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心理学Essay范文:Feature Integration Theory and Behavioural Findings in the Visual Search Paradigm

论文价格: 免费 时间:2021-12-03 09:08:27 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Feature Integration Theory and Behavioural Findings in the Visual Search Paradigm(特征整合理论与视觉搜索范式中的行为发现)”,在对注意力的研究中,我们如何将多种视觉输入与物体的特征相结合,包括但不限于颜色、空间方向和形状,从而形成我们所认识和识别的物体,这个问题几十年来一直是心理学研究的一个领域。大脑视觉皮层的不同模块被认为是处理物体独立特征的区域,例如V3处理形状处理,V4处理颜色处理,V5处理运动处理(Zeki, 1993)。这种特性的单独处理使如何将这些特性绑定在一起以创建可识别对象的概念的问题复杂化了。


Introduction 介绍

In the study of attention, the question of how we bind multiple visual inputs on the features of objects, including but not limited to colour, spatial orientation and shape, into objects that we recognise and identify has been an area of psychological inquiry for decades. Distinct modules of the visual cortex of the brain have been identified as areas where the independent features of objects are processed, such as V3 for shape processing, V4 for colour processing and V5 for motion processing (Zeki, 1993). This separate processing of features complicates the question of how we bind together these features to create concepts of identifiable objects.


When we visually search for features or objects (targets) in our environment we are drawn to either unique features that differ clearly from others around them or to targets incorporating combinations or conjunctures of multiple features. This visual search paradigm has been examined by testing reaction times to search for and identify targets with unique features versus targets characterised by a conjunction of features. Reaction times in feature searches were initially found to be lower than for conjunction searches which has been explained by the ease with which a unique feature can be spotted, using parallel processing in contrast to the sequential processing necessary to investigate in turn each component feature in a conjunction search (Treisman, 1985; Treisman & Gelade, 1980;). These results, among others, along with the neurological findings regarding separate modules corresponding to independent visual feature processing, have been explained by the Feature Integration Theory (FIT) set out by Anne Treisman (Treisman, 1985; Treisman, 1988; Treisman & Gelade, 1980;). This analysis will examine how FIT accounts for the findings from visual search paradigm investigations as well as how other visual search models have addressed the results.


Analysis 分析

Over the course of her seminal works on visual search addressing identification of the foundation features of our observed environment and the binding of these features into recognised objects, Anne Treisman put forward FIT (Treisman, 1985; Treisman, 1988; Treisman & Gelade, 1980). The basic tenets of Feature Integration Theory recognise the visual search paradigm of distinct feature and conjunction visual searches and postulate that feature searches are based on parallel processing while conjunction searches rely on serial processing of multiple features. FIT takes as given that individual features are processed in distinct modules of the visual cortex (Treisman, 1988; Treisman and Gelade, 1980) and seeks to explain how this information is bound together. The theory holds that when attention is focused on a specific location in a location mapit recognises the various features present and retrieves the corresponding information from the feature maps, informed by the visual cortex modules. This feature information is then bound together into object fileswhich are subject to cross-referencing with stored object descriptions in memory which enables object recognition.

在她关于视觉搜索的开创性工作中,Anne Treisman致力于识别我们所观察的环境的基础特征并将这些特征与被识别的物体结合,她提出了FIT (Treisman, 1985;-特雷斯曼,1988;Treisman & Gelade, 1980)。特征整合理论的基本原理是识别显著特征和联合视觉搜索的视觉搜索范式,并假设特征搜索是基于并行处理的,而联合搜索是基于多个特征的串行处理。FIT认为个体特征是在视觉皮层的不同模块中处理的(Treisman, 1988;TreismanGelade, 1980),并试图解释这些信息是如何联系在一起的。该理论认为,当注意力集中在“位置图”中的一个特定位置时,它会识别出出现的各种特征,并从特征图中检索出相应的信息,这些信息由视觉皮层模块提供。然后,这些特征信息被绑定到“目标文件”中,这些文件与存储在内存中的对象描述进行交叉引用,从而实现对象识别。


Drawing on the findings of Beck (1967), Treismans early findings substantiated that texture segregation between targets, based on straightforward characteristics such as colour or shape, is easier than segregation based on conjunction of separate characteristics (Treisman, 1985). Further, Treisman and Gelade (1980) found that unique features pop outfrom dissimilar non-target distractors and do not appear to require focused attention to do so, suggesting parallel processing at an early visual stage. Conversely, in searches for targets that conjoin two features, reaction times increase in a linear manner related to the size of the display suggesting the requirement of turning attention to the individual features in a serial fashion (Treisman, 1985). Essentially, one location on the map is attended to at a time so focused attention shifts sequentially. In addition, cued experiments showed that valid cues had a beneficial effect on reaction time in conjoined conditions and little effect in unique feature conditions. These results supported the theory that attention is a necessary factor in the conjunction condition where the serial consideration of features is required and that parallel processing is occurring in the unique feature condition as it is unaffected by cues (Treisman & Gelade, 1980).


Other behavioural findings also factored into the development of FIT and are explained by it. For instance, visual search experiments found that reaction times were higher in conditions where subjects were asked to find targets with absent features than in conditions searching for present ones (Treisman & Souther, 1985). In essence, absent features were found to be more difficult to recognise than present ones, suggesting present features are subject to parallel processing versus a serial approach necessary to identify absent ones (Treisman & Souther, 1985). In another vein of visual search and attention inquiry, Anne Treisman and Hilary Schmidt (1982) addressed the question of attention overload or diversion and its effects on the incidence of incorrect or illusory conjunctions. Their experiments diverted attention by cuing to peripheral targets and found that colour and shape integration did not occur in this condition (Treisman & Schmidt, 1982). Overall, their series of experiments found that illusory conjunctions occurred where attention was constrained by resource limits or diversion, with colour and shape more susceptible to wrong feature recombination than solidity and size, and that illusory conjunctions were not dependent on the accuracy of feature perception or recall failure (Treisman & Schmidt, 1982). This reinforced the hypothesis that attention plays a central part in correctly identifying objects in a conjunction condition.


其他的行为发现也被考虑到FIT的发展中,并由它解释。例如,视觉搜索实验发现,在要求受试者寻找缺少特征的目标的条件下,反应时间比搜索现有特征的条件下要高(Treisman & Souther, 1985)。从本质上说,缺失的特征比存在的特征更难识别,这表明存在的特征需要并行处理,而不是需要串行方法来识别缺失的特征(Treisman & Souther, 1985)。在另一种视觉搜索和注意力探究中,Anne TreismanHilary Schmidt(1982)提出了注意力过载或转移的问题,以及它对错误或虚幻连接发生的影响。他们的实验通过提示周边目标来转移注意力,并发现在这种情况下,颜色和形状整合不会发生(Treisman & Schmidt, 1982)。总的来说,他们的一系列实验发现,当注意力受到资源限制或转移的限制时,会出现错觉连接,颜色和形状比固体和大小更容易出现错误的特征重组。而错觉连接并不依赖于特征感知的准确性或回忆失败(Treisman & Schmidt, 1982)。这强化了一个假设,即在连接状态下,注意力在正确识别物体方面起着核心作用。


Many of the principal findings in the study of attention and feature binding have been addressed, examined, explained and in some cases challenged by alternative models of visual search. Wolfe, Cave and Franzel (1989) looked at the results found by Treisman and Gelade (1980) showing raised reaction times in the colour/form conjunction condition and steep reaction time x display size slopes which suggested that serial processing was at work. Their initial experiments found that in colour/form, colour/size or colour/orientation conjunction conditions, display size increases did not produce the linear increases in reaction times found in earlier studies (Wolfe et al, 1989). Their subsequent experiments found that these results were due to differences in the stimuli rather than parallel processing which would be the logical conclusion if FIT logic were to be applied (Wolfe et al, 1989). Further, they found that reaction times in the triple feature conjunction condition of colour/size/form were lower than in two feature conjunction conditions (Wolfe et al, 1989). They also identified that colour/form conjunctions can show evidence of parallel processing where colour is a central feature (Wolfe et al, 1989). The researchers draw the conclusion that not all conjunction condition searches are subject to serial search and that the conjunction search can draw on the first stage parallel feature searches to guide attention efficiently to prospective objects (Wolfe et al, 1989). Hence, the more features used to guide attention the more efficient the search. To explain their results and conclusions they propose the Guided Search Model as an alternative model of visual search (Wolfe, 1994; Wolfe et al, 1989).


The Guided Search Model holds that information on individual features from the feature maps envisaged in FIT guide attention to the location map areas where those features are present. This model is the inverse order to that of FIT where attention is serially directed to locations on the location map and only then accesses feature characteristics from the feature maps (Wolfe, 1994; Wolf et al, 1989). Wolfe et al (1989) findings regarding flat slope reaction times in conjunction search conditions which they attribute to guided searches can also explain Treismans (1988) behavioural findings that valid cues reduced reaction time in the conjunction condition since the Guided Search Model presumes that the more information available to guide attention the more efficient the search (Wolfe et al, 1989).

引导式查册模式认为,FIT设想的特征地图上的个别特征的信息引导人们注意那些特征存在的位置地图区域。该模型与FIT模型的顺序相反,FIT模型将注意力连续地指向位置地图上的位置,然后才从特征地图中访问特征特征(Wolfe, 1994;沃尔夫等人,1989)Wolfe等人(1989)关于联合搜索条件下的平坡反应时间的研究结果,他们将其归因于引导搜索,这也可以解释Treisman(1988)的行为研究结果,即有效的线索减少了联合条件下的反应时间,因为引导搜索模型假定更多的信息可以用来引导注意越有效的搜索(Wolfe et al, 1989)


Wolfes Guided Search Model is built partially on the findings of James Hoffman (1979) which propounded a dual stage model for visual search. Hoffman surmised that in stage one targets are reviewed in parallel employing memory information on their features and are then subject to a stage two serial process, in rank order of similarity to memory items, for more complex comparisons (Hoffman, 1979). This theory can also explain the findings of Treismans later research (Treisman & Gelade, 1980) regarding the parallel processing of initial feature search and serial search for more complex conjunction searches. The first stage of Hoffmans two-stage model also supports the texture segregation findings of Treisman (1985) which suggested an easier parallel processing stage for simple features.


The visual search paradigm findings of Treisman which led to the serial search presumption in the conjunctive condition are also challenged by other experimenters in the field. Nakayama and Silverman (1986) found evidence of parallel processing in conjunctive conditions in the case where one of the dimensions being processed is characterised by depth and another is two-dimensional. Similarly, MacLeod, Driver and Crisp (1988) found that parallel processing occurs in conjunction conditions among moving targets even when dispersed among dissimilar moving and similar stationary ones. Conversely, colour feature searches have been found to require serial searches in conditions where colour differences are small, evidenced by linear increases in search time relative to the number of non-target distractors, countering Treisman and Gelades (1980) findings related to parallel processing in feature search conditions (Nagy & Sanchez, 1990). It should be noted that Treisman and Gormican (1988) modified the Feature Integration Theory stance on colour feature processing to accept that such searches may be driven by serial processing when there are only slight differences in colour, calling into question a principal tenet of FIT and the visual search paradigm.

Treisman的视觉搜索范式发现导致了合取条件下的序列搜索假设,这一发现也受到了该领域其他研究者的质疑。NakayamaSilverman(1986)在合取条件下发现了平行加工的证据,即一个被加工的维度是由深度表征的,另一个是二维的。类似地,MacLeodDriverCrisp(1988)发现并行处理发生在移动目标之间的连接条件下,即使分散在不同的移动目标和相似的静止目标之间。相反,颜色特征搜索需要在颜色差异很小的条件下进行连续搜索,证据是搜索时间相对于非目标干扰物的数量线性增加,这与TreismanGelade(1980)关于特征搜索条件下并行处理的发现(Nagy & Sanchez1990)。应该注意的是,-特雷斯曼和Gormican(1988)修改功能集成理论立场色彩特性处理接受这样的搜索可能由串行处理时只有轻微的颜色差异,质疑的主要原则和视觉搜索范式。


As discussed, key findings in the study of the visual search paradigm point to a dichotomous structure in visual search; feature search with findings principally supporting a parallel processing approach and conjunctive search implying serial processing. It is clear from the literature on visual search and attention that FIT, though challenged and updated, has maintained its position as a leading rationale for research findings. Nevertheless, John Duncan and Glyn Humphreys (1989) put forward an alternative visual search model based on an ongoing continuum of search efficiency calling into question the dichotomous feature/conjunction structure.


Duncan and Humphreys (1989) looked at findings of letter task experiments and identified inconsistencies when Feature Integration Theory is applied. They noted that the body of research in letter task experiments showed results varying from little or no effects of display size to larger effects, supporting the efficiency continuum approach based on similarities among targets (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989). They also found that display size showed increasing effects due to similarity of target/non-targets and non-target/non-targets (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989). The insertion of non-target similarity into experimentation and theoretical construction is a significant addition by Duncan and Humphreys to the literature and they point to the absence of this variable in prior research into visual paradigm research calling into question the findings from that research (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989). In addition, in their suite of experiments, they manipulated both target/non-target similarity and non-target/non-target similarity to produce a set of search efficiency results across a spectrum in both feature and conjunction conditions, supporting their alternative theory (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989).

DuncanHumphreys(1989)研究了字母任务实验的结果,并发现了应用特征整合理论时的不一致性。他们注意到,字母任务实验的研究结果从显示大小的影响很小或没有影响到更大的影响,支持基于目标之间相似性的效率连续体方法(Duncan & Humphreys, 1989)。他们还发现,由于目标/非目标和非目标/非目标的相似性,显示器尺寸显示出增加效应(Duncan & Humphreys, 1989)。非目标相似性插入实验和理论建设是一个重要的补充,邓肯和汉弗莱的文学和指向之前没有这个变量研究视觉范式研究质疑这项研究的结果(邓肯&汉弗莱斯,1989)。此外,在他们的一系列实验中,他们操纵了目标/非目标相似度和非目标/非目标相似度,从而在特征和结合条件下产生了一组跨越频谱的搜索效率结果,支持了他们的替代理论(Duncan & Humphreys, 1989)


In his pivotal work published in 1984, John Duncan put forward an alternative visual search model grounded in object-based attention rather than spatial/location based approaches. Duncans key experiment asked subjects to make single and dual judgements based on one object or dual judgements on the attributes of two objects (Duncan, 1984). He found that accuracy was high in the single object condition and lower in the two object condition suggesting an attentional capacity limitation related to the number of objects (Duncan, 1984). Consequentially, the object-based theory holds that attention can be focused on a whole object including its attributes rather than a specific location as in FIT. It also holds that stage one processes focus on the aspects of the objects themselves and in stage two attention can be focused serially on multiple objects due to capacity limitations (Duncan, 1984). Notwithstanding this alternative view of the role of attention in visual search paradigm investigation, Duncan (1984) notes that spatial/location-based and object-based theories may not be mutually exclusive, noting that Treisman (Treisman & Gelade, 1980) maintained that the focus areas for attention on location maps may be grouped into shapes indicative of objects due to Gestalt groupings (Duncan, 1984). Duncans acceptance of the findings from Treismans visual search paradigm research has been noted in subsequent research which also points to the integration of spatial/location-based and object-based theories (Muller and OGrady, 2000).


Conclusion 结论

As indicated in this analysis, the findings from investigation into the visual search paradigm have been examined over the course of decades. The main behavioural findings support the concept of a two stage process; feature search for unique features that pop outfrom non-targets driven by parallel search processing and conjunction search for targets incorporating combinations of multiple features driven by serial processing whereby attention is directed to each feature at a location in turn. The parallel versus serial processing thesis has been examined by testing reaction times to search for and identify targets with unique features versus targets characterised by a conjunction of features. Much of the seminal experimentation and associated findings can be attributed to Anne Treisman and her associates.

正如在这个分析中指出的,从调查到视觉搜索范式的发现已经经过了几十年的研究。主要的行为研究结果支持两阶段过程的概念;特征搜索从非目标中“弹出”的独特特征,由并行搜索处理驱动,结合搜索目标,由串行处理驱动的多个特征的组合,从而将注意力依次指向在一个位置的每个特征。通过测试搜索和识别具有独特特征的目标与特征结合的目标的反应时间,并行处理与串行处理的论文得到了检验。许多开创性的实验和相关的发现可以归功于Anne Treisman和她的同事。


Treismans FIT explains these findings by asserting that attention is focused on a specific location, recognises the features present and retrieves the corresponding information from the feature maps, informed by the visual cortex modules. This feature information is then bound together into object fileswhich are subject to cross-referencing with stored object descriptions in memory which enables object recognition. Subsequent research focusing on specific feature characteristics has indicated that not all feature search in parallel in nature nor is all conjunction search serial (Nakayama and Silverman, 1986; MacLeod, Driver and Crisp, 1988; Nagy & Sanchez, 1990). Further research on defining which features are driven by which processing models would add to exploration in the field.


Alternative visual search models also address the key findings associated with the visual search paradigm. The Guided Search Model explains these findings by postulating that information from feature maps guide attention to the location map areas where those features are present, rather than starting with attention focused on location maps before retrieving feature map information. (Wolfe, 1994; Wolf et al, 1989). Duncan and Humphreys (1989) similarity approach added to previous findings showing target/non-target similarity and non-target/non-target similarity yielding search efficiency results across a spectrum in both feature and conjunction conditions. As well, the Object-based attention theory put forward by Duncan (1984) builds on visual search paradigm findings asserting that attention can be focused on a whole object including its attributes rather than a specific location. It also holds that stage one processes focus on the aspects of the objects themselves and in stage two attention can be focused serially on multiple objects due to capacity limitations (Duncan, 1984).


Though role of attention in visual search and the binding of features has progressed significantly through the body of inquiry into the field, some open questions remain to be investigated. These include but are not limited to the specific features susceptible to parallel versus serial processing, the effects of degrees of similarity between targets/non-targets and non-targets/non-targets in individual feature recognition and whether the integration of FIT and Object-based attention theory leaves room for the dichotomous underpinning of the visual search paradigm. These studies, among others, would help to enrich the understanding of visual search and the role of attention.





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