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心理学Essay写作:Similarities and Differences between Concepts of Compliance

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-05-12 09:12:25 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的Essay范例,题目是“Similarities and Differences between Concepts of Compliance(合规概念的异同)”,服从,服从社会影响过程的三种形式,可以影响一个人的行为在社会环境中,从时装和不成文的社会规范后,提交不道德的行为仅仅因为个体被要求这样做一个权威的位置。

Compliance指的是一个人屈服于另一个人或其他人的明确要求,而顺服指的是按照某人的要求去做,而从众指的是屈服于群体压力或跟随多数人。从众是一种同侪压力,个体没有被要求这么做,他只是随大流,因为个体想要被接受。另一方面,服从来自权威的人,如教师和警察。个体遵从来自这些权威人物的指示。本文旨在探讨三种社会影响概念的异同。同时也要特别关注那些会影响这三者的因素。综上所述,我们发现其中两种社会影响形式非常相似,几乎处于可互换的阶段,而另一种社会影响形式则与其他两种社会影响形式的影响因素截然不同。

Abstract摘要

Compliance, obedience and conformity are the three forms of social influences processes which can affect the way an individual behaviour in a social setting, all the way from following fashions and unwritten social norms, to committing immoral acts just because the individual was ordered to do so by someone with an authority position. Compliance is when an individual gave in to an expressed request from another person or other people, whereas obedience refers to doing as told by someone and as for conformity is giving in to group pressure or going along with the majority. Conformity is peer pressure, the individual was not asked to do, he just do it to go along with everyone else because the individual wants to be accepted. Obedience on the other hand comes from authoritative people such as teachers and policemen. The individual obeys the instruction that came from these authoritative figures. This paper aims to look at the similarities and differences between the concepts of the three types of social influences. And also to look specifically at those factors that will affect each of the three. In conclusion, it was found that two of the forms of social influences are very similar to each other and almost to the stage of interchangeable, while the other stands alone with influencing factors that are different from the other two.

Introduction

Social influence is the process whereby one or more people presence, whether real or imaginary can affect thoughts, feeling and behavior of individual under extreme or no pressure at all or even persuasion. There are three areas of social influence, namely, conformity, compliance and obedience. This purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the concepts of compliance, obedience and conformity and also to look at the factors that influence each one of them to see the differences and similarities between them. It seems that in conclusion, conformity stands apart from compliance and obedience, which share more similarities than differences.

 

心理学Essay范例

Compliance合规

Compliance happened frequently in everyday life, for example, when an individual performed a task when asked to, this individual is complying with a request. The unwritten law of the group and members is to stick to the rules in order to be considered as being part of the group, this is considered the most important characteristic of compliance.

遵守经常发生在日常生活中,例如,当一个人按照要求执行一项任务时,这个人就是在遵守一项请求。群体和成员的不成文法就是要遵守规则,才能被视为群体的一部分,这被认为是合规的最重要特征。

Compliance refers to a form of social influence in which an individual gave in to expressed requests from another person or other people (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011). This is also known as social compliance. There were many research carried out to find out what really influence compliance.

There are five factors or strategies that influence compliance (Jones & Pittman, 1982). One of the factors, intimidation, is to generate fear in order to let the other to think that you are dangerous. The second factor is known as exemplification, in which an individual attempt to make others to look upon him as a morally respectable person. The third factor is known as supplication in which an individual make others believe that he is pitiful, helpless and needy. The fourth factor is self-promotion, in which an individual attempted to generate respect and confidence by convincing others that he is competent. Ingratiation is the last factor whereby an individual will attempt to get others to like him before subsequently making request for others to comply with him. Another strategy that increases compliance is the use of multiple requests instead of a single request. Multiple requests uses a setup or softener by first making a ‘false’ request and follow by the real request. There are three classic tactics, known as the foot-in-the-door, the-door-in-face and low-ball (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004). In accordance to foot-in-the-door tactics, an individual would most likely to agree to a larger request when an initial smaller request has been agreed. As for the-door-in-face tactics, a person would ask for a big favour at first and then followed by a smaller second favour. The low-ball tactics is based on the principle that one will agree to accept higher increase once he committed to an action. Compliance is not only influenced by persuasive tactics used as mentioned but also by the power the requester has. There are 6 basic powers, the reward power, coercive power, informational power, expert power, legitimate power and referent power (Raven, 1993). Once there is compliance, the reward power states that rewards will be given. Coercive power states that punishment will be threaten or given when there is non-compliance. The influencer will have the informational power if the targeted individuals thought that the influencer have more information than themselves. And individual process the legitimate power if the person is an authorized person from recognized organizations with the authority give commands and make decisions. Lastly, referent power refers to the attraction to or respect the influencer (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011).

Obedience服从

Obedience refers to a form of social influence in which a person gave in to express instructions or orders from an authority figure without question. Or simply defined as being simply acting in accordance with rules or orders (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011). Obedience started at a very young age, for example, individual tends to obey orders or instructions coming from parents or school teachers and when the individual steps into the social to work, he tend to obey his boss. There are also others who are the followers of spiritual leaders and they sees him as a legitimate authority and will tend to obey his orders even if it is wrong. The authority that these individual have are given by the society to them. In most case, obedience is a trait that human developed out of respect or fear. Obedience is a trait that allows human beings to obey laws, belief in God, and follow social norms. Obedience is a virtue that allows schools to be great learning centre as otherwise it would be difficult for a teacher to conduct a class if some students refuse to follow or take orders from the teacher.

服从指的是一种社会影响形式,一个人屈服于权威人物的指示或命令,毫无疑问。或者简单地定义为简单地按照规则或命令行事(Vaughan & Hogg, 2011)。例如,服从在很小的时候就开始了,个体倾向于服从来自父母或学校老师的命令或指示,当个体进入社会工作时,他倾向于服从他的老板。还有一些人是精神领袖的追随者,他们视他为合法的权威,并倾向于服从他的命令,即使这是错误的。这些个人拥有的权威是社会赋予他们的。在大多数情况下,顺从是人类出于尊重或恐惧而形成的一种特性。服从是一种让人类遵守法律、信仰上帝和遵守社会规范的特征。服从是一种美德,这让学校成为很好的学习中心,否则,如果一些学生拒绝服从或接受老师的命令,老师就很难进行课堂教学。

Experimental research into this was pioneered by the US psychologist Stanley Milgram (1963) who conducted a series of experiments, in which, 65% of the participants administered what they believed to be extremely painful and possibly deadly electric shocks to an innocent victim, who was actually a confederate, when instructed to do so by an authoritative experimenter even though many of the participants became agitated and angry at the experimenter. The level of shock that the participant was willing to deliver was used as the measure of obedience (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011).

However, some factors affecting the level of obedience had been identified by the Milgram’s experiment. The of the location is one of the factors. In the experiment, when conducted at Yale University, a trusted academic institution, led to many participants to believe that the experiment would be safe and people also tend to obey others if they recognize them as ethical personality or legal authority. In this case, the experimenters were perceived as from a trusted academic institution. Obedience also increases when the personal responsibility of the carrying out the task decreases. In the study, experimenter wore a uniform or laboratory coat which symbolized higher status of the person thus influencing the increasing obedience. Peer support also influence the level of obedience, if the person have the social support of their friends or the presence of others that disobey the authority, this will reduces the level of obedience. Proximity of the authority will also affect the level of obedience. It is easier to resist orders or instruction from long distant than close by (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011).

然而,米尔格拉姆的实验已经确定了一些影响服从水平的因素。地理位置是其中一个因素。实验在耶鲁大学进行,耶鲁大学是一个值得信赖的学术机构。实验让许多参与者相信,实验是安全的,如果人们承认他人是道德人格或法律权威,他们也会倾向于服从他人。在这种情况下,实验者被认为来自一个值得信赖的学术机构。当执行任务的个人责任减少时,服从也会增加。在研究中,实验者穿的制服或实验室外套象征着更高的地位,从而影响了越来越多的服从。同伴支持也会影响服从的程度,如果一个人有朋友的社会支持,或者有其他不服从权威的人在场,这就会降低服从的程度。权威的接近程度也会影响服从程度。抗拒来自远方的命令或指示比抗拒来自近处的命令或指示更容易(Vaughan & Hogg, 2011)。

Conformity整合

Conformity is a trait that makes people change their behaviour to fit social norms and behave according to the wishes of others (Crutchfield, 1955). In a group, people change their beliefs and attitudes to match them to the majority of the people within the group. When an individual conform, he is also being obedient and in order for people to comply, there must be a perceived authority within the group who can influences the behavior of member of that group. Without this authority figure, it is hard to make members of a group to conform. And if a member of this group fails to conform, he faces the punishment of the authority and in turn loses his credibility which is so important for him. It is this pressure that makes people to conform (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004).

从众是一种让人们改变自己的行为以适应社会规范,并按照他人的意愿行事的特征(克拉奇菲尔德,1955)。在一个群体中,人们会改变自己的信仰和态度,使自己与群体中的大多数人相匹配。当一个人循规蹈矩的时候,他也在服从,为了让其他人服从,这个群体中必须有一种可以影响该群体成员行为的权威。没有这个权威人物,就很难让一个群体的成员保持一致。如果这个群体中的一个成员不遵守规则,他就会面临权威的惩罚,进而失去对他来说非常重要的信誉。正是这种压力让人们顺从(Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004)。

There are much experiments (Asch, 1951; Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003) done to show that when confronted by social norms individuals will often adjust their behaviour to closer approximate of the perceived norm.

In the Aarts & Dijksterhuis (2003) experiment participants who were exposed to pictures of a situation where there is a social expectation of silence, a library, were later quieter on a pronunciation task than the participants who were shown pictures of a normally noisy situation, example, a railway station. This showed that the normative behaviour of being silent had been unconsciously activated in those subjects who saw the library picture.

在Aarts & Dijksterhuis(2003)的实验中,接触到社会期望安静的环境图片(如图书馆)的参与者,在完成发音任务时比那些看到正常嘈杂环境图片(如火车站)的参与者更安静。这表明,在那些看到图书馆图片的受试者中,沉默的规范行为被无意识地激活了。

The Asch (1951) experiment involved subjects performing a perception task, saying which of a selection of lines matched a control line in length. Unknown to the subject the other participants in the room were all confederates, and the seating was arranged so that the confederates would each give their answer to the trial in turn, with the subject giving their answer last or second to last. On certain trials the confederates would all give the same incorrect answer to the question. The experiment showed that around 76% of the subjects would conform to the incorrect answer at least once. After the experiment ended, participants were asked on why they conformed to the incorrect majority during the trials. All participants reported feeling uncertainty and doubt as a result of the differing opinions between themselves and that of the group. The majority of participants admitted knowing that they saw the lines differently to the group but thought they may have perceived it wrongly and that the group actually is right. Others simply went along with the group in order not to stand out or appeared as stupid and to avoid any conflict with the rest. A small minority reported actually seeing the lines same as what the group did. It seems that human beings conformed to avoid social disapproval and it also appeared that nobody wants to be the only outstanding person to voice a different answer or opinion (Asch, 1951).

 

心理学Essay如何写

From the study done by Asch (1951), there were factors found to influence the increase or decrease in conformity. First of all, conformity seems to increase as the size of the group grows and when the group size is small, with only four to five person, there seems to be lesser effect. And when it comes to difficult task, participants who were uncertain of the answer will almost certainly tends to look at others in the group for conformity. Conformity also increases when the status of the group is higher or more knowledgeable and almost always decreases when individuals were to provide answer privately without the presence of the rest of the group. The study suggested that individual conformed so as to go along with the majority as the individual are concern of how they appeared in the eyes of others.

It is interesting to note that while conformity emphasizes on the power of the majority to force the minority to conform their behaviour to the group’s expectations of how they should act, there are research being done recently on minority social influence (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011). Minority social influence refers to a form of social influence in which the deviant minority rejects the group norms and influence the majority to change their behaviour. Given this change in the process, researchers have begun to explore how certain kinds of minorities can persuaded the majority to change their behaviour. The research shows that a minority which presents its point of view in a confident, consistent, yet flexible manner can overcome an uncertain or uninvolved majority.

有趣的是,从众性强调的是多数人的力量,迫使少数人按照groupââ, â”②对他们应该如何行动的预期,他们的行为符合他们的行为,最近有研究在少数人的社会影响(Vaughan & Hogg, 2011)。少数群体社会影响是指越轨的少数群体拒绝群体规范,影响多数群体改变其行为的一种社会影响形式。鉴于这一过程中的变化,研究人员已经开始探索某些少数群体如何说服大多数人改变他们的行为。研究表明,少数人以自信、一致、灵活的方式表达自己的观点,可以战胜不确定或不参与的多数人。

Differences between Obedience, Conformity and Compliance

The differences between obedience, conformity and compliance is that, in obedience, there is a perceived difference of status between the one who gives the instruction and the individual who obeys without question. And in conformity, it is the individual’s fear of social disapproved and being different from the group. On the other hand, it is peer pressure that brings in the conformity among the members of a group. Conformity is also affected by whether the individual’s culture is orientated towards individualism or collectivism (Bond & Smith, 1996), however, compliance and obedience are less likely to be affected by this particular factor.

Similarities in Obedience, Conformity and Compliance服从、顺从和服从的相似之处

The concepts of compliance, obedience and conformity, are all interrelated and shared with some similarities between them. Both compliance and conformity have shown to be improved when there are positive inter-personal attitudes (Gordon, 1996). Likewise, having attention to incidental similarities between the requester and the individual who obeys has shown to increase compliance (Burger et al., 2004) by improving the relationship between the two. Similarly cohesiveness of the group has been shown to affect the conformity (Crandall, 1988).

顺从、服从和从众这三个概念都是相互联系的,也都有一些相似之处。当存在积极的人际关系态度时,依从性和从众性都得到了改善(Gordon, 1996)。同样,注意请求者和服从者之间偶然的相似之处,可以通过改善两者之间的关系来提高依从性(Burger et al., 2004)。同样,团队的凝聚力也会影响从众性(克兰德尔,1988)。

Compliance and obedience also have a similarity in the foot-in-the-door approach. Studies have shown that having the participant commit to a small act initially, such as accepting a taster at a supermarket, can lead to improvement in compliance to further request in the later stage (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). This is also reflected in the Milgram (1963) experiments on obedience where the subject built up from smaller shocks to larger ones.

Compliance, obedience and conformity are all subjected to the effects of informational social influence. Conformity is obviously based on informational social influence and studies (Cialdini, Kallgren, & Reno, 1990, 2000) have further provided evidence for the normative focus theory; that the saliency of the social norm has a significant correlation to conformity. Compliance is subject to informational social influence under Cialdini’s category of social validation (Vaughan & Hogg, 2011), which targeted on the individual’s desire to fit with the actions and expectations of the society. Studies have also shown that the rate of obedience to destructive commands drops sharply if the participants are reminded about the amount of responsibility that will falls on their shoulders (Hamilton, 1978).

Conclusion结论

In conclusion, there are indeed many common aspects between compliance, obedience and conformity, however, there seems to be more similarities between compliance and obedience than those shared by conformity.

总之,在顺从、服从和从众之间确实有很多共同的方面,然而,顺从和服从之间似乎有更多的相似之处,而不是从众所共有的。

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