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心理学Essay格式:Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Comprehension in Adolescents

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-05-23 11:26:29 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的Essay范例,题目是“Metacognitive Strategies to Improve Comprehension in Adolescents(提高青少年理解能力的元认知策略)”,本研究表明,元认知是一种青少年学生可以学习的技能。这是通过课堂上的实践和策略的使用来实现的。

元认知涉及学生的理解能力和自我调节能力,有助于学生在学校的表现。如果运用得当,这项技能可以帮助学生学好所有科目。教育工作者在课堂上使用的以研究为基础的策略,如自我调节、大声思考和模仿,会让学生受益。这些策略和其他策略一起,帮助学生发展批判性思维能力,这将是终生受益的。

Abstract摘要

This research paper shows that metacognition is a skill that can be learned by adolescent students. This is done with practice and the use of strategies implemented in the classroom. Using metacognition helps student’s performance in school as it relates to comprehension and self-regulation. This skill, when implemented appropriately, can help students with all subjects. Students benefit from research-based strategies that educators use in the classroom such as self-regulating, think aloud, and modeling. These strategies, along with others, help students to develop critical thinking skills that can be used for a lifetime.

“Does one think about thinking? “(Beswick, Luszcz, Mann, and Ormond, 1991). As educators, this is something one ponders when teaching metacognition. Researchers feel that understanding the students’ power to direct their own learning comes from self-regulation. In order for students to self-regulate, they need to understand what metacognition is.  Metacognition refers to knowledge, awareness, and control of one’s own learning. Students, who have metacognitive knowledge and skills, have effective cognitive performance (Sekar, 2016). Educators should use metacognition strategies for adolescents across the curriculum to improve all student’s comprehension and learning skills. Before educators can use strategies to improve metacognition in adolescents, they must first understand what it is.

“人会思考思考吗?”(Beswick, Luszcz, Mann, and Ormond, 1991)。作为教育者,这是在教授元认知时需要思考的问题。研究人员认为,理解学生指导自己学习的能力来自于自我调节。为了使学生能够自我调节,他们需要了解什么是元认知。元认知是指知识、意识和对自己学习的控制。具有元认知知识和技能的学生具有有效的认知表现(Sekar, 2016)。教育工作者应该在整个课程中使用元认知策略来提高所有学生的理解和学习技能。在教育者使用策略来提高青少年元认知之前,他们必须首先了解它是什么。

 

心理学Essay格式

As an educator, it is important to understand what metacognition is and the history behind it. There are many definitions related to metacognition, but through research it has been narrowed down to ,“Metacognition is a concept of cognitive psychology that focuses on the active participation of the individual in his or her thinking process”, (Bond, Denton, &Ellis, 2013). Young children are not aware of their thinking processes, but as they get older they retain more knowledge. With this, their memory grows. Adolescents are able to remember strategies and make more predictions from their prior knowledge. Students learn from the knowledge of task and the knowledge of self. Being able to achieve task performance is a result in students metacognition. Early to middle adolescents is a crucial time for students to develop thinking skills. Research shows that by the time a student reaches fifteen years old, they make decisions in ways that are similar to adults (Beswick et al., 1991). Students who can self-regulate are able to make decisions, problem solve and think critically. There is history behind this process. According to the research, metacognition is one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes and products, or anything related to them (Cubukcu, 2009).

作为一名教育工作者,理解什么是元认知及其背后的历史是很重要的。与元认知相关的定义有很多,但经过研究,它被缩小为“元认知是一种认知心理学的概念,它关注的是个体在其思维过程中的积极参与”(Bond, Denton, &Ellis, 2013)。年幼的孩子并没有意识到他们的思维过程,但随着年龄的增长,他们保留了更多的知识。这样,他们的记忆就会增长。青少年能够记住策略,并根据他们之前的知识做出更多的预测。学生从任务知识和自我知识中学习。学生的元认知能力是学生完成任务的结果。青少年早期到中期是培养学生思维能力的关键时期。研究表明,当学生达到15岁时,他们做决定的方式与成年人相似(Beswick et al., 1991)。能够自我调节的学生能够做出决定,解决问题和批判性思考。这一过程的背后是有历史的。根据研究,元认知是一个人对自己的认知过程和产品,或与之相关的任何事物的认识(Cubukcu, 2009)。

It has been the pedagogical goal of theorist to show how to understand learning. John Flavell built on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development. The consensus soon arrived that children who develop effective metacognitive skills were more likely to become successful learners (Golder, Lundie, Perry, 2018). Flavell proved that when metacognition was used correctly students can become independent thinkers, creative thinkers, and reflective learners. He encouraged students and teachers to engage with academic work using creative classroom strategies that promoted higher order thinking skills. He measured students’ knowledge that included knowledge of decision making and the motivation and beliefs of that students’ ability. He examined what made decisions and problems hard and then associated it with how the students learned. Once educators understand the background of metacognition, they can begin to understand the strategies used to teach thinking skills in the classroom.

Educators can help students acquire metacognitive knowledge with strategies to improve their learning skills. Students learn to set goals, plan, organize, self-monitor , and self-evaluate during strategies being used. Students who can self-regulate are able to perform better under pressure and are motivated when it comes to academic success. When using strategies that promote higher order thinking, students retain skills over time and those skills transfer to a variety of contexts. Flavell looked at metacognition as a bridge from childhood to adulthood (Sekar, 2016). The role of metacognition with teaching strategies is not to just reflect their thinking but to improve their thinking processes. Teaching is as an “evidence-informed profession”, (Golder et al., 2018). Due to this, educators want to understand what works best in their classroom to offer vigorous strategies to help their students achieve to the highest of their ability.

教育工作者可以通过策略帮助学生获得元认知知识,从而提高学生的学习技能。学生在使用策略的过程中学会设定目标、计划、组织、自我监控和自我评估。能够自我调节的学生能够在压力下表现得更好,在学业上取得成功时也更有动力。当使用促进更高层次思维的策略时,学生们会随着时间的推移保留技能,并将这些技能转移到各种环境中。弗拉威尔将元认知视为从童年到成年的桥梁(Sekar, 2016)。元认知在教学策略中的作用不仅仅是反映学生的思维,而是改善学生的思维过程。教学是一种“循证职业”(Golder et al., 2018)。因此,教育工作者想要了解什么在他们的课堂上最有效,以提供有力的策略,以帮助他们的学生达到他们的能力的最高水平。

There are many strategies that can be used for metacognition skills to develop. For research purposes this paper discusses the most popular strategies used in the schools by educators. Metacognition includes reading skills such as skimming, utilizing prior knowledge, predicting, self-questioning, and comprehension monitoring. Students who are aware of their thinking as they read have an advantage over other students. They are able to clarify difficult passages and explain what they have read with a great understanding.  There are many strategies for educators to look at when teaching students how to apply thinking. “Wherever metacognitive skills are taught in lessons, there appears to be improvements in pupil outcomes, irrespective of which subjects are being taught”, (Golder et al., 2018). Strategies have proven that there is a relationship between metacognition and intelligence. One of the most popular strategies in the classroom today is modeling.

Modeling is an essential strategy used with metacognition. This is used by many educators to help students learn how to think about what they are reading. The teacher reads aloud to the student and models what to do.  Modeling includes having the student think about their own processes and the products of their thinking. The teacher may use questioning, predictions, and summarizing, for example, to discuss the text that is being read. This helps students become more engaged with the text and shows them how to analyze it as well. The research shows that modeling in consistent practice is one of the characteristics of effective metacognitive strategy instruction (Bond et al., 2013). When using modeling, it is critical to use strategies such as think aloud. This is used to verbalize the steps of what is being learned. It involved posing questions, identifying resources, and reciting affirmations (Bond et al., 2013). Students can be taught with concept maps, webs, and flow charts. Educators can use think aloud with speaking, writing, and reading as a critical element to the lesson taught.  Students learn how to plan, monitor, and evaluate when preforming task with reading. As students use this strategy, they are able to engage with other students about what was read. This strategy is proven sufficient for all student abilities as it forces the student to think about what is read and how to apply it when conversing with their peers (Joseph, 2006). Another important strategy used within the classroom by educators is self-questioning.

建模是元认知的一种基本策略。这被许多教育工作者用来帮助学生学习如何思考他们所阅读的内容。老师给学生大声朗读并做榜样。建模包括让学生思考他们自己的过程和他们思考的产物。例如,教师可以使用提问、预测和总结来讨论正在阅读的文本。这可以帮助学生更多地参与到文本中,并告诉他们如何分析它。研究表明,在一致实践中建模是有效元认知策略教学的特征之一(Bond et al., 2013)。在使用建模时,使用诸如“大声思考”之类的策略是至关重要的。这是用来描述学习的步骤。它包括提出问题、确定资源和背诵肯定(Bond等人,2013年)。学生可以通过概念图、网络和流程图来学习。教育工作者可以将“大声思考”与“说”、“写”和“读”结合起来,作为课程的关键元素。学生学习在执行阅读任务时如何计划、监控和评估。当学生使用这一策略时,他们能够与其他学生就所阅读的内容进行交流。这一策略已被证明足以满足所有学生的能力,因为它迫使学生思考阅读的内容,以及在与同龄人交谈时如何应用它(约瑟夫,2006)。教育家在课堂上使用的另一个重要策略是自我质疑。

Educators also need to use self-questioning when teaching strategies are used towards learning metacognition. Students have to be taught what type of questions they should be asking. This can be done through modeling how to self-question. This improves attitudes in students and motivation as they perform in class. It takes explicit instruction for students to learn how to understand rationalizing of text. As students learn to use questions to answer what they are reading, they become more empowered to break down text as they comprehend it. As educators we need to plan, monitor, and evaluate. Teaching this skill is essential, but it is also important to take the role as a facilitator to allow the student to develop their own questions and learn. “Metacognitive skills develop when students practice questioning techniques because a wide range of thinking processes are being developed. As researchers note, all students should be able to think, reflect, and question in an effective manner”, (Joseph, 2006). Metacognitive strategies bring the average students ability to think to a higher level.

Students learn how to use text on the explicit level all the way to the creative level. This is done with self-questioning. Students need to understand what is said in the text, but it is also important for them to learn how to read between the lines and infer.  Educators are encouraging to generate questions that include evaluating and synthesizing the text. Once students do this, they will progress to learning how to look beyond the text, think critically, and then develop on thinking creatively as well. Students who use this become self-reflective learners. They succeed in exploring their understanding and knowing what they have learned.  Key terms to know as an educator as they are teaching this skill is to understand the different types of knowledge.

学生学习如何使用文本在显式水平一直到创造性水平。这是通过自我反省来完成的。学生们需要理解文章里说的是什么,但是学习如何读字里行间和推断也很重要。教育工作者鼓励提出问题,包括评估和综合文本。一旦学生做到了这一点,他们将进步到学习如何超越文本,批判性思考,然后发展创造性思维。使用这种方法的学生会成为自我反思的学习者。他们成功地探索自己的理解,并知道他们所学到的东西。作为一个教育工作者,当他们教授这一技能时,要知道的关键术语是理解不同类型的知识。

 

心理学Essay怎么写

Declarative knowledge is the knowledge to take one’s own mistakes and learn from it. Using this teaches student how to self-correct. Conditional/contextual knowledge is used to help develop student’s metacognition skills. Students learn to look for patterns and errors. They learn that they are in control of their own outcomes in school. They learn self-concept with this. The last type of knowledge is procedural knowledge. Students learn how to identify what the correct information or approach is to learn. They are able to omit errors and formulate what they have learned in the material. This can used in both oral and written form. Students learning how to use this knowledge understand feedback better when given and perform better (Hartman, 2001). Good students who have learned how to use thinking skills engage in mental interactions with the text by visualizing, self-questioning, and inferring.

Students should be encouraged to interact with the text. Students can use post-it notes and a pen to develop skills ,for example, to an active reader. Learning to write while reading is a great way to teach reading comprehension. “Developing readers may acquire knowledge about various reading strategies, which can be used for the accomplishment of specific reading goals” (Comprehension Monitoring, 2006).  Students who are aware of their reading skills will take steps to clarify the comprehension process (Hartman, 2001). There is a correlation between metacognition and reading strategies to increase reading comprehension in upper elementary and higher grades. Students monitoring their comprehension is not enough. They must use strategies as predictors of reading comprehension (Comprehension monitoring, 2006). Research shows that comprehension is needed in order to be a competent reader. Without comprehension students will not be able to detect inconsistencies within the text they read.  There is a list of things that educators can do to help students become self-regulated learners.

应鼓励学生与课文互动。学生可以使用便利贴和笔来培养技能,例如,对一个积极的读者。边读边写是教授阅读理解的好方法。“发展阅读者可以获得各种阅读策略的知识,这些策略可用于实现特定的阅读目标”(Comprehension Monitoring, 2006)。了解自己阅读技巧的学生将采取步骤来阐明理解过程(Hartman, 2001)。元认知与阅读策略对提高小学高年级学生的阅读理解有一定的相关性。学生监控他们的理解是不够的。他们必须使用策略作为阅读理解的预测因子(理解监测,2006)。研究表明,要想成为一个有能力的读者,理解是必要的。没有理解,学生将无法发现他们阅读的文本中的不一致之处。教育家可以做一系列的事情来帮助学生成为自我调节的学习者。

First, it is important to explain the value of the metacognitive activity and emphasize the need for self-monitoring. It is also important to assist students in overcoming self-defeating behaviors by building their confidence with high interest activities and promote success. Students should be given the opportunity to talk about what they have learned and encourage each other as a community. Students should become aware of their own thinking strategies and ask questions rather than just answering questions. This promotes a deeper level of thinking. It is critical to remind students that effective reading is an active process. Students should be taught that reading requires effort and concentration. Workbook exercises should be replaced with creative problem solving that include checklist, reading logs, and self-assessment surveys.  Vocabulary growth is an important part of metacognition and comprehension. Students should connect prior knowledge to words they already know. Students use self- assessments to promote metacognitive growth as well. As students take charge of their own academic growth, they become more aware of what they are learning. It is also important to talk about how thinking skills will provide success in their future careers. This proves value to real life application (Joseph, 2006). Next, it is important to learn how using these strategies plays an active role in reading comprehension.

Research shows that students who were monitored used cloze reading showed comprehension monitoring to be significantly and consistently related to reading comprehension during upper elementary years (Comprehension monitoring, 2006). These students using the cloze reading strategy were able to able to fill in blanks from the reading they had been given.  Improvement was made for those students who applied metacognitive strategies that lead to effective comprehension monitoring. The development of metacognitive awareness requires a lot of experience with different strategies given by teachers. Strategies must be fine-tuned to work for students through effective instruction and reading efficiency. This can be done with decoding and bringing in different genes of materials to enrich lessons. In summary, the research provided shows how to implement metacognition strategies with teaching reading comprehension. Educators take an active role by explaining the importance of the metacognitive activity in class. Educators should remind students that reading is an active process that implies effort and concentration. As students understand this process it will help promote their self-reflective in their learning. Educators can use reciprocal reading and graphic organizers to emphasize metacognition in the classroom. This helps educators to scaffold instruction with students. Next, one can see how to apply these strategies in the classroom.

研究表明,接受完形填空阅读监测的学生,在小学高年级期间,理解监测与阅读理解具有显著且一致的相关性(理解监测,2006)。这些使用完形填空阅读策略的学生能够从他们被给予的阅读材料中填空。运用元认知策略进行有效理解监控的学生成绩有所提高。元认知意识的发展需要教师大量的经验和不同的策略。策略必须通过有效的教学和阅读效率来微调学生的工作。这可以通过解码和引入不同基因的材料来丰富课程。综上所述,本研究提供了如何在阅读理解教学中实施元认知策略的建议。教育工作者通过解释课堂上元认知活动的重要性来发挥积极作用。教育工作者应该提醒学生,阅读是一个积极的过程,需要努力和专注。当学生了解这个过程时,这将有助于他们在学习中进行自我反思。教育工作者可以在课堂上使用交互阅读和图形组织者来强调元认知。这有助于教育工作者为学生提供指导。接下来,我们可以看到如何在课堂上应用这些策略。

A typical day for an educator starts with lesson plans based on curricular requirements. As educators analyze material and prepare for the class, it is important to assess decisions that are made to see if students are learning to their fullest ability. Students who think self- reflectively and process material can master metacognition. As an educator one must plan, monitor, and evaluate the performance of students and their cognitive ability. Research shows that students who practice strategies during their upper elementary and middle school years develop effective strategies for learning. Students then are able to compensate for weakness in areas that they may struggle in. Modeling and discussions with students will promote self-reflective thinking. “Students need to understand that self-reflective thinking is a vital life skill, a strategic ability that extends beyond the classroom into their everyday lives”, (Joseph, 2006). Educators should teach so that learning goes beyond memorization and moves into the higher cognitive reams of analyzing and application.

Conclusion结论

Students should think about their thinking. In order for them to achieve this they must be taught skills that give them the ability to direct their own learning. Students who can self-regulate understand what metacognition is. It is essential to use research-based strategies to teach students how to think about thinking. “When readers spend time processing the content, their comprehension improves”, (Joseph, 2006). This cuts down on students’ frustration when learning as well as the need to a teacher to give one student constant attention. “Studies of adolescent learning behavior describe metacognitive awareness can be taught, resulting in students’ learning practical skills to use throughout their lives”, (Joseph, 2006). While educators are encouraged to use metacognition strategies to improve learning skills and comprehension in adolescents, more research is needed to investigate the topic.

学生应该思考自己的想法。为了实现这一目标,他们必须学会指导自己学习的技能。能够自我调节的学生了解什么是元认知。运用研究性策略来教学生如何思考思考是非常必要的。“当读者花时间处理内容时,他们的理解能力会提高”,(Joseph, 2006)。这减少了学生在学习时的挫折感,也减少了老师对一个学生持续关注的需要。“对青少年学习行为的研究描述了元认知意识可以被教授,导致学生的学习实践技能在他们的一生中使用”,(Joseph, 2006)。虽然教育工作者被鼓励使用元认知策略来提高青少年的学习技能和理解能力,但还需要更多的研究来调查这一主题。

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