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心理学Essay参考案例:Analysis of 'Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession' by Samuel Gladdings

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-05-09 09:28:15 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Analysis of 'Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession' by Samuel Gladdings(《心理咨询:一门综合性职业》分析)”,本文探讨了Samuel Gladding的《心理咨询:一门综合性职业》一书以及Smith、Robinson和Fields发表的两篇关于临床心理健康咨询历史上关键时刻的文章。



This paper explores Samuel Gladding's book Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession as well as two published articles by Smith, Robinson and Fields’ on key moments in the history of clinical mental health counseling. The paper begins with Clifford Beers exposing mental health institutions in the early 1900s which sparked the mental health movement and the organization of associations within the profession. Smith and Robinson (1995) detailed the significant movements and acts that happened in the past, brought the profession to the present and the hopes for the future. Field (2017) spoke on the past 40 years in the clinical mental health profession also highlighting important moments in counseling history. Gladding’s book as well went through the decades of counseling and provided knowledge on important associations, employment in the field and key issues mental health counselors face. This paper illustrates a broad picture of the history of clinical mental health while bringing focus to important associations and legislation in the profession.

心理学 Essay范例

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The history of clinical mental health counseling begins with Clifford Beers who shared his truth about what was happening in the mental institutions in the early 1900s. Beers’ book A Mind That Found Itself  (1908) was used to advocate for improvements in mental health centers and provide better treatment for individuals in these facilities. Furthermore, Beers’ sparked the mental hygiene movement in the United States, as well as advocacy groups like the National Mental Health Association and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill that still operate today.  The focus of the early 1910s was on vocational guidance and school guidance counseling, therefore the National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) was formed. As counseling grew as a specialty so did its association; in the 1950s, it was renamed the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA), in 1980’s it changed to the American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD), and finally American Counseling Association (ACA) in the 1990s.

临床心理健康咨询的历史始于克利福德·比尔斯,他分享了20世纪初精神病院发生的事情的真相。比尔斯1908年的书《自我发现的心灵》(A Mind That Found Itself)被用来提倡改善心理健康中心,并为这些设施中的个人提供更好的治疗。此外,比尔斯还引发了美国的心理卫生运动,以及像美国国家心理健康协会(National mental Health Association)和全国精神疾病联盟(National Alliance for the mental Ill)这样的倡导组织,这些组织至今仍在运作。20世纪10年代早期的重点是职业指导和学校指导咨询,因此成立了国家职业指导协会(NVGA)。随着咨询成为一门专业,它的联系也在发展;20世纪50年代更名为美国人事与指导协会(APGA), 80年代更名为美国咨询与发展协会(AACD), 90年代更名为美国咨询协会(ACA)。

Community Mental Health Act社区精神健康法

Mental health counseling did not see its first significant piece of legislation until 1963, called the Community Mental Health Act. The CMHA act was significant to the mental health counselor movement because it promoted local mental health initiatives and provided funding for more than 2,000 community health centers in the United States. CMHA also provided employment for local mental health counselors with a variety of specialties, “for instance, alcohol abuse counseling and addiction counseling, initially called drug abuse counseling” (Gladding, 2018). The movement also pushed for mental health education through outreach programs.

精神健康咨询直到1963年才有了第一个重要的立法,叫做《社区精神健康法案》。CMHA法案对精神健康顾问运动意义重大,因为它促进了地方精神健康倡议,并为美国2000多个社区健康中心提供资金。CMHA还为当地具有多种专长的心理健康顾问提供就业机会,“例如,酗酒咨询和成瘾咨询,最初称为药物滥用咨询”(Gladding, 2018)。该运动还通过外展项目推动心理健康教育。

American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA)美国心理健康顾问协会(AMHCA)

By the 1970s, mental health counselors were looking to form a professional organization for support and networking to help define the profession. In addition, Smith and Robinson (1995) stated:


By the mid-1970s, it was clear that there was a critical mass of these individuals who (a) were educationally prepared at either master's or doctoral level; (b) worked in community agencies, community mental health, or private practice settings; (c) were delivering a wide variety of services very similar to the more established mental health care provider groups (psychiatry, psychology, social work, etc.); and (d) felt they had no professional home by virtue of their uniqueness. (p. 159)

As a result, the American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA) was formed in 1976, one of the largest divisions of the APGA and helped organize the mental health profession so that it could operate with roles and goals.  In the 1980s, AMHCA promoted for accreditation for other related specialties like mental health counseling; including family and marriage counseling. “In keeping with the strong emphasis on competency-based programs, it was the considered opinion of AMHCA that programs preparing mental health counselors to enter certain areas of specialty in practice should also guarantee skill and provide for supervised clinical instruction for these specialty designations” (Smith et al., 1995).

因此,美国心理健康顾问协会(AMHCA)于1976年成立,它是美国心理健康顾问协会最大的部门之一,帮助组织心理健康专业,使其能够有角色和目标地运作。在20世纪80年代,AMHCA促进了对其他相关专业的认证,如心理健康咨询;包括家庭和婚姻咨询。“为了与以能力为基础的项目保持一致,AMHCA考虑过的意见是,准备心理健康顾问进入特定专业领域的项目在实践中也应该保证技能,并为这些专业指定提供监督的临床指导”(Smith et al., 1995)。


Clinical mental health counseling associations like the AMHCA next major focus was on gaining licensure and clear laws within the professions. Field (2017) went on to say that:

心理学 Essay怎么写

Since its inception in 1976, the American Mental Health Counseling Association (AMHCA) has taken a strong position on the need for high counselor preparation standards in the establishment of licensure, credentialing, and reimbursement for services by third parties such as federal and private health insurance companies. (p. 1)


By the mid-1970s, the APGA was moving closer to state and national licensure for counselors. "Thomas J Sweeny (1991) chaired the first APGA Licensure Committee and he and his successors did so with much success” (Gladding, 2018 ). Therefore, Virginia became the first state to have a professional counselor licensure law in 1976. Several states followed after Virginia, some of the firsts being Arkansas and Alabama. However, Smith et al. (1995) stated, licensure laws differ from state to state. For example, “counselor licensure laws have resulted in the use of at least 16 different titles and a different definition of counseling in virtually every state” (Smith et al., 1995). Licensure laws can either be title acts or practice acts; these acts either protect the title for which the counselor holds or require the counselor to obtain a license to practice. Furthermore, the APGA was becoming a stronger organization, and associations like the Association of Counselor Education and Supervisors (ACES) were outlining the standards for masters and doctoral degrees. Mental health counseling had become a defined professional and was continuing to grow its specialties and emphasizing human growth and development.

National Standards国家标准

In the 1980’s it became clear that mental health counseling would not be recognized without standards for training and certification. Therefore, “In 1981, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) was established with the mission to accredit counseling programs” (Field, 2017). CACREP polished the standards first introduced by the ACES and began to standardize counseling programs at the master and doctoral levels. Field (2017) further stated:

在20世纪80年代,很明显,如果没有培训和认证的标准,心理健康咨询就不会被认可。因此,“1981年,咨询和相关教育项目认证委员会(CACREP)成立,其使命是对咨询项目进行认证”(Field, 2017)。中国教育咨询中心完善了ACES首先引入的标准,开始规范硕士和博士阶段的咨询项目。Field(2017)进一步表示:

In 1982, the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) was established to support the national credentialing of counselors. This has included the administration of examinations required for counselor licensure, most notably the National Counseling Exam (NCE) and the National Mental Health Counseling Exam (NCMHCE). (p. 2)

Finally, the National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors (NACCMHC) worked together with CACREP to continue to standardize the profession and certify mental health counselors, as well as, began to train supervisors for the field in the late 1980s which brought in more counselors to the field.

Employment of Clinical Mental Health Counselors雇佣临床心理健康顾问

Clinical mental health counselors have transitioned away from vocational and schools to now a wide range of settings. Some of these settings include mental health centers, psychiatric hospitals, health and maintenance organizations (HMOs) and health and wellness promotion programs (HWPs). “One place where clinical mental health counselors are being hired in increasing numbers is employee assistance programs (EAPs)” (Gladding, 2018). The purpose of EAPs is to help individuals work through problems they have or may face that could cause disruptive behavior in the workplace. EAP counselors also provide short-term counseling for workers who are experiencing difficulties. However, EAPs are time-limited but refer the client to another mental health counselor if the client needs further counseling. “Another place where clinical mental health counselors may be employed is with crisis-oriented organizations, such as Red Cross, Salvation Army, or local emergency telephone and walk-in counseling centers” (Gladding, 2018 ). In crisis respondents may see a variety of physical or mental needs; therefore, counselors are a vital part in helping the client receive counseling and support. Counselors working in this field may have abnormal hours and may find this job challenging at times. Lastly, counselors can also find employment in settings like “substance abuse, hospice, child guidance clinics, wellness centers, colleges, hospitals, and private practice” (Gladding, 2018 ). The reason counselors are able to be employed in a wide range of settings is due to CACREP standards for training that provides counselors with the knowledge to help with a variety of problems.

临床心理健康顾问已经从职业和学校过渡到现在广泛的环境。其中一些机构包括精神健康中心、精神病院、健康和维持组织(HMOs)以及健康和健康促进计划(HWPs)。“越来越多的临床心理健康顾问被雇佣的一个地方是员工援助计划(EAPs)”(Gladding, 2018)。eap的目的是帮助个人解决他们已经或可能面临的问题,这些问题可能导致工作场所的破坏性行为。EAP顾问也为有困难的员工提供短期咨询。然而,eap是有时间限制的,但如果患者需要进一步咨询,建议患者向另一位心理健康顾问咨询。“另一个可以雇佣临床心理健康顾问的地方是危机导向组织,如红十字会、救世军,或当地紧急电话和无预约咨询中心”(Gladding, 2018)。在危机中,受访者可能会看到各种生理或心理需求;因此,咨询师是帮助客户获得咨询和支持的重要组成部分。在这个领域工作的辅导员可能有不正常的时间,有时可能会发现这个工作具有挑战性。最后,辅导员还可以在“药物滥用、临终关怀、儿童指导诊所、健康中心、大学、医院和私人诊所”等场所找到工作(Gladding, 2018)。辅导员能够在广泛的环境中被雇用的原因是由于CACREP的培训标准,为辅导员提供知识来帮助解决各种各样的问题。

Future Trends and Issues未来趋势及议题

The field of clinical mental health counseling is continuously growing and improving and striving toward providing the best services for those in need. Therefore, Smith et al. (1995) described the future of CMHC as stated, “on the basis of changes in the health care marketplace, we believe that the term mental health counseling will come to mean the delivery of counseling services along the full continuum of mental health services”. The CMHC profession will continue to develop to serve the needs of the mental health community, counselors will continue to be qualified to work with a continuum of mental health services.  “We anticipate that all practicing mental health counselors will have basic knowledge and skills in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders as a part of their core coursework” (Smith et al., 1995). Issues mental health counselors are still facing today are problems such as license portability; for example, Field (2017) stated:

临床心理健康咨询领域不断成长和完善,努力为有需要的人提供最好的服务。因此,Smith et al.(1995)这样描述CMHC的未来:“基于卫生保健市场的变化,我们相信心理健康咨询一词将意味着沿着心理健康服务的全连续体提供咨询服务”。CMHC专业将继续发展,以服务于心理健康社区的需要,辅导员将继续有资格与连续的心理健康服务。“我们期望所有执业的心理健康顾问将拥有诊断和治疗精神障碍的基本知识和技能,并将其作为核心课程的一部分”(Smith et al., 1995)。精神健康顾问今天仍然面临的问题是许可证的可移植性;例如,Field(2017)表示:

If a counselor decides to re-locate and practice in another state, the new host state may not allow the re-located counselor to transfer the license from their home state to their new host state, because licensure may be in consistent between the two states. (p. 5)

Issues like license portability are something the counseling profession hopes to work towards in the future to maintain the goals to adequately serve and advocate for those in need in any state.




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