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essay写作格式规范详解[留学参考]

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-06-08 16:57:44 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

essay写作有哪些格式规范?essay写作是留学过程的关键一环,想要写好essay,重中之重的是:明确essay要求,逻辑思维要清晰,reference与主题相关等等,这些也都关乎essay分数的高低。写作时,Essay的格式规范是非常重要的,今天我们就来详细看一下。

essay写作格式规范介绍

一、essay写作格式规范

(1)Introduction

Introduction包括:general statements和thesis statement (thesis statement的定义是:a kind of mini-outline for the paper)。这个一般叫introductory paragraph,通常是为了告诉读者what the essay is about。本部分的最后一句还必须包含一个过渡的“钩子hook”,它将读者移动到文章正文的第一段。也就是要过渡得好。

Example:

Women employees’ right are not effectively protected. Under these circumstances, labor law may be a good way to save woman from a bad job situation.(thesis statement)

The essay will explain in detail the women sexual harassment from the phenomenon of women employees’ condition in work place and the labor law about female sexual harassment in western Europe. In addition, it will also describe the wage inequality between male and female workers. Furthermore, the phenomenon, the effects and the law about maternity leave in western Europe all will be referred precisely. (文章内容构成)

In the UK, 90 percent of female workers had suffered sexual harassment (Bajema & Timmerman 1998). (hook)

2)Body

一般来说,essay的body paragraph(正文段)写作结构如下:

1) Topic Sentence:主题句(一句话阐明本段的论点)

2) Assertion statements:主张句(几句话阐述你的论点)

3) example(s):举例(列举一些事实)

4) Explanation:解释(说明以上事实为什么能支撑你的论点)

5) Significance:意义(总结说明为什么本段论点能论证全文的主题)

也可以更简单地分为三个部分,在美国这被称为“汉堡包结构”:

1) Topic Sentence:主题句

2) Supporting Evidence:证据

3) Conclusion Sentence:总结句

Example:

In western Europe, about 66% female employees have admitted that they had been harassed by their superiors (Timmerman et al. 1998). (Assertion statements)

Cela (2015) explain that sexual harassment in the workplace includes one-time harassment and multiple sexual harassment. Women are more likely to be harassed.(example+ Explanation)

If the offender is the manager of a female victim, the offender may use their right to threaten them by controlling the performance evaluation and work incentives of the female staff.(Significance)

1、Topic Sentence主题句的写作要点

首先,注意主题句应该是一个观点,而不是事实。比如:

事实:Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own.

观点:People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.

其次,主题句应该是一个观点,而不能仅仅包含一个话题。比如:

只包含话题:Today I'm going to discuss the benefits of gardening.

包含观点:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.

最后,你的观点不能是泛泛的,而应该是确切的。

模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.

确切:Sherman's destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.

Example:According to ILO (1997), prevention can solve female sexual harassment in workplace, and law-making is the most effective way to avoid this problem.

2、如何引述证据

在列举证据时,首先我们应当保证所有的论据都是与主题相关的。

证据可能包括以下类型:

事实(Facts)

公开发表的观点(Published opinions)

书刊网站等媒体上的调查研究(Research from books, journal articles, websites, etc.)

公开的案例(Published case studies)

研究数据(Research data)

引用证据有三种方法:

引用(Quoting):逐字逐句地复制原信息

复述(Paraphrasing):按自己的语言重新组织

概括(Summarising):更简洁的语言概括原信息 ....

但无论采用哪种方法,我们都需要注意:一、让证据自然地穿插在文中;二、注明来源。

Example:

(1998) showed that 89% of Norwegian women had suffered sexual harassment during work. More than half of the women had suffered sexual harassment by superior or colleague have mentioned already. Therefore, the employment of women may quit their job and may claim for damages because of sexual harassment.

3)Conclusion

总结也是要简洁,其实怎么写结束语,也是有一定技巧的。Conclusion是为了总结你的观点,并建议你的结论可以在更大的意义上的思考。包括:restament or summary of the main points;final comment。

详细点来讲,要点有:

1、提及introductory paragraph

2、 回应thesis statement, 可以用原始语句修改下,但是不要复制粘贴原始语句。

3、总结正文Body中的要点。

Example:

To sum up, in western Europe, the situation of the female sexual harassment in workplace is not optimistic. In addition, the gender wage gap is also great. Furthermore, many female workers do not have paid maternity leave and some women employees lose their job during pregnancy. However, almost all the western European countries are trying to solve this problem by establishing workforce regulation.(提及introductory paragraph)

There is no doubt that labor law can prevent female sexual harassment during working to some extent, reduce the wage gap between male and female, and force employers to offer maternity leave and paid maternity leave to staff who is pregnant. In this case, although the law does not completely solve these problems, it is absolutely useful for female workers. These issues have been clearly defined in the labor law in most Western European countries. (回应thesis statement)

As a result, defining female sexual harassment in workplace, gender wage gap and maternity leave specifically and formulating the corresponding punishment for different situations may have a positive effect on these problems.(总结正文Body中的要点)

4)References

正确引用作品原文或专家、学者的论述是写好英语论文的重要环节;既要注意引述与论文的有机统一,即其逻辑性,又要注意引述格式 (即英语论文参考文献)的规范性。引述别人的观点,可以直接引用,也可以间接引用。无论采用何种方式,论文作者必须注明所引文字的作者和出处。

essay写作建议

二、essay写作过程中的建议

1. 把老师的requirement和Rubric(评分标准。这个一般老师会说明这篇essay或者Assignment 是怎么评分的,点明得分点有哪些)仔细看清楚,自己心里有个数要写的topic和文章的主要content是什么。

2. 去找写论文的要用的包括references在内的各种资料。举例说明:要是写一个公司marketing objectives,那么肯定是要先搞清楚目前该公司的经营状况,要获取相关信息,可以去找该公司的annual report或者财报,里面一般都会有近几年的营业数据。

3.要么在心里列一个outline,要么在文档里面列出来,写outline的好处是可以使自己对文章的结构有个大概的掌握,不至于写在中途"迷失了方向"。

4. 根据总字数和outline合理分配每个paragraph的字数,不能因为写到某个点文思如泉涌就一路狂写,要拿捏好度,只把精华写上,不能在想法多的时候拼命凑字数,后面的同样的内容就只憋出几句话,这样明显会使essay看起来读起来都"畸形",这样的话想得高分就难了。所以,要让段与段之间在内容和字数上"balanced"

5. 学会使用查词软件。很多时候英文论文写作中途,心里有了想法,却不知道如何用英文恰当地表达出来,这个时候推荐使用一些常用的查词软件来把关键词及其常用搭配找出来,附带关键词意思的除了常用搭配,还有一些例句,可以看一下,帮助自己更好地掌握和运用该单词或者短语。

6. 注意多引用权威的学术文件。尽量保证除了essay的首尾两段,其他段落都恰当地引用其他文献的内容,用以支撑自己的topic sentence或者argument,切勿整段全部是自己的ideas,这样老师会觉得站不住脚,但是特殊情况除外。

7. 写完一定一定要润色,润色,润色!因为无论对写出来的essay自我感觉多么良好,写完后都一定要从头到尾检查一遍,对照老师给的essay 要求 订正语言错误和逻辑思维错误,无论多么紧急,都一定要回过头检查,因为一定还有修改的空间。

8. 熟悉各种essay的写作格式,写完后看下是不是老师要求的格式(比如,APA,MLA,Harvard,Chicago等)。值得注意的是,reference list中,有些是需要斜体的,是期刊的文章ref,期刊名斜体,是书的ref,书名斜体,是论文的ref,论文的发表地斜体,就先简单举这几个例子。

以上是essay写作格式规范及写作注意事项,如果有相关写作问题可以在网站查阅资料,也可以在线咨询。

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