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Research Proposal格式范文:报酬管理对就业保持的影响

时间:2017-07-14 12:51来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:cinq 点击:
本文是留学生Research Proposal写作格式范文,主要内容是针对报酬管理对就业保持的影响的这一问题进行研究分析。
在如今二十一世纪,对于任何一个组织面临的最大挑战之一是确保其较长的一段时间的持续发展在动态的商业环境。因此,对员工保留已成为非常重要的,一个组织的关键问题,有广泛的证据,无论是面临挑战在今天竞争的劳动力市场,在经济不景气的极端组织。每个组织的成败取决于组织中的人员素质。在过去的几十年里,许多研究已经发生的因素,找出既能保证在这个竞争激烈的业务领域。大多数研究人员都关心人力资源管理,特别是在留住员工方面,这是最佳的工作人员,确保提高销售、客户满意度,维持员工和管理层之间的平衡关系,从而产生组织的整体增长。最近的研究表明,在过去的十年劳动力周转率增加了惊人的速度,即使失业率很高,超过86%的雇主面临吸引员工和超过58%的组织没有留住员工困难的挑战。
 
Background of the study: 研究背景
In Today`s time, 21st century, one of the greatest challenges for any organization is to ensure their sustaibabiliy for a longer period of time in the dynamic business environment. Therefore, the retention of ecmployees has become of paramount importance and a critical issue for an organization as there is extensive evidence regardlessly the organization facing retention challenges in today competitive labour market during the extreme economic downturn. The success and failure of every organization depends on the quality of people found in the organization. During the last few decades a lots of research has been taking place to find out the factors involved which can ensure their long time sucdess in this competitive business field. Most of the researchers are concerned about human resources management, particularly in the employee retention which is the best hands ensures improved sales, customer satisfaction and can maintained balanced relationship between staff and management to generate overall growth of the organization. Recent research reveals that labour turnover rate has increased alarming rate over the last decade at 1.3% per months by Ramlall (2004) and even if, when unemployment rate is high, more 86% of employers were facing difficult challenges to attract employees and more than 58% organization were failing to retain their employees by Hale (1998 cited in Ramlall, 2004)
 
The factors of reward management have a great correlation with employee retention. Reward management is term related to factors that can satisfy and motivate the employees to deploye themselves towards an organization to achieve organizational goal, building up trust and being committed toward the organization, which can induce them to be retained long term in the organization . Most of the rganizations in public and private sectors rely on employement retention by the reward system which has been on going research since long time. Recently, research revealed that employee retention is inhance by the compensation and reward system, Rashid and Zhao (2009).
 
A research report by Metcalf et al (2005) found that in 2001-2002 approximately 87% of academic staffs were working in the same institution those who worked in the previous year and recruitment rate was thirteen percent and this figure is include a high percentage who were new to the institution.
 
It was recorded that nearly 7% of academic staffs has left. At the same time the number of staffs recruited has greater than the number leaving. This figures indicate that the degree of disparity between these two figures under-recording of leavers and that leaving would be closer to the level of new recruitment. Therefore, the turnover rate in academic jobs in UK was similar or slightly higher than that for all professional employees in the economy which was 13% in 2001. CIPD (2002 cited in Metcalf et al., 2005).
 
A comparison study hass been found that between the period of 1994-1995 and 1998-1999 the turnover rate was between 2.8% and 5.3% per annum. PREST (2000 cited in Metcalf et al., 2005).
 
Another evidence of a growth in academic staffs turnover comes form the findings of the Independent Review of Higher Education Pay and Conditions, which was in 1998 at 6.4%. Bett (1999 cited in Metcalf et al., 2005)
 
The Academics in the UK were situated about in the middle of the developed countries in term of academic salaries in pounds sterling. Compare to the Japan, Denmark and the US, UK academics were earning less but compare to Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and France they were earning more. Metcalf et al. (2005)
 
A study by the Dolton and vander Klaauw (1994, 1999 cited in Metcalf et al., 2005) found that ``the higher the teachers' salaries the less likely they were to leave and the higher the expected wage elsewhere 37, the more likely they were to leave. However, expected wages only affected the propensity to leave teaching for a non-teaching job, they had no influence on the exit probability into non-employment``.
 
The retention of the academic staffs in the higher Institute has recently been extended by Chevalier et al. (2002 cited in Metcalf et al., 2005) to examine these effects in five cross-sections of university graduates covering the period 1960 to 1996. it show how a time-series approach is a particularly powerful way to identify the effects of relative pay. According to this study it has been found cyclical differences in relative pay for teachers and that the wage effects of alternative employment were stronger in periods when they were higher relative to teachers' salaries.
 
After making U.S entry clearance difficult of students, many of the foreign students coming to UK for their further study and enhance their knowledge. During the last few decades based on the foreign students a lots of private colleges has been established across the United Kingdom which were being monitoring by the British Accrediation Council (BAC), now those colleges are fully being monitoried by the United Kingdom Border Agency (UKBA). During the last few years, in the volatile situation a lot of private colleges has been shut down by the UKBA`s due to a lack of proper record keeping, resporting and compliance which are the major obligation for the private colleges which can be only possible by the experience, devotee and loyal workforce.
 
A lot of research has been done in the UK into the public and private sectors on the employee retention by the reward management. However, from a UK perspective little research has been done on the employement retention particularly on the private colleges in the UK. Therefore, scope has been arised to examine the factors of reward management can attract to retain expert, devoted, committed and loylity employee within the private colleges in the UK.
 
Literature review: 文献综述
Human capital and motivation embided together which can developed experience, also skill and knowledge, that can be economic value to the organization. As we have assumed that reward, management has correlation with employee retention and motivation, which is the driving force of job satisfaction. Therefore, logically it calling on the content theories of motiavation. A lot of motivational theory has been developed by management guru Maslow`s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg`s motivation-hygiene and many of them theory long tome ago. Even if, It might be developed long time before but, implication of some factors of these theories still yet existing in this dynamic competitive business filled to ensure organizations sustainability.
 
Several new models of work motivation emerged by the 1950s which collectively referred to content theories. Their capital aim was to identify factors associated with motivation since several models has been emerged which were developed previously, but some factors of their theories still yet existing. Therefore, many resrearchers have been researching on their old theory to discover a correlation in the current situation and apply these theories to ensure their application.
 
According to the defferients research over the period, it has been approved that content theories focus on the interal factors to the individual. In order to explain why people are motivated in different ways and by the different work settings which most of the representative examples of this strand of theory are the needs-based theories such as the theories of Maslow, Alderfer, or McClelland assume that people have a inclination, which may be innate or acquired, to seek or avoid certain stimuli.
 
Other content theories that have been widely accepted and gainded stronger empirical support are those that consider the content of the work and a person does such as, Herzberg`s theory and Hackman & Oldham suggest that particular features of a job may motivate or demotivate an employee, Finally, the self-concept of the people`s which defined as who they are, their values has alos been studied as an important factor in content theories. Moverover, Shamir argues that even if a task leads to no reward whatsoever, it may still motivate a person if it has a meaning for that person; if it tied with his/her values regarding what needs to be done. Anon.
 
According to the Maslow's (1954 cited in Streers, 2004, pp379-384) hierarchy of need theory, suggested that development of individual with the period of time they work up their way hierarchy based on the fulfillment ofa series of prioritized needs which include physiological, safety and security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. According to his argument of prioritization, the first three needs on the list represent deficiency needs that people must master before they can develop into a healthy personality. On the other hand, the last two represent growth needs that relate to individual achievement and the development of human potential.


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