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心理学Essay框架参考:Frankenstein: An Analysis on the Theory of Nature Versus Nurture

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-05-18 10:28:28 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的Essay范例,题目是“Frankenstein: An Analysis on the Theory of Nature Versus Nurture(《弗兰肯斯坦:先天与后天理论分析》)”,一个人所处的环境决定了他日后在生活中成为什么样的人吗?后天培养是否形成了一个人的性格,决定了一个人在以后的生活中成为什么样的人?这些问题是玛丽·雪莱在她的书中试图发展的方法,怪物是聪明的,但很危险。然而,由于其所处的环境和与社会的隔离,它的罪恶感使它变得危险。

Are one's surroundings determined who they become later on in life? Does Nurture form one's characteristics that will determine who someone is later on in life? These questions are the approach that Mary Shelly attempted to develop throughout her book, and that the monster is intelligent, but dangerous. However, its guilt due to its environment and isolation from society made it dangerous to being with.

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Throughout my paper it will discuss from each source the argument of Nature vs. Nurture and how they are all connected. First it will discuss Nature on the different influences that contribute to affecting someone's life. Then Nurture which explains how emotional interaction and isolation affect someone.

It can be argued that the monster's isolation from society expresses how it was affected by nurture rather than nature.

Firstly, in Frankenstein and the State of Nature, the author claims that Frankenstein is enlightened to create a monster, his creation is the destruction of the feminine principle of nature, but the monster wants to be one with nature. The monster wants to find community and even promises to be vegetarian in order to be one with nature, but Frankenstein decides it could be worse so he changes his mind about creating the monster a mate.

首先,在《弗兰肯斯坦与自然状态》中,作者声称弗兰肯斯坦是开明地创造了一个怪物,他的创造是对自然的女性原则的破坏,但怪物却想与自然融为一体。怪物想要找到一个群体,甚至承诺成为素食者,以与自然为一体,但弗兰肯斯坦认为这可能会更糟,所以他改变了主意,为怪物创造一个伴侣。

Throughout this source the author wishes to explain the reasons that Frankenstein's creation goes against Nature. For instance, Frankenstein believes he sees a wondrous light which encourages him to discover creation and mortality. On his attempt to find nature's secrets Frankenstein studies and analyzes different sciences that could help him in this process. According to Frankenstein and the State of Nature, "Frankenstein offers an image of nature's continuing power to resist the human quest for mastery," (480).

In this quote Frankenstein attempts to master nature and obtain enlightenment which confirms that nature is the true problem to this madness, because if Frankenstein wouldn't have went against nature to create a monster this problem would have never occurred. Also, this source also mentions Frankenstein's 'Enlightenment' which leads to the destruction of the feminine principle of nature, because the author believes since Frankenstein created the monster and it wasn't given birth to; therefore, the monster is figuratively is killing nature.

在这段引文中,弗兰肯斯坦试图掌握自然并获得启示,这证实了自然是这种疯狂的真正问题,因为如果弗兰肯斯坦没有违背自然创造怪物,这个问题就不会发生。此外,这个资料还提到了弗兰肯斯坦的“启蒙”,这导致了自然的女性原则的毁灭,因为作者认为,既然弗兰肯斯坦创造了怪物,它就没有出生;因此,怪物形象地是在杀戮自然。

For instance, "by going against the natural process of generation, by making a child of his own without submission to the fecundity of a woman's womb, he symbolically kills mother nature," (478). To even prove my point even further it has been proved that because Nature always takes the unnatural and Frankenstein creation was unnatural which is why the monster returned to nature, "He is swallowed up among the ice-floes of the North," (480).

This is a perfect example of the monster returning back to nature and even at the end of the book the monster was literally begging to be put out of its misery which can be used as an example of how Nature was what made it be good, seeing how he was created as such, but the lack of nurture and acceptance is what changed it to be an actual monster.

这是一个完美的例子怪物回到自然,甚至在书的最后怪物真的乞讨是让它结束痛苦的时候了,可以作为自然的一个例子是使它是好的,看到他是如何创建的,但缺乏培养和接受是什么改变了这是一个真正的怪物。

Next, in The Quarterly Review (January 1818), the author claims that Frankenstein had seen a light which started this madness like mentioned above, and the monster had nurtured itself, and the monster had a conscience. Frankenstein studied death and life in order to figure out how to create one. He had seen a light that encouraged him to put his thoughts into action. According to The Quarterly Review (January 1818), "having made this wonderful discovery, he hastened to put it in practice; by plundering graves and stealing, not bodies, but parts of bodies," (215).

This is an example of going against nature to create a new species. Once Frankenstein seen his new creation in terror he fled and didn't help his new monster understand how to live or what kind of mentality to have. This is an example of Nurture because instead of looking at the inside personality of the monster and teaching him how to be, he instead left his creation to fend for himself, "here the monster, by the easy process of listening at the window of a cottage, acquires a complete education," (216).

这是违背自然创造新物种的一个例子。弗兰肯斯坦一看到他的新创造物就惊恐地逃走了,没有帮助他的新怪物了解如何生活或拥有什么样的心态。这是一个例子的培养,因为不是看着里面怪物的个性,教他如何,他离开了他的创造照料自己,“这里的怪物,通过简单的听的过程在一个小屋的窗户,获得一个完整的教育,”(216)。

Once the monster learned how to think for itself and communicate the monster began to feel confused of why its creator had abandoned it. This angered the monster because he had no sense of home or protection. As a child we learn how to behave from our parents and act, but if there is no nurture who is to say a child wouldn't grow up to be a mass killer, "is surprised that gentlemen pronouncing a funeral oration over the departed Frankenstein; after which, declaring that he will go back to the Pole, and there burn himself on a funeral pyre of his own collecting," (217-218). Therefore, at the end of the book the monster is ashamed of killing all of those people, and is devastated over the loss of its creator. Instead of always looking at the outside, looking at the inside of a person truly shows someone their soul, and if Frankenstein would have understood that he could have nurtured Frankenstein then unnecessary deaths wouldn't have occurred.

一旦怪物学会了如何独立思考和交流,它就开始感到困惑,为什么它的创造者抛弃了它。这激怒了怪物,因为他没有归属感和保护意识。作为一个孩子,我们从父母那里学习如何表现和行为,但如果没有教育,谁能说一个孩子不会长大成为一个大规模杀手,”让人惊讶的是,绅士们对死去的弗兰肯斯坦发表葬礼演说;之后,他宣布他将回到南极,并在他自己收集的火葬柴堆上烧死自己”(217-218)。因此,在书的结尾,怪物为杀死所有这些人而感到羞愧,并为失去了它的创造者而伤心欲绝。与其总是关注外在,而是关注一个人的内心真正展示了他们的灵魂,如果弗兰肯斯坦知道他可以培养弗兰肯斯坦那么不必要的死亡就不会发生。

Next, in Mary Shelly and the Power of Contemporary Science, the author explains Mary Shelly's creation of Frankenstein, what the main characters represent, and her thoughts on the monster's soul and creation. Mary Shelly studied science, mostly Chemistry, before she started writing Frankenstein. It wasn't until she had a competition with her husband, Percy about writing the best scientific and gothic piece, "they then, famously, set themselves a ghost-story-writing competition," (185).

 

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When I read this section I noticed Percy was writing atheist poetry which sparks my curiosity to the fact, was Shelly atheist as well? If so this explains Shelly's ideas towards the creation of the monster, and the lack of information of what creates a soul. The monster and Frankenstein's characters represent Mary in the book. For instance, "one is tempted to say that the creature-who is paradoxically the most articulate person in the whole novel-was a pure invention of Mary's genius," (185).

当我读到这部分的时候,我注意到珀西在写无神论的诗歌,这激起了我的好奇心,雪莱也是无神论者吗?如果是这样,这就解释了雪莱关于创造怪物的观点,以及关于什么创造了灵魂的信息的缺乏。在书中,怪物和弗兰肯斯坦的角色代表了玛丽。例如,“有人想说,这个生物——恰恰是整部小说中最善于表达的人——纯粹是玛丽的天才创造出来的,”(185)。

Perhaps the monster is a representation of her because like the monster she was judged and was outcast in society when it came to intelligence. Frankenstein represented the people who sent her to be outcastes away from everyone else. This is a perfect example of how nurture changed her and inspired her to tell her feelings and story through Frankenstein.

Also, Mary had a difficult time determining how the soul would be created; it's understandable that she wouldn't due to the fact that God is the only one who can provide a soul, "would it have language, would it have moral conscience, would it have human feelings and sympathies, would it have a soul?" (188). If one looks at the creation of one's soul to the growth of a soul it is easily seen that Nurture changes a person, not the environment because your environment is who one was born as, not who one becomes.

同时,玛丽也很难决定灵魂将如何被创造;这是可以理解的,因为上帝是唯一能提供灵魂的人,"它会有语言吗,会有道德良知吗,会有人类的情感和同情吗,它会有灵魂吗"(188)。如果一个人从灵魂的创造到灵魂的成长,很容易看出,教养改变了一个人,而不是环境,因为你的环境是一个人出生时的样子,而不是一个人成为什么样的人。

Next, according to Frankenstein and the Tradition of Realism, the author explains Frankenstein as a father figure, consequences of Natural Egoism, and the Monster having emotion. As Frankenstein creates the monster and then through the process of Frankenstein's authority towards the monster which supports that Frankenstein is the monster's father for he is the creator, "Frankenstein is in a way the indirect father of lesser, more humanly recognizable figures," (311).

The consequences of Natural Egoism which suggests the reason why the monster feels the need to help, but has no real morals to its thoughts. For instance, "wickedness is merely a gradual sliding into the consequences of a natural egoism," (311). Also, the monster's emotion during the death of Frankenstein and the guilt towards all of the murders he had committed proves that his environment affected him not the lack of nurture which he received, "implies a clarity and firmness of moral ordering," (316). However, I disagree with this quote, because it was the lack of Nurture that affected it; the monster was an intelligent and kind spirit until Frankenstein abandons it, and the monster had remorse for everything it had done.

自然利己主义的后果,这表明了为什么怪物感觉需要帮助,但它的想法没有真正的道德。例如,“邪恶仅仅是逐渐滑向自然利己主义的后果”(311)。此外,怪物在弗兰肯斯坦死时的情绪和对他犯下的所有谋杀的负罪感证明,他所处的环境影响了他,而不是他所受到的缺乏教养,“暗示了道德秩序的清晰和坚定”(316)。然而,我不同意这句话,因为缺乏教养影响了它;怪物是一个聪明善良的灵魂,直到弗兰肯斯坦抛弃了它,怪物为自己所做的一切感到懊悔。

Lastly, in My Hideous Progeny: The Lady and The Monster, the author discusses Mary Shelly's life, the creation of Frankenstein, and the inspiration behind it. As discussed above the characters represent parts of Mary's life and how she felt. In Frankenstein the monster's environment changes him from being a peaceful and intellectual creature to a murderous monster. Furthermore, "The monster carries with it the guilt and alienation that attend Frankenstein's self-assertion," (352).

This is an example of how isolation and nurture are more threatening than nature. If Frankenstein would have given him a mate and at least a place to go the monster would have been fine and went on with its life without the nurture of a father/creator and would have been one with nature once again. The inspiration of Frankenstein was not only due to friendly competition, but it reflects Shelly's life of being in isolation herself due to her marriage to Percy. The creature is her and she is the creature, "the narrative strategy of Frankenstein, like the symbolic presentation of the monster, enables Shelly to express and efface herself at the same time and thus, at least partially, to satisfy her conflicting desires for self-assertion, and social acceptance," (355).

这是孤立和后天培养比自然更有威胁性的一个例子。如果弗兰肯斯坦给他一个伴侣,至少给他一个地方去,这个怪物就会很好,在没有父亲/创造者的哺育下继续它的生活,并再次与自然成为一个人。《弗兰肯斯坦》的灵感不仅来自于友好的竞争,还反映了雪莱本人由于嫁给珀西而与世隔绝的生活。怪物就是她,她就是那个怪物,“弗兰肯斯坦的叙事策略,就像对怪物的象征性呈现,使雪莱在同时表达和抹去自己,从而,至少部分地,满足了她自我主张和社会接受的矛盾欲望。

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