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英国论文开题建议书的格式,分哪几部分? THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

论文价格: 免费 时间:2012-10-18 22:03:58 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

英国论文开题建议书的格式,分哪几部分? THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

2.1  INTRODUCTION

本单元为学生提供了一个机会,在一个指定的导师带领下选择一个自己要研究主题。这之前要做一个开题建议书,也叫开题报告。

This unit provides an opportunity for the student to research a self selected topic in consultation with the appointed supervisor.  This is preceded by a research proposal.

Hughes, Ineson and Stone (2001) point out that, research is an ‘original investigation’ carried out to gain further knowledge and understanding. It should demonstrate both academic rigour and managerial relevance, i.e. it should be http://www.ukassignment.org/yjfflw/ directed towards a practical aim and objectives in order to solve a specific problem

2.2 开题建议的规划和设置 PLANNING AND SETTING UP THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

As part of the assessment for this unit, students are required to produce an outline plan for an MSc or MA dissertation in the form of a proposal. The student is required to:

• 确定一个主题,以及设置论文的重点研究范围 Identify a topic as well as the setting and focus of the dissertation
• 咨询你的导师并确认他指导你的范围 Consult with appropriate supervisor and determine whether s/he is able to supervise your chosen area.

This task requires preliminary investigation and reading round the topic area to identify a working title and, for administrative purposes. This information should be notified to the unit co-ordinator and the potential supervisor.

• Complete Research Proposal Form A by the required date (This will be issued to students by the Research Methods unit leader).
• Refine ideas in consultation with supervisor

Students are encouraged to explore the topic, (through the literature) to consider and determine aim/objectives/methodology and proposed content structure. Students should meet with supervisor regularly and plan a work schedule

• Develop and discuss interim submissions with supervisor
• Submit two hard copies and one electronic copy of Research Proposal by required date together with one completed copy of Form B. (see Appendix B) that has the signatures of the researcher and the supervisor. 

2.3 LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Upon completion of this unit, students will be able to:

1. produce a research proposal for their MA / MSc dissertation that
(a) demonstrates the ability to critically select, justify and use appropriate enquiry methods and processes;
(b) demonstrates the ability to engage with relevant methodological and substantive bodies of knowledge in a critical and reflective manner; and
(c) reflects upon management theories and current industry practices.
2. demonstrates and justifies an appropriate and ethical method of investigation to address a problem

2.4 THE STRUCTURE OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

A research proposal comprises a:
 a) working title,
 b) aim,
 c) objectives (3-5) which includes,
 d) background,
 e) proposed method,
 f) potential outcomes,
 g) key references and additional bibliography.

a) Working title
The working title should be stated in one sentence and capture the essence of the study.

b) Aim
The dissertation must have a clearly identifiable aim, indicating an approach that is analytical and evaluative and not merely descriptive. The aim is a short statement of what the researcher hopes to achieve on completion of the dissertation.

It should be expressed in one sentence! It is good practice to pose "the research question" in one sentence. What question is this research setting out to answer? The aim should be expressed formally but equally succinctly.

The aim should be focused and not general. Usually the narrower the focus the more successful the dissertation is likely to be. The aim should be expressed in such a way as to demonstrate an approach that is not simply investigative. Avoid "to investigate" or "to examine" (unless pure scientific research) and use verbs such "to analyse", "to evaluate", "to assess" and "to determine".

To describe and list facts is not sufficient; there must be evidence of intent to do more. For example,

1. Not: "to investigate leisure centres in local hotels" but:
 "to analyse the effectiveness of leisure centres in attracting visitors to local hotels"

2. Not: "to examine customer care in the hospitality industry" but: "to evaluate the customer care strategies of international hotel groups (say 3) in the UK"

 c) Objectives

These are "concise statements of expected outcomes" of the exploration - what you want to find out, not how you mean to do it - "to establish X by means of case studies" or "to compare Y and Z by means of a literature survey". It is vital that the objectives are carefully determined because the results of the research will be judged according to whether these objectives have been achieved successfully. Normally 3-5 objectives would be sufficient to achieve an aim.

d) Background (Selection and justification of the topic)

The reasons for the selection of the research topic should be explained, and linked to the literature reviewed.

Raise issues to underpin the research topic and to demonstrate why it is worthy of consideration. This is usually because (a) it has not been explored before in the proposed way and (b) because the study is perceived to be useful.

Show there is a "knowledge gap" to be filled, but it is more important to demonstrate "research competence" than it is to shake the foundations of the academic or management world.  

Discuss the nature and significance of the problem/issue to be addressed. Convince the assessor that it is not a trivial topic and show how it may be of practical "use".

It is usually relevant and appropriate to discuss the topic area within the context of previous work (writing or research) and to raise issues pertinent to the proposed research, followed by a clear statement of the precise research area or a key research question or a research hypothesis.

d1). Planning a literature search

The librarian has developed a course on advanced literature searching for coursework and dissertations. It is always useful to use library resources in completing your research.

Begin with key words and then develop a rough framework for the search. Keep a record of all potentially relevant information. Decide on the recording format; for example, a computerised database or a card index.

d2). Referencing
The Harvard system is the preferred method (see postgraduate student handbook)

d3). Accessing external information/making and retaining outside contacts 

It is highly likely that external information will be essential to the successful completion of the dissertation.
Most companies are willing to work with students on such projects if they are informed accordingly. Remember to treat all external collaborators with the deserved respect as it is important to maintain a good relationship.

Texts

A very simple introductory text is sufficient. Students are advised to refer to the reading list provided in the postgraduate student handbook. (See Research Methods Unit descriptor at http://www.ukassignment.org/).

e). Proposed method

Students are expected to outline the proposed research design, research population, sampling method, data collection techniques (quantitative, qualitative or both), and data analysis methods. The research method should be justified and appropriate to the achievement of the aim and objectives.

f). Potential outcomes

Brief statement of what the outcomes might be, that is, what knowledge might be advanced from the study.

g). Key references and bibliography

List at least 12 key references, showing familiarity with the literature that can support the study plus an additional bibliography of at least 20 items – texts that are intended to be cited in the final dissertation.

Note:  The outline (background & methodology) should be presented as a coherent statement, not just, a series of bullet points across which the assessors are expected to make links.

COURSEWORK BRIEF

The research proposal must be no more than 3000 words in length and excluding the aim, objective and references/bibliography. The references and bibliography should be listed alphabetically at the end of the proposal. Lists of bullet points without justification are not acceptable in the main body of the text, which should be written in essay format. The word count must be stated and marks will be deducted if an outline plan is over this maximum word length.

The minimum pass mark is 50%. A student will be awarded credit for this unit when the Research Proposal has been moderated and the mark has been ratified at an MSc or MA Examination Board as applicable.

To summarise, the Research Proposal should normally include:

• a working title
• an aim  and 3-5 objectives
• a background
- put research topic into context and raise issues pertinent to research which lead to hypothesis/research question, supported by appropriate, adequate and up-to-date literature
• proposed methodology (Ref. Methods of  Enquiry reading list in unit handbook)#p#分页标题#e#
- population definition, sampling and data collection techniques
- may be qualitative\quantitative (or both?)
- selection of methodology must be justified (there is never one way only – all  
 approaches have their advantages)
- how the data are to be analysed – be specific!
• potential outcomes
• key references
- at least 12 sources (to include academic theory, recent academic journal articles, www sources, recent media reports et al. ), listed alphabetically by author should be used to underpin the proposal then an additional substantial, up-to-date and varied bibliography of at least 20 items.– please use Harvard system
• signed, approved  Form B

 2.5. SUPERVISORS AND ADVISORS/SECOND MARKERS 

Each student will be allocated one supervisor who takes responsibility for overseeing the dissertation. Supervisors should have prior successful experience in postgraduate supervision. Students will be allocated a supervisor, with the ultimate decision made by the Head of Department in consultation with the unit leader. The unit co-ordinator will have the ultimate responsibility of publishing and making available to all stakeholders a list of students and supervisors they will be working with. It is suggested that students consult with their supervisor on at least two/three occasions prior to submitting this coursework. Supervisors should be prepared to comment on ways in which draft proposals might be improved. Students may also consult other specialists, either academics or industrialists as required, again with agreement from the individuals concerned; these names should be given to the Dissertation co-ordinator for administrative purposes. All students will be allocated a supervisor for the purposes of the successful completion of the dissertation.

 2.5. a. Responsibilities of Supervisors

The supervisors’ main responsibilities are: to make available specialist knowledge to the student; to mentor the student in the research process; to guide the student towards success; and to monitor the progress of the student. At the outset, the supervisor should advise the student on the appropriateness of the proposed aim, objectives and time-scales, as well as identifying possible pitfalls and limitations. The supervisor should try to maintain regular contact with the student as required by the student and within reason.  Given that some students will conduct their study in the field, contact is not necessarily limited to face-to-face meetings but can include e-mail, mail, fax, and telephone.

* An overview of the responsibilities of the supervisors

1. To advise initially on possible topics, aim, objectives and time-scales
2. To make available specialist knowledge
3. To give general guidance on matters such as: the nature of research; academic standards; planning; literature and other sources; methods and techniques
4. To maintain regular and frequent (weekly is sufficient) formal contact with the student
5. To inform the student of planned absences and procedures for maintaining contact
6. To obtain progress reports and other written work (including draft chapters) and provide constructive criticism promptly (ideally within 60 hours of the submission)
7. To make the student aware of inadequate progress or other impediments to successful completion of the Dissertation within the requisite duration

 (Too much contact with, and supervision of, a student will probably do less harm than too little)

Note:  The student, and not the supervisor, is supposed to do most of the thinking and to plan, and write the Dissertation!!
 
 2.5. b. Responsibilities of the student

The student's responsibility is to maintain regular contact with the supervisor. The nature and type of contact as well as the regularity must be discussed with the supervisor to ensure that the needs of the student are met within reason. In the case of receiving feedback, the students must the supervisor adequate notice (in agreement with the supervisor) for the submission of interim work. Students should seek help when required and inform the supervisor of any problems that they encounter. Furthermore, they must observe the MMU official policies and comply with the procedures documented in this Handbook.   

* An overview of the responsibilities of the student

1. To initiate and maintain regular contact with supervisor
2. To seek help as required and to provide the supervisor with contact details
3. To negotiate with the supervisor to establish what kind of help and guidance is appropriate and what form it should take
4. To comply with ‘official procedures’ and be ‘ethical’ at all times
5. To attend the timetabled classes and to take advantage of the drop-in data analysis workshops as appropriate
6. To maintain regular and frequent (on average, once a week for a maximum of 15 minutes) formal contact with the supervisor
7. To maintain progress with the Dissertation along lines agreed with the supervisor
8. To inform the supervisor, or the unit or course leader, of any problems or difficulties and seek appropriate help or advice, completing a mitigating circumstances form and providing documentary evidence as appropriate
9. To prepare and deliver progress reports and other written work (including draft chapters) as required in sufficient time (usually 60 hours minimum prior to the meeting) to allow adequate comment and discussion
10. To ensure that the Dissertation is of an adequate standard for the MA / MSc award
11. To submit the Dissertation in compliance with the FCTHM School, Faculty and the University’s regulations

The supervisor of the Research Proposal will normally serve as the supervisor for the Dissertation. In the event that circumstances warrant a change in the supervisor, the Dissertation Unit Co-ordinator will take the appropriate action as required. A revised Form B will serve as the official record of the newly appointed supervisor.

2.6 ETHICS OF RESEARCH

Please refer to http://www.ukassignment.org/uklunwen/

Note: The ethics of research and the principles below apply to all coursework not just dissertations

There are a number of basic principles of which students should be made aware:
• informed consent:: the researcher must inform all parties of why the material/data are being collected (the purpose of the research) and must obtain their consent;
• informants and respondents have the right, and must be permitted without question, to withdraw from the research process at any time;
• there must be no ill effects on any individual, Company, School or Institution associated with the research process;
• confidentiality and privacy must be respected; confidentiality of any information passed to or obtained by the researcher must be maintained;
• no unprofessional behaviour should be required of participants
• respondents must be given the opportunity to learn from the research
• all researchers are responsible to:
- the subjects of the research
- colleagues
- sponsors (if any)
- the institution(s) in which research occurs

Consent should usually be obtained in writing though it is recognised that this is not always practicable.

Consent is also an issue when the researcher is ‘covert’; in such cases; it is advised that approval be sought beforehand from an appropriate body such as an ethics committee.

Note:   with the exception of employee researchers, data collection in UK schools and hospitals is not permitted for postgraduate dissertations due to local regulations regarding ethics, and time constraints.

Reference:

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill A. (2003) Research Methods for Business Students, Chapter 5, Negotiating access and research ethics, Prentice Hall , London.

 

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