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人力资源Essay写作:Domestic and International HRM

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-01-14 09:16:08 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是Domestic and International HRM(国内和国际人力资源管理)”,世界变得更加全球化,竞争比以往任何时候都更加激烈,随着越来越多的公司开始在国际市场上运营,人们对竞争优势的不同元素进行了广泛的搜索(Beck, 2011)。获得竞争对手优势的一个主要组成部分可以在人力资源管理方面,特别是在国际人力资源管理方面。管理的质量似乎在国际上比国内人力资源管理更重要,使它甚至更重要的公司在这一领域是有效的(僧侣等人,2001)。人力资源管理“是指组织为有效利用其人力资源而进行的活动”(Dowling et al.2008: 3)。这些活动包括人员配备、绩效管理、薪酬、培训和发展以及人力资源规划。事实上,人力资源管理是任何组织的关键。Ozbilgin等人(2014)认为,人力资源管理是一种职能,它包括组织内部的补偿、评估、培训和选择员工的方法,以及遵守健康和安全法、劳动和平等就业法。国际人力资源管理可以看作是这些人力资源的全球管理(BrewsterSuutari, 2005)SchularTarique(2007:717)认为,国际人力资源管理领域关注的是“理解、研究、应用和修改所有在内部和外部环境下影响人力资源管理过程的人力资源活动”。


The world has become more globalised and more competitive than ever before, and as more firms begin to operate in the international marketplace there is an extensive search for different elements of competitive advantage (Beck, 2011). A major component of gaining an advantage over competitors could be in terms of human resource management and especially in international human resource management. The quality of management seems to be more critical in international, than domestic human resource management too, making it even more vital that firms are effective in this area (Monks et al., 2001). Human resource management refers to those activities undertaken by an organisation to effectively utilise its human resources(Dowling et al., 2008: 3). These activities include those such as staffing, performance management, compensation, training and development and human resource planning. Indeed, human resource management is key for any organisation. Ozbilgin et al., (2014) assert that human resource management is a function which encompasses the methods of compensating, appraising, training and selecting employees within an organisation, as well as complying with health and safety, labour and equal employment laws. International human resource management can be seen as the worldwide management of these human resources (Brewster and Suutari, 2005). Schular and Tarique (2007:717) claim that the field of international human resource management is concerned with understanding, researching, applying and revising all human resource activities in internal and external contexts as they impact the processes of managing human resources.


This essay will look at human resource management, and see what is similar and what is different when human resource management goes international. This is important due to the fact that there are many challenges in managing overseas activities for companies, and this is why the third section of this essay will be addressing the issue of best practice in international human resource management. Finally, the conclusion will draw these sections together to look at how the challenging aspect of international human resource management.



The similarities between domestic and international human resource management国内外人力资源管理的相似之处

This first section of the essay will look at the similarities between domestic and international human resource management. Human resource management is similar in both the domestic and international marketplaces as they have similar basic functions in businesses as mentioned within the introduction. All human resource functions have the key aim of to effectively utilising the human capital which is present within the organisation. Aswathappa (2008) asserts that human resource functions are basically the same whether they extend to several countries, or if they are specific to one single country. Regardless of the countries human resource managers are in, the HR manager still needs to plan the human resources, train and develop people, compensate them, hire the correct employees in the correct number, as well as maintain and motivate the workers in the company, and this still stands true whether or not this is in a domestic or global setting (Aswathappa, 2008).



As well as this, the environmental forces which impact upon the functioning of a human resource department are the same, depending on if the business is global or domestic (Aswathappa, 2008). These all include political, cultural, economic and legal external constraints, and they can influence the way that human resource functions are carried out both in domestic as well as in global businesses(Aswathappa, 2008: 67). It can be seen that a human resource function in a business has one overriding objective, which is ensuring the effectiveness of an organisation through interventions such as multiskil developments, team building, motivation, performance management and talent retention. Regardless of if the company is a multinational one operating in ten different nations, or a domestic business these activities are still present and are the key tasks and requirements of the human resource function, and as such still require effective management by human resource professionals. (Aswathappa, 2008).

此外,影响人力资源部门运作的环境力量是相同的,取决于业务是全球还是国内(Aswathappa, 2008)。这些都包括政治、文化、经济和法律的外部约束,它们可以影响人力资源职能“在国内和全球企业中执行的方式”(Aswathappa, 2008: 67)。可以看出,企业中的人力资源职能有一个压倒一切的目标,即通过多种技能开发、团队建设、激励、绩效管理和人才保留等干预措施,确保组织的有效性。无论公司是一个跨国公司,在10个不同的国家,或国内业务,这些活动仍然存在,是人力资源功能的关键任务和要求,因此仍然需要人力资源专业人士的有效管理。(Aswathappa, 2008)


The differences between domestic and international human resource management国内外人力资源管理的差异

After looking at the similarities, the differences between these forms of human resource management will now be looked at. International human resource management can be seen as being characterised by more heterogeneous functions, greater involvement in employers personal life, different emphasis on managing training, and more external influences(Alhafaji, 1995: 90). International HRM managers are needed to be even more diligent due to the fact there is usually greater dissatisfaction in a multinational environment than a domestic one (Alhafaji, 1995). Dowling et al., (2008) assert that they find the complexity of operating in different countries and having employees from a range of different national categories is one of the key variables in differentiating international human resource management from domestic human resource management. These result in six factors which contribute to this complexity; more HR activities, the need for a broader perspective, more involvement in employees personal lives, changes in the emphasis as employees consist of more expatriates who mix with locals, the exposure to risk and an increased range of external influences (Dowling et al., 2008). More human resource activities are needed in order to operate within an international environment, such as international tax, relocation and orientation as well as having more services for expatriates as well as language translation services (Dowling et al., 2008). These are all services which would not be necessary within the domestic market. There is also a need for a broader perspective as those HR managers who work in a domestic environment will normally administer human resource programmes for one national group of employees, these are all covered by one compensation policy and also taxed by the same national government (Dowling et al., 2008).

在研究了这些相似之处之后,我们现在来看看这些形式的人力资源管理的不同之处。可以认为,国际人力资源管理的特点是“职能更加多样化,更多地参与雇主的个人生活,对管理培训的强调不同,以及更多的外部影响”(Alhafaji, 1995: 90)。国际人力资源管理管理者需要更加勤奋,因为跨国环境通常比国内环境有更大的不满(Alhafaji, 1995)Dowling et al.(2008)认为,他们发现在不同国家运营的复杂性和拥有来自一系列不同国家类别的员工是区分国际人力资源管理和国内人力资源管理的关键变量之一。这就导致了这种复杂性的六个因素;更多的人力资源活动,对更广阔的视角的需要,更多地参与员工的个人生活,随着员工中有更多与当地人混在一起的外派人员,重点的变化,风险的暴露和外部影响范围的增加(Dowling等人,2008)。为了在国际环境中运作,需要更多的人力资源活动,如国际税收、搬迁和培训,以及为外派人员提供更多的服务和语言翻译服务(Dowling et al.2008)。这些都是国内市场不需要的服务。还有一个需要一个更广泛的角度来看,那些在国内环境中工作的人力资源经理通常会管理人力资源规划为一个国家集团的员工,这些都是由一个补偿政策也由同一国家政府征税(Dowling et al ., 2008)


In terms of risk, there are also more human and financial consequences of failing within the international marketplace, as opposed to in the domestic market. Expatriate failure and the underperformance of employees on international assignments, for example, are very costly to international corporations. The cost of such employees is often three times as high as if they were to be working within their domestic market (Dowling et al., 2008). Keeley (2001) also asserts that there are difficulties in integrating host country national managers into the process of their subsidiaries that are abroad. In more recent times, major multinationals must now take into consideration the political risk as well as terrorism and the spending which is needed on protection against terrorism, in light of the 9/11 attacks in New York (Dowling et al., 2008). In International human resource management there are also more external factors, such as the types of government, the state of different economies and different generally accepted practices of doing business in the various companies where a multinational corporation may operate within (Dowling et al., 2008). International human resource management also has more involvement in the personal life of its employees. For example, it is necessary for human resources to understand every aspect of compensation packages provided in the foreign assignment, and the department would need to know the readiness of employees family to relocate, as well as supporting the family in adjusting to life in a foreign country (Dowling et al., 2008).


Harris et al., (2004) assert that another key difference is the cultural differences that are needed to be managed in international human resource management. With the increasing internationalisation of employment, employees in the same organisations now possess many different values and attitudes towards both work and their personal lives. There are many stereotypes inherent within these different cultures, such as Americans being work obsessed and the Japanese being overly polite (Harris et al., 2004). These national stereotypes show that different nationalities work in different ways, and it is therefore necessary that an international human resource manager has an awareness of these cultural differences, and that this can affect many different human resource functions such as recruitment and selection, as well as performance appraisal (Harris et al., 2004). Therefore, there needs to be care taken by international human resource managements on deciding whether to standardise the processes in human resource departments around the world, or choose to localise them dependent on the area even though this initial setup may be more costly and complex, but could be more effective in the long run.

Harris et al.(2004)认为另一个关键的差异是在国际人力资源管理中需要管理的文化差异。随着就业的日益国际化,同一组织的雇员现在对工作和个人生活有许多不同的价值观和态度。这些不同的文化中有很多固有的刻板印象,比如美国人痴迷于工作,日本人过于礼貌(Harris et al.2004)。这些民族刻板印象表明,不同的民族以不同的方式工作,因此,国际人力资源管理者有必要了解这些文化差异,这可能会影响许多不同的人力资源功能,如招聘和选择,以及绩效评估(Harris et al.2004)。因此,需要护理国际人力资源管理在决定是否采取标准化的进程在世界各地的人力资源部门,或选择本土化它们依赖于区域即使这初始设置可能更昂贵和复杂,但可能是更有效的从长远来看。


Best practice in international human resource management国际人力资源管理的最佳实践

The need to develop best practice within international human resource management is becoming increasingly important, as more and more enterprises turn international and expand worldwide to tap into growing markets (Geringer et al., 2002). Stiles and Trevor (2006) attempt to identify the ways in which multinational organisations should manage their people in companies which are diverse in terms of the culture and geography that they encompass. This is because expanding internationally requires the attention of the company to have both global standards, as well as local market sensitivity, and this was seen as one of the marks of best practice within international human resource management (Stiles and Trevor, 2006). They move on to say that across all the organisations studied it was important to have rigorous and selection procedures, as well as training and development across all levels of the company, and developmental appraisal as well as performance linked pay (Stiles and Trevor, 2006). Other best practices included having flexible job design, team working as well as two way communications within the company. Values based employment practices were seen as important, and these enabled having a successful cultural fit of employees within the company, which increased commitment and retention in the organisation (Stiles and Trevor, 2006). Overall, it can be seen that when trying to achieve best practice within international human resource management, that it is important for organisations to focus on local knowledge, but with also ensuring there is a centralised HQ-centric view of the worldin these departments too (Stiles and Trevor, 2006).

随着越来越多的企业走向国际化,并在全球范围内扩张以进入不断增长的市场,在国际人力资源管理中发展最佳实践的需要变得越来越重要(Geringer等人,2002)。斯泰尔斯和特雷弗(2006)试图确定跨国组织应该在公司中管理其员工的方式,这些公司在文化和地理方面是多样化的,他们所包含的。这是因为国际扩张需要公司的注意力,既要有全球标准,也要有当地市场的敏感性,这被视为国际人力资源管理最佳实践的标志之一(StilesTrevor, 2006)。他们接着说,在所有研究的组织中,有严格的和选择程序是重要的,以及在公司所有级别的培训和发展,以及发展评估和绩效挂钩的薪酬(StilesTrevor, 2006)。其他最佳实践包括灵活的职位设计、团队合作以及公司内部的双向沟通。基于价值观的雇佣实践被认为是重要的,这些使员工在公司内部拥有一个成功的文化契合,这增加了在组织中的承诺和保留(StilesTrevor, 2006)。总的来说,可以看到,当试图在国际人力资源管理中实现最佳实践时,组织关注本地知识是很重要的,但也要确保在这些部门中也有一个集中的“以总部为中心的世界观”(StilesTrevor, 2006)


However, Stiles and Trevor (2006) conclude by saying that it is not enough for organisations to simply adopt best practice, or to attempt to develop innovative solutions in isolation. Instead, the formulation and execution of these needs to be aligned with business needs at all levels, both on a corporate level and locally. These also need to be not only integrated with other human resource practices but with all the various human, social and organisational elements in the organisation that effectiveness is dependent on. This can be seen as the responsibility of the leadership within the company, as leadership capability is central to the effective management of human capital(Stiles and Trevor, 2006: 52). As well as this, Marchington and Grugulis (2000) assert that searching for a best practice is problematic. This is because, according to their studies there are times when asserted best practices appear contradictory messages. This is due to the fact that human resource practices are not universally applicable. They move on to state that in presenting the argument for the adoption of best practice HRM, the nature of the employment relationship itself is over simplified and distorted(Marchington and Grugulis, 2000: 1121). Therefore it could be argued that there is no generic, one size fits all best practice of international human resources that can be applied to every multinational organisation. Instead, organisations need to consider how each process would impact and effect their specific company and its needs.



Human resource practitioners and researchers are becoming concerned with the shift towards more globalised businesses, and the impact that this has on international human resource management (Kiessling and Harvey, 2005). This is becoming even more of a pressing issue as multinational enterprises themselves have realised that human resource management can play an extremely important role in gaining and retaining a competitive advantage (Schuler and Jackson, 2005). It has been seen in this essay that there are a number of differences between international and domestic human resource management. These are differences which are large enough to have a sizeable and quantifiable impact upon an organisation if they are not taken into account. The main differences identified are the fact that there are a wide range of problems such as international taxation and dealing with expatriates and an assortment of different cultures in international companies that domestic human resource managers would not need to deal with. However, similarities still exist, and the main function of the human resource department, to effectively create organisational effectiveness through effective management of employees in the company, remains the same regardless of how many countries the company may operate in. It was also seen that there is no best practice in regards of international human resource management, due to the fact that companies are not the same in how they operate and the employees in them. Therefore, organisations need to consider how different policies and procedures would impact their employees before implementing them.

人力资源从业者和研究人员正日益关注企业走向更加全球化的转变,以及这对国际人力资源管理的影响(KiesslingHarvey, 2005)。这是一个更加紧迫的问题,因为跨国企业自己已经意识到,人力资源管理可以发挥极其重要的作用,以获得和保持竞争优势(SchulerJackson, 2005)。本文认为,国际人力资源管理与国内人力资源管理存在着诸多差异。如果不将这些差异考虑在内,这些差异大到足以对一个组织产生相当大的、可量化的影响。确定的主要差异是,存在广泛的问题,如国际税收和与外籍人士打交道,以及国际公司中各种不同的文化,国内人力资源经理不需要处理这些问题。然而,相似之处仍然存在,人力资源部门的主要职能,通过对公司员工的有效管理来有效地创造组织的有效性,无论公司在多少个国家运营都是一样的。也有人认为,在国际人力资源管理方面没有最佳做法,因为各公司的经营方式和雇员都不一样。因此,组织需要考虑不同的政策和程序在实施之前会如何影响他们的员工。




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