多方面的(下议院)。毕竟,如果刀的问题是那么容易,它已经解决了。
The case vignette above is a clear example of how knife crime is portrayed by the media. A teenager who is getting off a bus and it happens to get stabbed by the perpetrator. However, the reality of knife crime is not simply a black-white issue of good versus bad. The nature of such a problem is complicated and the responses towards it must therefore be multi-faceted (House of Commons). After all, if knife problem was that easy, it would have been solved already.
One complexity is that the victims are not always good honest citizens who were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The victims are often victimized before and are also those who are carrying knives in the first place (and actually their own knife is used against them). 
Furthermore, the offender’s and victim’s status in not always differentiated, since the victims carry knives because they are often linked to gangs or have some kind of affiliation with street culture. This, in turn, could mean that a significant proportion of stabbings relate to street violence , and as Professor Brohi claims “a very small proportion of knife crime victims are innocent people walking down the street who are stabbed” (House of Commons).
The media make knife crime even more complex as they often cloud people’s perception by generating moral panic and by giving the impression that knife crime is out of control (Albertazzi, 2010:473). This moral panic, in turn, leads to fear of crime and social disorganization.
Knife crime is also complex in itself as it is a symbolic of lack of social control within societies. Knife crime looks unsolvable and as there is no connection between adults-teenagers (Hume, 2008), although it involves young people and shatters lives. In particular, knife crime in itself gives the impression that somehow it is a matter of young people’s world since teenagers are on their own, surviving on the streets (Asthana, 2008). Thus, those who do not live in that kind of environments (outsiders) can never understand.
Finally, knife crime is complex because there is no answer to the question why teenagers carry knives. We do not know whether teenagers carry knives for self protection and because of the growing lack of trust in the ability of adults to protect them (Kelbie, 2003), or whether carry knives for things like respect “knife carrying is thought to be largely driven by a concern for self protection or to enhance status” (Muncie, 2009:36).
Continuing the study I am going to produce a report divided into three key sections. The first will be the extent of knife crime in Britain. The second will look at the causes of knife crime and finally the third will produce some initiatives dealing with knife crime.
Section 2: The Extent of Knife Crime in Britain 英国持刀犯罪的范围             
此外,在界定持刀犯罪是否是一个以黑人为主的问题方面,持刀犯罪非常复杂。媒体经常给人的印象是,所有的犯罪都是由黑人犯下的,因此,使人们产生误解。
Furthermore, knife crime is very complicated in terms of defining whether it is a predominantly black problem. The media often give the impression that all crimes are committed by black people and therefore, make people adopt misconceptions (Wright, 2008).
因此,值得注意的是,尽管这个问题在伦敦和东南部看起来像是黑人(www.London.gov.uk),但同时也有证据表明,在东北部(即格拉斯哥、苏格兰、曼彻斯特),问题是白人(下议院)。因此,这在伦敦可能主要是一个黑人问题,但在其他地方肯定不是。有鉴于此,我得出的结论是,携带刀具的问题与黑人或白人关系不大,相反,它与年轻和男性有关(Muncie,2009年)。             
Hence, it is important to note that even though the issue looks like it is black in London and the South-East , at the same time there are evidence that suggesting that in the North-East (i.e. Glasgow, Scotland, Manchester) the problem is white (House of Commons). As a result, it might be predominantly a black issue in London but certainly not in other places. Given that, I have concluded that the issue of carrying knives has little to do with being black or white, but on the contrary, it has to do with being young and male (Muncie, 2009).
此外,持刀犯罪的定义也很复杂,因为内政部对“持刀犯罪”没有明确的定义。据此,“持刀犯罪”一词被媒体采用,现在被普遍用来主要指刺杀,但也指年轻人非法携带刀具(下议院)。因此,由于没有明确的定义,许多人可能会使用不同的定义来创建统计数据,从而产生更大的复杂性。
Also, knife crime is complicated in terms of definition, since there is no clear Home Office clear definition of ‘knife crime’. According to that, the phrase ‘knife crime’ was adopted by the media and is now popularly used to refer primarily to stabbings but also to the illegal carrying of knives by young people (House of Commons). Hence, since there is no clear definition, then, it is likely for the numerous to use different definitions in order to create statistics and therefore generate more complexity.
Furthermore, knife crime is also complicated because there are too many different types of statistics (too much statistical data). In particular, there are statistics for knife crime from the hospital, the police, the British Crime Survey and finally the MORI (House of Commons, 2009). Each of these sources, measure different samples and different places (regions) in the country and therefore, it is too complicated to understand what is happening (Summers, 2008). For example, hospitals define knife crime when somebody has severe internal injuries as a result of knife penetration, whereas police define it when someone is carrying a knife (House of Commons)
Furthermore, trying to measure knife crime is, again, difficult because there is also the dark figure of crime. Therefore, this hidden crime makes statistics themselves problematic (Messerschmidt, 1993).
However, above all else, the complexity of knife crime is related to the media. The media manipulate the statistics and distort people’s perceptions about knife crime, since they are powerful and so pervasive in terms of their ability to create views (Jewkes, 2004).
One distortion is that knife crime is predominantly a black issue. Given that, even though evidence suggest that knife crime is also a white problem (in other areas), yet, the media continue the misrepresentation constantly accusing blacks (scapegoats). According to that, I believe that this misrepresentation leads to moral panic which, in turn, somehow makes the statistics go up.
In other words, since teenagers interfere with the media (moral panic), then, they may feel fear of the streets and therefore through self fulfilling prophecy, start carrying knives for self protection. Hence, there is an interaction-interrelationship between the statistics and knife crime (Newburn, 2007).
Regarding to the problems associated with knife crime measurement, I believe that data should be collected through a regional setting and this is for two reasons. Firstly, because as indicated, knife crime is not a specific cultural issue of Blacks, and secondly, because the measurement of such a complex issue through national settings, inevitable will generate too many complicated statistical data.
Furthermore, and as Young (1988) argues, national settings tend to miss some important elements in the distribution of victimization (Newburn, 2007). Hence, I suggest a regional setting both in areas with the highest knife-crime rates, but also to areas where crime rate is low. This, in turn, we will help us understand why it is black issue in some places whereas white in other.
Equally important is to collect data using qualitative approaches, since it would be more beneficial to understand the lived experiences of those who carry knives (rationale behind knife crime) instead of how many carry a knife (What would be the point of knowing that 4000 are carrying knives after all?). For example, it would be very interesting to understand how knife crime is perceived and interpreted by the juvenile delinquents (ethnography research) and thus, find out why they carry knives. This way, more evidence will come up such as whether knife crime relates to London’s (for example) rates of poverty, neglect, unemployment and deprivation (House of Commons).
 
英国课程作业
英国课程作业
Section 3: The Causes of Knife Crime in Britain 英国持刀犯罪的原因
社会学习理论是犯罪学理论中最经久不衰的方法之一,它强调人们参与社会关系的本质。萨瑟兰考虑了以前的犯罪学理论,认为社会上的任何人都可以接受训练,以适应和遵循犯罪和偏差的模式(。
The social learning theory is one of the most enduring approaches among the criminological theories that underscore the nature of people’s involvement in social relationships. Sutherland, considered previous criminological theories and argued that anyone in society can be trained to adopt and follow patterns of crime and deviation (Colombo, 2009).
根据萨瑟兰的“差异联想”概念,罪犯的威望、罪犯与潜在罪犯之间的接触时间以及与罪犯互动的频率,都是个人从事犯罪活动的可能性的促成因素。萨瑟兰还提出,社会群体中犯罪行为的发展,例如“粗暴和强硬”的态度,促进了个人对犯罪态度的内化倾向。
In accordance to Sutherland’s ‘differential association’ conception, the prestige of criminals, the duration of contact between offenders-potential offenders and the frequency of interactions with criminal offenders, are all contributing factors in an individual’s likeliness to occupy criminal activities. Sutherland also suggested that attendance with the development of criminal behaviours in social groups, for instance ‘rough and tough’ attitudes, ‘boosts’ the individual’s propensity to interiorize criminal attitudes.
因此,社会学界对持刀犯罪的成因联系以及对阳刚之气和理性选择的观点。根据差异联想的概念,男孩正在成长为男人。这种肯定男子气概的过程促使男孩形成一种强硬、有男子气概和无所畏惧的公众形象(外表)。
Social learning therefore, links to the causes of knife crime as well as links to masculinity and rational choice perspectives. According to differential association concept, boys are growing up to be men. This process of affirming masculinity promotes boys to develop a public persona (an exterior) of being tough, macho and fearless.
In the context of knife crime this means that men have to be risk takers, aggressive and support their competitive nature (i.e. territoriality). Boys, if lose their reputation in front of peers and someone undermines their masculinity, in turn, have to regain this reputation by carrying knives and using them in front of their mates.
Thus, since they learn masculinity (via social learning), they learn to behave accordingly to this social role (masculinity) and therefore, act out like men (tough, aggressive). Finally, in terms of applying that to a knife crime, they make the ultimate decision (rational choice) on whether to carry knives by weighing the benefits (status, respect) against the risks (get stabbed, get caught). To conclude, I believe that there is a link between masculinities and social learning as what seems to be happening today, is that street culture (knife crime) is becoming masculine culture (i.e. through rap music) (Newburn, 2007).
However, even though differential association theory is one of the most enduring theories about crime, yet, there are some difficulties in explaining knife crime.
First of all, according to the first principle of differential association theory, criminal behaviour is learnt (Colombo, 2009). If that is the case, I believe that we have to critically question, how did the first “teacher” learnt the knife techniques (i.e. hide a knife, disposal once used), so that to pass this ‘knowledge’ to others? Hence, differential association theory fails to explain the origins of knife crime, since there are no origins.
Furthermore, there are no real empirical evidence of links between learning and knife crime. For example, differential association theory does not explain why in similar circumstances, (balance of favorable-unfavourable definitions) some individuals choose to carry a knife whereas others do not.
Moreover, social learning theory fails to explain why teenagers develop to associate with those who carry knives. Instead, it focuses more on the peer influence and not on peer selection.
Additionally, differential association, supports that all criminal acts are rational (maximase profit-minimise loss) and systematic. However, it fails to explain the spontaneous, wanton acts of violence, which have little purpose or utility (Siegel, 2004).
Finally, it is very difficult for social scientists to measure such vague variables like “excess of definitions favourable to law violation” (Colombo, 2009).
Section 4: Towards the Reduction of Knife Crime in Britain 英国减少持刀犯罪  
对付刀具行动计划(TKAP)是一个数百万英镑的风险投资,打击刀具犯罪。其主要目的是限制13-19岁青少年携带刀具和严重刺伤,涉及5个政府部门和16支警察部队。
The Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) is a multi-million-pound venture, against knife crime. Its main purpose is to limit the carrying of knives and serious stabbings among teenagers aged between13-19. It involves five government departments and 16 police forces .
然而,行动计划(TKAP)在数据方面有一些重要的局限性,因为记录在案的犯罪,特别是暴力程度较低的犯罪,可能会受到警察活动变化和公众对数据报告的影响。此外,许多领域缺乏比较统计数字。最后,TKAP面临着力量的异质性。             
另一项反持刀政策是通过立法禁止向18岁以下的任何人出售刀具。此外,警察行动,如钝器和盾牌,涉及在车站、学校等公共场所快速和随机部署金属探测器。这项政策的目的是指认和逮捕任何持刀者。
However, Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) has some important limitations in relation to the data, since the recorded crime, especially the less violent, can be affected by changes in police activity and public rep
然而,无论是限制18岁以下刀具的销售,还是部署金属探测器,都未能解决这一问题,因为以菜刀为例,仍将广泛使用。因此,这更多的是教育问题,而不是获得刀具的问题。此外,金属探测器可能检测不到所有刀具,因为刀具一旦使用就很容易隐藏和处理。orting to the data. Furthermore, there is a lack of comparison statistics in many areas. Finally, TKAP faced the heterogeneity of the forces.
Another anti-knife policy that has been introduced is via legislation to forbid the sale of knives to anyone under the age of 18. Additionally, Police Operations like Blunt and Shield involve the rapid and random deployment of metal detectors in public places such as stations, schools and so forth. The aim of the policy is to identify and arrest anyone carrying a knife .
However, both the restriction of knives sales under- 18s, as well as the deployment of metal detectors fails to tackle the problem, since kitchen knives for instance, would still be widely available. Hence, it is more a problem of education, rather than access to knives. Furthermore, metal detectors may be not detecting all knives, as knives can be easily hidden and disposed once used.
My opinion about tackling of knife crime is that one organization alone cannot end this issue. Given that, I suggest that the main aim of all anti-knife crime initiatives should be to increase the definitions against knife-crime (rational choice theory) so that young people understand that carrying knives is immoral but most of all, it is risky (maximize cost, minimize benefit).
Furthermore, I support that the best anti knife-crime policy would be to educate the teenagers about this problem (social learning theory). Hence, young people could learn about the consequences of carrying knives at an early age through a mandatory module (i.e. weapon awareness) at schools. Furthermore, I believe that the best initiative to stop knife culture would be if parents (especially the fathers) could show their boys that carrying knives has nothing to do with being a man (masculinity theory).
As a conclusion, I argue that Alex’s case highlights the need for the authorities to recognize that educating both teenagers and families from an early age is crucial in order to tackle knife crime. Concisely, I have concluded that knife crime is very complex issue because of many reasons. The main one surely is because there are lots of statistical data. Additionally knife crime is complex because the media create moral panic and thus does not help. Moreover I have concluded that knife crime is not a black issue but a knife issue and thus, anti knife policies should redirect their focus on the rationale behind knife crime.
Ultimately, I would like to try to give an explanation of what could have might happen in the case vignette. Alex could have been probably to the enemy’s territory and showed disrespect on the other boys. He threatened the teenagers with his knife and made them run away. Then, the other boys went to another estate, took knives and returned back in order to regain their reputation and status. They have learnt (social learning) that men never back out (masculinity) and finally, they have made the ultimate decision to take the risk and stab Alex (rational choice).
最后,我想试着解释一下在这个案例中可能会发生什么。亚历克斯可能到过敌人的地盘,对其他男孩不敬。他用刀子威胁青少年,让他们逃跑。然后,其他男孩去了另一个庄园,拿着刀回来,以恢复他们的名誉和地位。他们学会了(社会学习)男人永远不会退缩(阳刚之气),最后,他们做出了最终的决定,冒险刺伤亚历克斯(理性选择)。
 
英国课程作业往往会像上述内容这样,提出作者自己的看法,针对案例内容,通过分析原因,并找出解决问题的方法。这是符合英国作业的逻辑安排和格式要求,本站提供多国课程作业写作指导服务,如有需要可咨询本平台。


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