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心理学Essay作业:The Behaviour of Split Brain Patients

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-04-22 13:07:58 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是心理学专业的Essay范例,题目是“The Behaviour of Split Brain Patients(裂脑病人的行为)”,脑裂病人是用于人的教派的胼胝体切断手术减少癫痫发作药物棘手的(弗雷伯格,2010)和多焦点的癫痫(卡拉特,2013),切开的是这个操作的名字,这是一个非常罕见的技术和一些病人只有部分分裂(可能性,华生,& Rosenzweig, 2010)。胼胝体是拉丁词,意思是增厚的皮肤,由盖伦在二世纪描述;它是人类大脑中连接两个半球的最大的白色轴突束,commissures一词是由Felix Vicq d 'Azyr提出的,用来表示纤维路径,他认为胼胝体是由神经组成的。美国的Walter Dandy在1930年切除了胼胝体,以便更好地接触脑肿瘤,这导致了胼胝体研究的新开端,因为患者没有表现出任何精神、运动或智力异常。(Wickens, 2009)然而,大多数裂脑病例研究是由Joseph Bogen在20世纪60年代进行的。(弗雷伯格,2010)

Split-brain patient is a denomination used for people who had the corpus callosum severed by surgery to minimise the seizures of a medicine intractable (Freberg, 2010) and multifocal epilepsy (Kalat, 2013), commissurotomy is the name of this operation and it is a very rare technique and some patients only had partial split (Breedlove, Watson, & Rosenzweig, 2010). The corpus callosum is a Latin word means thickened skin, described by Galen in the second century; it is the largest white bundle of axons in the human brain that communicates the two hemispheres, the term commissures was introduced by Felix Vicq d’Azyr to indicate the fibre pathways as he understood that the corpus callosum was constituted of nerves. The American Walter Dandy who cut the corpus callosum in the 1930 to have better access to brain tumours led to a new start on an investigation of the corpus callosum as the patients did not show any mental, motor or intellectual anomalies. (Wickens, 2009) However, most of the split-brain case studies were performed by Joseph Bogen in the 1960s. (Freberg, 2010)

 

心理学Essay范例

The early studies of split-brain patients were started in the 1960s by the winner of the Nobel Prize in 1981 Roger Sperry and his student Michel Gazzaniga. Roger Sperry first study was in cats that had the corpus callosum and the optic chiasm sectioned, and he discovered that each hemisphere was unaware of what the other learned. (Sperry, Stamm, & Miner, 1956) He used the behaviour techniques of the split-brain cats to research split-brain humans. The outcome of these studies reveals that the brain functions are lateralised.

对裂脑病的早期研究始于20世纪60年代,由1981年诺贝尔奖得主罗杰·斯佩里(Roger Sperry)和他的学生米歇尔·加扎尼加(Michel Gazzaniga)发起。罗杰·斯佩里的第一个研究是在有胼胝体和视交叉部分的猫身上进行的,他发现两个半球都不知道另一个半球知道什么。(Sperry, Stamm, & Miner, 1956)他用裂脑猫的行为技术来研究裂脑人。这些研究的结果表明,大脑功能是侧化的。

The major discoveries of the split-brain patients were the lateralisation of function, cross-cueing; and the concept of the interpreter; leading to the theory of a modularized brain.

裂脑病患者的主要发现是功能的侧化,交叉提示;还有解释者的概念;这就引出了大脑模块化的理论。

The lateralisation theory which means cerebral hemispheric specialisation in cognitive, perceptual, emotional and motor activities began with the early studies of split-brain patients, the results showed that the left hemisphere is superior on speech and language and the right hemisphere is superior on visualmotor skills, for instance being able to draw three-dimensional objects. One of the case studies, D.R., a split-brain patient, was instructed to look at a dot in the middle of the screen, to prevent the eyes to move. On the left side of the dot appears a word and on the right side appears another word, when the participant was asked what she saw, she responded that she saw the word on the right side of the visual field, however when they were asked to point at the word with their left hand they pointed at the left side word of the visual field. The results prove that the hemisphere were incapable to communicate with each other , the visual and tactile information did not travel between the hemispheres and it showed that the language is superior in the left hemisphere in most of the people, and that the left hand is controlled by the right hemisphere. (Gazzaniga M. S., The split brain in man, 1967) D.R. was also tested her motor control, the starting position was to her hold out her two hand fist closed, he asked her to do a hitchhiker gesture with her right hand and then with her left hand, she accomplished the task quickly, on the other hand, when Gazzaniga asked her to do the same with her left hand first, she was unable to do it. It showed that the patient had cross-cueing information outside the disconnection of the corpus callosum. Thus, the experiment continued and she was asked to close her eyes and make the same gesture with her right hand which she did easily, then she was asked to do the same with her left hand, which she was unable to do. Since the patient had her eyes closed, the right hemisphere was unable to cue the gesture and unable to understand the spoken instruction, the left hand was left inactive. This experiment revels not only the disconnection of each hemisphere but also how the brain can reach a unique result from a modular brain with several decision centres. (Gazzaniga 1985, 2011 cited in Gazzaniga M. S., 2013)

侧化理论是指大脑半球专门负责认知,感知,情感和运动活动,这一理论始于早期对裂脑病人的研究,结果表明左半球在语言和语言方面更占优势,而右半球在视觉运动技能方面更占优势,例如,能够画三维物体。其中一个案例研究,dr,一个裂脑病人,被要求看着屏幕中间的一个点,以防止眼睛移动。左边的点右边出现一个词,出现另一个词,当参与者被问及她看到时,她回答说,她看到这个词在右边的视觉领域,然而,当他们被要求点这个词与他们的左手指着左边的视野。结果证明半球无法相互通信,视觉和触觉信息没有半球之间的旅行,它表明,语言优越的大多数人的左半球,而左手是由右脑控制的。Gazzaniga (m . S。分割大脑在人,1967年)湄也考验她的运动控制,起始位置是她伸出两只手的拳头关闭,他要求她做一个搭便车的姿态与她的右手,然后用她的左手,她很快完成了任务,另一方面,当加扎尼加让她先用左手做同样的动作时,她做不到。这表明病人在胼胝体断开的地方有交叉线索信息。于是,实验继续进行,她被要求闭上眼睛,用右手做同样的动作,这是她很容易做到的,然后她被要求用左手做同样的动作,这是她做不到的。由于病人的眼睛是闭着的,右半球无法提示手势,也无法理解口头指令,所以左手就不活动了。这个实验不仅揭示了大脑半球之间的联系,也揭示了大脑是如何从一个有几个决策中心的模块大脑中得出一个独特的结果的。

Cross-cueing suggests the communication between the two hemispheres via nonneural route. N.G. was another case study of split-brain patient that collaborate with the understanding of the cognitive and emotional cueing. In this test colour light was shown and she needed to say the right colour of the light. When the light green appears on her right visual field which is projected to the left hemisphere, she namely the colour quickly, when the light appears on the left visual field, which is projected on the right hemisphere, she said for instance green and the light was green, then nothing changed. Although, after a few errors on the left visual field, the patient started to use another approach, if the red light was shown and she started saying “green”, she stopped and said red. In this case, very quickly the right hemisphere knows the right colour and heard the wrong one, it gave a cue to the left hemisphere to not say the wrong word by stopped the speech process, or it has shaken the head, shrugged the shoulders or another cue. (Gazzaniga M. S., 2013) Another case was that the patient need to say numbers instead of coloured lights, the same principle was used, and it was expected that the patient respond quicklforonumberer of the right visual field, which happened, however the numbers showed on the left visual field was correct as well, the reaction time wadifferently as was not about the same, 1 was quicker than 2, which was quicker than 3 and so on until 9. It was discovered another cross-cueing technique, the right hemisphere was counting using a head bob when it stop it is the number that appeared and the left hemisphere spoke. (Gazzaniga & Hillyard, Language and speech capacity of the right hemisphere., 1971)

交叉暗示暗示了两个半球之间通过非神经途径的交流。N.G.是裂脑病患者合作理解认知和情绪暗示的另一个案例研究。在这个测试中显示了颜色,她需要说出正确的颜色。亮绿色时出现在她的视野将左脑,她很快即色彩,当光出现在左视野,投射在右半脑,她说比如绿色和光线是绿色,然后并没有什么改变。虽然,在左视野出现一些错误后,患者开始使用另一种方法,如果红灯出现,她开始说“绿色”,她会停下来说红色。在这种情况下,右脑很快就知道了正确的颜色,听到了错误的颜色,它给了左脑一个提示,让它不要说错误的词,通过停止说话过程,或者摇个头,耸肩或其他提示。(Gazzaniga m . S, 2013)另一个例子是,病人需要说数字,而不是彩色灯光,同样的原则,这是预期,病人反应quicklforonumberer视野,发生,然而左边的数字显示视野是正确的,反应时间不一样,1比2快,2比3快,以此类推,直到9。人们还发现了另一种交叉提示技术,右半球通过点头计数,当停止计数时,数字出现了,左半球说话了。(Gazzaniga & Hillyard,右半球的语言和言语能力。, 1971)

The concept of interpreter perhaps was the most imperative discovery of all of split-brain research, which shows that we create a story to explain our behaviours and feelings to ourselves. (Gazzaniga M. S., 2013) After 25 years of research, Michael Gazzaniga and Joseph LeDoux decide to change the question that they asked to a split-brain patient, instead of asking what they see, they asked why they choose that picture. P.S. was a patient with all lateralise phenomena which had been discovered on early studies, the experiment comprised in a multiple-choice option for each hand, to choose a picture that matched to the stimulus presented in the left visual field for the right hand; and the right visual field for the left hand. His left hemisphere saw a picture of a chicken claw and his right hand chose a picture of a chicken; his right hemisphere saw a picture of a snow scene and his left hand chose a picture of a shovel. When he was asked why he chose all this picture he said: “The chicken claw goes with the chicken, and you need a shovel to clean out the chicken shed”, which showed the interpreter.

解释器的概念可能是所有裂脑研究中最重要的发现,它表明我们创造一个故事来解释我们自己的行为和感觉。(加扎尼加m.s ., 2013)经过25年的研究,迈克尔·加扎尼加(Michael Gazzaniga)和约瑟夫·勒杜(Joseph LeDoux)决定改变他们向裂脑病患者提出的问题,不再问他们看到了什么,而是问他们为什么选择了那张照片。P.S.是一个患有所有侧化现象的病人,这是在早期研究中发现的,实验包括了每只手的多项选择选项,为右手选择与左视野中呈现的刺激相匹配的图片;左手的右视野。他的左脑半球看到的是鸡爪的图片,而他的右手选择的是鸡的图片;他的右半球看到的图片是雪景,他的左手选择的图片是铲子。当被问及为什么选择这幅画时,他说:“鸡爪和鸡搭配在一起,你需要一把铲子来清理鸡棚。”

 

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Gazzaniga stated that our brain function in a modular way, and we can achieve a desired behaviour or a goal somehow from “a highly modularized brain with multiple decision centers, not just one” (Gazzaniga M. , 1985, 2011) The case of P.S. which was cited above is a dramatic evidence of brain modularity. She showed that the right hemisphere was able to speak as the left hemisphere after two years of her surgery, which had been started simple and have been increased over the time. Despite being segregated and independent modules, they create a unitary speech behaviour by self-cuing to appear coherent, which provide evidence how the entire system works. (Gazzaniga M. S., 2013)

Gazzaniga表示,我们的大脑功能模块化的方式,我们可以实现所需的行为或一个目标在某种程度上从“一个高度模块化的大脑与多个决策中心,不仅仅是一个“(Gazzaniga m、1985、2011)注:这是上面所提到的情况是一个戏剧性的大脑模块化的证据。经过两年的手术,她的右半球已经能够像左半球一样说话了。尽管它们被隔离和独立的模块,但它们通过自我暗示来表现出连贯,从而创造出一种统一的语言行为,这为整个系统如何工作提供了证据。(加扎尼加m.s., 2013)

In conclusion, the experiments on split-brain patients still result in new discoveries of the brain functions. In the past 50 years split-brain patients have been tested and observed adding to science a new perspective of the brain. The lateralisation theory was one of the first discoveries before the technology of PET scan, fMRI and etc. arrived. The cross-cueing was another great discovery as not only shows the role of the corpus callosum, as well how the brain can communicate without it, and creating new pathway via nonneural route. Howsoever, the concept of the interpreter, as Gazzaniga stated is perhaps one of the most important findings of the split-brain research, showing us that our brain had a capacity to create motives to our everyday behaviours and feelings, excusing us for doing things that it is not logical. Gazzaniga (1985, 2011) stated about the modularity brain as: “the human brain is not an all-purpose, centralized computing device but rather is organized in a modular fashion, consisting of distributed, specialized circuits that have been sculpted by evolution and development to perform specific subfunctions while preserving substantial plasticity.” , which lead to another hypothesis about our brain functions, needing more research.

综上所述,裂脑病患者的实验仍然会导致大脑功能的新发现。在过去的50年里,对裂脑病患者进行了测试和观察,为科学研究提供了一个新的视角。侧化理论是PET扫描、fMRI等技术出现之前的第一个发现。交叉线索是另一个伟大的发现,它不仅显示了胼胝体的作用,以及大脑如何在没有胼胝体的情况下沟通,并通过非神经途径创建新的途径。然而,正如加扎尼加所说,解释器的概念可能是裂脑研究中最重要的发现之一,它向我们表明,我们的大脑有能力为我们的日常行为和情感创造动机,为我们做一些不合逻辑的事情提供借口。Gazzaniga(1985, 2011)对模块化大脑的描述是:“人类的大脑不是一个万能的、集中的计算设备,而是以模块化的方式组织起来的,由分布的、专门的电路组成,这些电路在进化和发展过程中被塑造出来,以执行特定的子功能,同时保持大量的可塑性。”,这导致了关于我们大脑功能的另一个假设,需要更多的研究。

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