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历史Essay模板:Is Canada A Peace Keeping Country History Essay

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-02-24 11:34:36 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是历史专业的留学生Essay范例,题目是“Is Canada A Peace Keeping Country History Essay(加拿大是一个维持和平的国家吗)”,加拿大主张并被认为是世界上最好的维持和平国家之一。实际上,加拿大一直是世界维持和平特派团的最重要贡献者之一。在观察团和维持和平部队方面,特别是在观察团方面,加拿大为这些特派团提供了许多部队。

Canada claims and is thought to be one of the best peace-keeping countries in the world. Actually, Canada has been one of the most important contributors to the peacekeeping missions of the world. Both in observer missions and peacekeeping forces, especially in observer missions, Canada has contributed a lot of forces to these missions.

 

However, the peacekeeping tradition and gentle image of Canada, which is recognized by the world people, began to change, especially under the governance of the Conservative Party. Some military events in recent years and some statements of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper in public suggest that Canadian troops are changing from the peacekeeping role to the role of combat (Bouldin, 2003). Meanwhile, Canada is gradually losing the image of peace and neutrality in international operations. In this paper, some specific events, arguments and policies demonstrate how Canadian peacekeeping activities are starting to become less about peacekeeping and more about war-fighting. And also, the team of Canadian task is becoming peace support operationsinstead of the former team, peacekeeping(Dorn, 2005). Peacekeepingrole of the Canadian forces is already a thing of the history.

 历史Essay范例

2.0 Arguments about the role Canada plays in Peacekeeping关于加拿大在维和行动中所扮演角色的争论

2.1 Canadas contribution to peacekeeping missions

Canada is indeed a peacekeeping country in the world. Canada is one of the participants who create the United Nations, which has taken part in many peacekeeping missions in many years. For example, as a member of the United Nations Emergency Force, the first deployment of Canadian Forces operations promoted the satisfactory solution of the Suez Crisis, which broke out in 1956 and Pearson was given the Nobel Peace Prize for the operation in 1957. And then in the Congo Crisis in July 1960, in order to solve the rebellion of Congolese army and police forces and restore the local peace and order, Canadas first peacekeeping force arrived in this area in August 19. And then some other signal soldiers and a large amount of food also arrived there. In 1973, Canadas main task is to provide support for the UNEF II, which has deployed to the Middle East. In this peacekeeping operation, Canada sent more than 1145 soldiers to participate in the peacekeeping operation (Chapnick, 2010). In 1957, Canada received the Nobel Peace Prize for its international peacekeeping activities. And then in the same year, a monument was claimed to be erected in the capital city, Ottawa. From 1948 to 1990, Canada has participated in 17 peacekeeping operations, including nine observer missions and eight peacekeeping forces, which is the leading one among those peacekeepers (Neack, 1995). Canada contributed over 80,000 people to take peacekeeping tasks to the appeal of the UN (Gough, 2002). In these tasks, many younger soldiers suffer from musculoskeletal diseases and 69% of these cases are sub acute and chronic (Hebert, 2007). In those years, Canada can be seen as the best peacekeeping country and the undisputed leader of the world.

2.1加拿大对维持和平特派团的贡献

加拿大确实是世界上一个维持和平的国家。加拿大是创建联合国的参与者之一,联合国多年来参加了许多维持和平任务。例如,作为联合国紧急部队的一员,加拿大部队的第一次部署行动促进了1956年苏伊士危机的圆满解决,皮尔逊因1957年的行动而获得诺贝尔和平奖。然后在19607月的刚果危机中,为了解决刚果军队和警察部队的叛乱,恢复当地的和平与秩序,加拿大的第一支维和部队于819日抵达该地区。然后一些其他的信号兵和大量的食物也到达那里。1973年,加拿大的主要任务是向部署在中东的第二期联合国儿童基金提供支助。在此次维和行动中,加拿大派出1145多名士兵参加维和行动(Chapnick, 2010)1957年,加拿大因其国际维和行动获得诺贝尔和平奖。同年,据说在首都渥太华竖立了一座纪念碑。1948年至1990年,加拿大参加了17项维持和平行动,其中包括9个观察团和8个维持和平部队,这是维和人员中的领先者(Neack, 1995)。加拿大应联合国的呼吁捐助了8万多人执行维和任务(Gough, 2002)。在这些任务中,许多年轻士兵患有肌肉骨骼疾病,其中69%为亚急性和慢性(Hebert, 2007)。在那些年里,加拿大可以被看作是最好的维和国家和无可争议的世界领导者。

 

2.2 The reduction of assistant for other countries

However, Canadas peacekeeping performance is no longer so active. Instead of helping all the countries which need help, Canada just helps some of the countries selectively. In addition, the peacekeeping troop of Canada is reducing. Some data will be used to confirm it.

 

Early in 2002, Canada was assumed among the top 10 nations as a peacekeeper. At that time, Canada citizens were proud of there peacekeeping forces and the international image of peacekeeping angle. However, it is revealed that Canada has slipped to 38th among the peacekeepers. In the peacekeeping mission in Haiti in 2004, 726 Canadian personnel were on international peacekeeping missions. At the same time, Brazil had committed 1,351 troops, Germany 3,306, India 2,928, South Africa 2,365 and Uruguay 1,908 (Ram, 2004). It can be seen that the number of Canadian force is reducing and Canada is no longer the peacekeeping leader in the world.

2002年初,加拿大被认为是十大维和国家之一。当时,加拿大民众为自己的维和部队和维和角度的国际形象感到自豪。然而,据透露,加拿大在维和部队中已跌至第38位。2004年,在海地维和特派团中,726名加拿大人员参加了国际维和任务。与此同时,巴西派遣了1351名士兵,德国3306名,印度2928名,南非2365名,乌拉圭1908(Ram, 2004)。可以看出,加拿大部队的数量正在减少,加拿大不再是世界上维和的领导者。

 

2.3 More combat activities

In 2001, Canada took part in the task of Afghanistan. The word, peacekeeping, was repeatedly used to describe Canadians participation in the mission. However, Canadians involvement in the mission has nothing to do with peacekeeping. While those forces are flying the flag of the UN, what they have done was to occupy that country, which violated international law and the UNs principle of international missions. It can be seen clearly, Canada began to take part in aggressive combat actions.

 

In recent years, Canadas military operations are inconsistent with its peacekeeping leaderrole. In October 2007, 173 individuals take part in the peacekeeping operations led by the UN, of which 58individuals are Canadian (Rudderham, 2008). And the number is Canadas lowest one in history since 1956. And also, in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in New York, there are neither police officers nor military commanders, who are Canadian. However, at the same time, as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Canada contributed 2774 individuals to the Afghanistan operation led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Rudderham, 2008). The operations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization have been allowed by the UN. But the military actions led by NATO and the UN are totally different. Some actions of NATO are combating and aggressive.

近年来,加拿大的军事行动与其“维和领导人”角色不符。200710月,有173人参加了联合国领导的维和行动,其中58人是加拿大人(Rudderham, 2008)。这是加拿大自1956年以来的最低记录。此外,在纽约的维持和平行动部,既没有加拿大警官,也没有加拿大军事指挥官。然而,与此同时,作为北大西洋公约组织的成员,加拿大向北大西洋公约组织领导的阿富汗行动贡献了2774(Rudderham, 2008)。北大西洋公约组织的行动得到了联合国的允许。但北约和联合国的军事行动是完全不同的。北约的一些行动具有战斗性和侵略性。

 

2.4 Following the policy actions of the United States

What is more, in recent years, Canada is more and more following the policy actions of the United States, especially since Stephen Harpers charge. In some extent, this can be contributed to Americans dominant policy toward Canada in the aftermath of the Second World War, which makes Canadas independent voice weaker gradually. In this section, some of Canadas performances will be utilized to prove the point.

 

In the Vietnam War of 1964, Canada began to compromise the United States. The goal of Canadas activities in International Management Committee changed from peacekeeping to negotiations (Brian, Mandell, 1996). As President Johnson gave up his presidential campaign since he didnt enjoy popular support in America for his policy toward the Vietnam War, one of the reasons for Prime Minister Pearsons stepping down is the Vietnam policy of Pearson. Even some historians said that Prime Minister Pearson was defeated by the Vietnam War.

 

As a member country of Indo-Chinese International Monitoring Committee, Canada has asked for several times to quit. But it stayed there always. In the Vietnam War, Canadas weak voice for peace plan was drowned by the roar of explosion. At that time, the United States told Canada that it would be a heavy blow to Americans hopes for peace if Canada withdraws the International Monitoring Committee. On May 25 of 1973, Henry Alfred Kissinger called to Ottawa to ask Canada to stay in the International Monitoring Committee. Although Canada has totally decided to quit, Kissinger inform the world ultimately: Canada would withdraw its delegation on July 31, instead of June 30 (Thakur, 1980).

作为印度支那国际监督委员会成员国,加拿大已多次提出退出要求。但它一直在那里。在越南战争中,加拿大微弱的和平呼声被轰鸣的爆炸声所淹没。当时,美国告诉加拿大,如果加拿大撤走国际监督委员会,将是对美国和平希望的沉重打击。1973525日,亨利·艾尔弗雷德·基辛格致电渥太华,请求加拿大留在国际监督委员会。虽然加拿大已经完全决定退出,但基辛格最终告诉世界:加拿大将在731日撤回其代表团,而不是630(Thakur, 1980)

 历史Essay怎么写

The government of Canada and its participation in the International Monitoring Committee has been faced with a dilemma. On the one hand, Canada has the good willing and actions to supervise the Indochina peace. On the other hand, Canada has to be utilized by the United States, which makes its hope for peacekeeping yield to benefits of the United States. As the middlemanrole, Canada often inquired the intelligence of North Vietnam. The Vietnam War developed into the directly military intervention of the United States. At that time, Canadas disagreement about the war made the relationship between Canada and the United States strained. However, due to the special relationship between the two countries, Canada showed some compassion to America while it is supervising America, which made Canada a thankless task.

 

Canadas behavior to participate in the International Management Committee and the International Monitoring Committee was not so active and voluntary. The reason is mainly that Canada is not willing to offend the United States and it also wants to maintain and develop its international influence and prestige. For the first time, Canada helps the United States save the Saigon regime and expand the Vietnam War. And for the second time, Canada helps the United States withdraw from Vietnam in a decent way.

加拿大参与国际管理委员会和国际监督委员会的行为并不那么积极和自愿。究其原因,主要是加拿大不愿得罪美国,同时也希望保持和发展自己的国际影响力和威望。加拿大第一次帮助美国拯救了西贡政权,并扩大了越南战争。这是加拿大第二次帮助美国体面地从越南撤军。

 

Until 1967, Canada has spent 13years on the position of the International Management Committee. During the period, it is a pleader at the best time and an accomplice at the worst time. Whether at the best time or at the worst time, Canadas behavior has no effect on the peace (Thakur, 1980). Canadas action is not only due to the pressure from the United States, but also to self-interest factors.

 

Therefore, in many occasions or events, Canada can not get rid of the image of the complicity of the United States. In dealing with the issue of the Vietnam War, Canada and the United States always have frictions, which are only about the means, not the purpose. Canada hastily accepted the Domino effect of Eisenhower, which ties Canada to the global hegemony policy of the United States and makes Canada lose the opportunity to act independently in international affairs. Canada is always courteous but without sincerity while the United States repeatedly shows stubborn. In the Vietnam War, although Canada is not as hard as in the Korean War, Canada expresses resignation and even compliance towards the behaviors of the United States.

因此,在许多场合或事件中,加拿大无法摆脱美国的共谋形象。在处理越南战争问题上,加拿大和美国总是有摩擦,这只是在手段上,而不是目的上。加拿大仓促接受艾森豪威尔的多米诺效应,将加拿大与美国的全球霸权政策联系在一起,失去了在国际事务中独立行事的机会。加拿大总是彬彬有礼而不真诚,而美国则一再表现出固执。在越南战争中,加拿大虽然没有朝鲜战争中那么强硬,但对美国的行为表现出了顺从甚至服从。

 

Canada is willing to be the loyal follower of America, which means that Canada is more of a fighter, not a peacekeeper. In 2006, after the Middle East conflict, the conflict between Lebanon and Israel, the newly appointed Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper claimed that Israeli soldiers should take responsibility for the increasing armed conflicts, which is in conformity with Bushs attitude.

 

3.0 Recommendations on policies in Peacekeeping3.维持和平政策建议

The UN wants to build up a neutral military to promote the resolution of international conflict (Neack, 1995). So as a participating country in peacekeeping missions and the leader peacekeeper, Canada should take in those peacekeeping missions with relentless pursuit without concerning individual interest or other intentions. Canada should develop its tradition of loving peace and fulfill the obligations of a peacekeeping country, which is the only way to maintain Canadas international image of friendly and peaceful country.

联合国希望建立一个中立的军队来促进国际冲突的解决(Neack, 1995)。因此,加拿大作为维和行动的参加国和维和行动的领先者,应不顾个人利益和其他意图,坚持不懈地参与维和行动。只有发扬热爱和平的传统,履行好作为维和国家的义务,才能维护加拿大友好、和平的国际形象。

 

3.1 Domestic policy

In the aspect of domestic policy, Canada should pay more attention to livelihood issues, the security of citizens and firm its committed attitude toward peacekeeping. And also, Canada should recognize that Canadian people are continuously supporting the military forces to maintain the peace of the world, not for other intentions (Donais, 2004). If Canada forces pursuit just self-interest and short-term interest or do some combat operations in the peacekeeping missions, Canadian citizens will be disappointed and feel embarrassed about the peacekeeping leaderlabel of Canada. Canada must strengthen its attitude towards the peacekeeping program and express its firm decision to its citizens. Then Canada citizens can live in a steady and pleasant country and they can still be pride of the international image of friendly and peacekeeping country.

 

3.2 Foreign policy

On the other hand, in the aspect of foreign policy, Canada should maintain its international image of peacekeeping country and take part in peacekeeping missions actively. The benefits Canada can get from the continuous peacekeeping activities can be analyzed from two aspects. Firstly, Canada can continue its contributions to world service, especially in world peace and security, which show most Canadiansstrong desire for a peace world based on law and order instead of war-fighting (Dorn, 2005). Secondly, Canada lies next to the United States, which is powerful. Since America pay much attention to military force, Canada can build up its own feature and special image by taking part in peacekeeping activities. In addition, the United States is Canadas most important neighbor and the two countries maintain a close relationship with each other in the aspects of politic, economy and other fields. Successive governments of Canada take the relationship between Canada and the United States seriously as the cornerstone of its foreign policy. In general, Canada should maintain its close relationship with the United States. At the same time, Canada should emphasize its independence. In addition, Canada should stick to its neutral position and peace principle in any peacekeeping mission.

另一方面,在外交政策方面,加拿大应维护其维和国家的国际形象,积极参与维和行动。加拿大从持续的维和行动中得到的好处可以从两个方面来分析。首先,加拿大可以继续为世界服务做出贡献,特别是在世界和平与安全方面,这表明大多数加拿大人强烈希望建立一个以法律和秩序为基础的和平世界,而不是战争(Dorn, 2005)。其次,加拿大毗邻强大的美国。由于美国对军事力量的重视,加拿大可以通过参与维和活动来建立自己的特色和特殊形象。此外,美国是加拿大最重要的邻国,两国在政治、经济等领域保持着密切的关系。加拿大历届政府都把加拿大与美国的关系作为其外交政策的基石。总的来说,加拿大应该与美国保持密切的关系。与此同时,加拿大应强调其独立性。此外,加拿大在任何维和行动中都应坚持其中立立场和和平原则。

 

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