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英国管理学case study:高层管理团队案例研究

时间:2019-07-04 10:31:51 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:12
The top management team (TMT) is made up of chief executives and other executives, and is undoubtedly playing an increasingly important role in the enterprise.高层管理团队(TMT)由首席执行官和其他高管组成,无疑在企业中发挥着越来越重要的作用。
为了使决策者的影响力越来越受到重视,提出了高层管理理论,而企业是高层管理者的反映是其核心思想(Harteiset.,al,2015)。高级管理人员的背景特征会影响高级管理人员的战略选择,进而影响其在组织中的活动。管理者的规模、年龄、性别和教育背景比管理者的个人素质和价值观更能衡量。
企业管理者的团队规模反映了不同个体的背景特征。较大的团队将为问题提供更多的解决方案,但随着团队成员数量的增加,也将增加内部冲突的可能性。一方面,过多的数量会增加协调的难度,使企业有效决策的难度更大,因为在建立内部控制的开始是管理层对内部控制的有效沟通不能(朗格尼克呃,&neubert,2000年)。另一方面,高层会议产生利益集团,各利益集团寻求自身的最佳利益,使内部控制成为利益集团协调和妥协的工具。此外,团队规模可以减少成员的归属感和使命感,从而减少团队成员之间的沟通,增加内部矛盾。
The theory of high echelon is put forward to make the influence of decision makers more and more attention, and the enterprise is the reflection of senior managers is its central idea(Harteiset.,al, 2015). The background characteristics of senior executives can influence the strategic choice of senior executives and thus influence their activities on the organization. The scale, age, gender and education background of the manager are more measurable than the personal qualities and values of the manager. 
企业管理者的团队规模反映了不同个体的背景特征。较大的团队将为问题提供更多的解决方案,但随着团队成员数量的增加,也将增加内部冲突的可能性。一方面,过多的数量会增加协调的难度,使企业有效决策的难度更大,因为在建立内部控制的开始是管理层对内部控制的有效沟通不能(朗格尼克呃,&neubert,2000年)。另一方面,高层会议产生利益集团,各利益集团寻求自身的最佳利益,使内部控制成为利益集团协调和妥协的工具。此外,团队规模可以减少成员的归属感和使命感,从而减少团队成员之间的沟通,增加内部矛盾。
The team size of enterprise managers reflects the background characteristics of different individuals. The larger team will provide more solutions to the problem, but as the number of team members increases, it will also increase the likelihood of internal conflict. On the one hand, the number of too much will increase the difficulty of the coordination, make the enterprise effective decision-making difficulty bigger, because in the beginning of establishing internal control is the management to make internal control cannot be effective communication(Longenecker, &Neubert, 2000). On the other hand, high-level meetings generate interest groups, and each interest group seeks its own best interests so that internal control becomes a tool for the coordination and compromise of interest groups. In addition, team size can reduce the sense of belonging and mission of members, thus reducing the communication among team members and increasing internal contradictions.
研究表明,不同背景的高级管理人员对组织绩效和创新能力有一定的影响。本研究以高层认知和社会网络为工具,研究团队动态对团队管理多元化与组织创新关系的影响。具体来说,如果存在功能性团队动态,我们建议建立一个与业务创新积极相关的多元化团队。功能团队动态的特点是团队成员之间的角色平衡、协作和建设性互动(Wang和Kelan,2013)。功能团队动态地反映团队成员在决策行为上的一致性,团队成员在相互信任和尊重的基础上相互作用。当团队有团结意识时,你可以减少成员之间的差异。因此,随着职能团队的发展,TMT多样性的潜在负面因素将得到缓解,团队合作的有效性将得到提高。
Research shows that the different backgrounds of senior management have an impact on organizational performance and innovation. In this study, the influence of team dynamics on the relationship between TMT diversity and organizational innovation was studied by using the upper level cognition and social network. Specifically, if there is a functional team dynamics, we recommend a diversified team that is positively related to business innovation. Functional team dynamics is characterized by the balance of roles, collaboration, and constructive interactions among team members(Wang, & Kelan, 2013). The functional team dynamically reflects the consistency of the team members in the decision-making behavior, and the team members interact with each other on the basis of mutual trust and respect. When the team has a sense of unity, you can reduce the differences between members. Thus, with the development of functional teams, the underlying negative factors of TMT diversity will be mitigated and the effectiveness of teamwork will be improved.
 
Most studies on the impact of TMT diversity on enterprise innovation demonstrate the positive relationship between them. Some people think that the diversity of TMT provides new information, knowledge and different insights that are conducive to business innovation(Wei, & Lau, 2012). For example, they found that there is a positive correlation between TMT diversity and product market innovation. Similarly, education and functional diversity have a positive impact on business innovation. The benefits of diversity are considered to be made from members of different backgrounds. This is because innovation often involves the use of new technologies and creative production and manufacturing methods. On the basis of the cognitive and information processing perspectives of the upper classes, a diversified team enables companies to offer broader views in assessing innovation plans and promoting organizational change. Diversified teams may lead to richer cognitive outputs, such as more new ideas and different perspectives, and promote the adoption of different methods or projects that lead to product and administrative innovation. Therefore, companies with different TMTs should be more innovative. However, TMT diversity may also have a negative impact on team effectiveness, such as creating conflicts. TMT diversity, especially functional diversification, leads to conflict, resulting in poor cooperation and communication, but has a negative impact on TMT strategic decisions and organizational results (but also the results show that the relevant conflicts may improve team performance(Xinet.,al, 2010).
 
Previous studies have shown that there are two types of TMT demographic diversity between TMT demographics (age, usage rights, educational and functional background) of the four main members of the team. The first diversity reflects the significant differences between group members in certain social categories (eg, age and gender), while the other involves more knowledge base differences and more work-related perspectives such as education, Functions and tenure(Volpp Sierra, &Banzato, 2016).
 
Related psychology research suggests that the age of the executive and behavior relationship, most psychologists generally believe that as managers age, individual learning ability, innovation ability, environment adaptability will gradually diminish. There are differences in the results of the study. Separate individual feelings and cognition of things and processing method has limitations, so an exploratory examination of the heterogeneity of the management team will promote the team construction, improve the enterprise planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and innovation function(Dinh Thai, Igel, &Laosirihongthong, 2010).
 
Age
Often defined as older employees over 50 years of age are often affected by social negative emotions. These include conclusions about the performance bias, the so-called boycott of change, and the ability to learn about the experience of the stereotypes of these stereotypes. "There is little evidence that employees are getting older and job performance declines(Neale&Özkanlı, 2010)." Otherwise, older employees can afford the same pressure as their young counterparts. Thus, empirical evidence is not decisive, the lack of older employees, low productivity, and the relatively young counterparts lack the opportunity to develop their professional abilities. It seems that even after 40 years, the groundbreaking research results are still valid. On the other hand, older employees can assign tasks to already know what to do. The use of self-report to investigate employee's perception of workplace learning potential was found to be less than two years of age and older employees (18-24 years) experienced and staff service period (6 years or more). Employees in different age groups of 31 different organizations have different learning opportunities. However, it is not surprising that older staff members say they are less valuable than their young counterparts in "Coach". With regard to other interactions at work, the report says that teachers tend to compare with younger colleagues, similarly reporting that age is related to the network behavior of employees in their own organization (university), which mainly includes information on information exchange What happened in the organization. However, empirical evidence shows contradictory evidence. In a German sample, there was a negative correlation between job control and age but no significant correlation, whereas in another German sample it was associated with zero. In the UK's railroad employees and 50 to 59-year-old Belgian employee samples(SINGH, 2014). #p#分页标题#e#
Gender
Taking into account gender segregation in most occupations, the separation of gender and occupational effects means that attempts at workplace learning support have led to particular difficulties(BANGet.,al, 2010). In addition, women with children tend to work more in part-time jobs, which can lead to task discrimination because of the high priority and highly discretionary work allocated to full-time employees. For example, there are ambiguous conclusions about the gender impact of providing social support at work, for example, finding that female employees and senior staff are more likely to work. This may lead to more feedback and more information exchange with women's work, rather than men. 68. The higher general social support for female employees at work is determined, but the size of the effect is negligible. In the four US organizations (116 cases) found that men and women feel the support of the supervisors and colleagues no difference(Voet.,al, 2015). On the other hand, other authors argue that women are faced with the problem of access to and use of social capital in their work. The report says women are often excluded from some informal networks, which means that they have limited access to work-related information compared to male colleagues. 
 
Women now make up a small proportion of executives at listed companies.But most women have patience, perseverance, character, which is the executive essential quality, and reduce a lot of men executives biting lie passive, women's relatively peaceful, delicate character so they when choosing the company's investment decision-making is relatively safe.Women are born with some of the dominant genes of managers. Women have a lot of advantages in management talent. It is a characteristic of femininity and it can be achieved if it is fully played out. Women's unique qualities can make them more and more important in the future. Modern business women are no less than men in leadership(SINGH, 2014).
McKinsey also surveyed fortune 500 companies in the United States, and found that companies with more senior managers were performing better on average than those with fewer female executives. Women are conscientious, careful and stable. Women managers are more resilient, stronger in adversity, good at communicating, easier to convince others, and effective as lubricants. Toughness is an advantage for women leaders. Maybe all the differences come from
The primary difference between men and women is a variety of natural differences shaped the qualities of female leadership.Many scholars study of female executives of listed companies will not have a negative impact; on the contrary female executives of some natural strengths of the investment behavior of listed companies will have a positive impact. Because of gender differences, female executives are more focused on the profit changes of listed companies, while male executives’ pay more attention to the growth of the main operating income of listed companies.
The standard deviation of male executives' performance evaluation was higher than that of women. Female executives, however, due to their own personality, when considering the company's investment decision-making more careful, cautious, thinking more comprehensive, more conservative, low growth strategy, tend to avoid risk, to reduce a lot of blind, aggressive investment behavior, is advantageous to the listed company long-term steady development of whole, male executives in the company executives more than women, when there is energy, and is more inclined to high risk and high return of investment.
Scholars at home and abroad have shown that women and men have the same, even higher, management motivation from different perspectives. Once they enter the company's top management or the company's board of directors will have a favorable impact on the company. The main ways to change the company's investment decisions are to make the overall development of the company more stable. Therefore, the listed companies should not be discriminated against in the selection of executives. The gender difference has no significant negative impact on the investment behavior of listed companies.
 
Teamwork 
Teamwork has put forward effective strategies for employment safety.
The company is implementing problem-solving teams, cross-functional planning teams, sales account teams, self-directed work teams, technical integration teams, and authorized production teams. The effective teamwork and cooperation are between the management structure and the rest of the hierarchy(SALUSTRI, 2015).
He argues that a convincing argument that the need for teamwork at the top of the business is often exaggerated. This view makes it easy for managers to erroneously conclude that teamwork and cooperation among all managers are neither necessary nor prioritized. In contrast, front-line managers - managers who directly influence the production of products and services - are information channels that can be important transformers. Or they can prevent the implementation of change, and in the company vertical and horizontal to stalemate communication.
In a review of the strategy implementation study, it is concluded that front-line managers are critical to the successful implementation of strategic initiatives because they understand the operational content and its role in actual organizational change. The strategic participation of these key personnel is related to the improvement of organizational performance. They record that when low-level managers think that change is in line with the interests of the time, they can act or not to delay, reduce or completely disrupt the implementation of the work. 
We believe that teamwork and collaboration for frontline managers are critical to the long-term success and viability of the organization. However, this problem is often overlooked or has not received serious attention. Many front managers who are in direct contact with employees, customers and suppliers often can not prove the most basic cooperation and cooperation with each other. In some companies, this is related to the goal; in other respects, the structure. For whatever reason, we responded to the manager's quote at our opening quote: "When the manager is not working together, bad things will definitely follow."
 
Research method
 
Through cooperation with the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), the target company was surveyed as part of a large-scale survey of Chinese enterprises' competitiveness. Clarify the problem. The survey respondents were CEOs and HR / CFOs of the sample companies. The CEO was invited to evaluate the company's TMT network contact and team dynamics and invited the HR / CFO to fill in the TMT background-related projects and another innovative questionnaire. This multiple teller method helps to reduce the potential common method of using a single informer. In addition, projects related to business innovation were measured in a follow-up survey a year later(Ruiz-Jiménezet.,al, 2016).
TMT age and gender diversity were measured using the Blau index, where H was the percentage of TMT members in each educational and functional category.
 
The age and sex of TMT members are calculated by the coefficient of variation, i.e. the standard deviation is divided by the average of the variables.
Although studies on gender quotas have shown an increase in the proportion of female directors, we have little understanding of the deeper impact, for example, in terms of independence, age, and gender differences. The first set of questions we investigate in this paper involves whether the quota has changed the gender gap between male and female directors. Since Norwegian companies now have to hire female directors internally to achieve a 40% goal, should we expect the independence gap between women and male directors to be small? Has the age gap between female directors and male directors widened due to the increasing number of women employed recently With the pressure of recruiting more female directors, the Norwegian company lowered expectations of the level of education for female candidates, resulting in a reduction in the educational gap between women and male directors Second, gender quotas can also be seen as a way of encouraging women to take leadership positions throughout the conference room and the company. To date, there have been few studies on the impact of gender quotas or gender diversity on women's senior leadership positions. Therefore, the next set of questions that we propose in this article will explore whether gender quotas and gender diversity of the board are related to how gender is associated with the highest leaders of the organization, such as the chairman and chief executive of the board. In particular, in the existing literature, the relationship between female CEO and female director has been neglected. Previous studies have rarely explored the dynamic relationship between women's board of directors and women CEOs, although previous studies have analyzed women's barriers to becoming CEOs. Therefore, it is meaningful to analyze the link between the chairman of the board of directors and the presence of female CEOs(Doms, &zuKnyphausen-Aufseß,  2014).
 
Whether women are leaders who are different from men's leadership are a controversial topic, and studies of gender leadership styles show that in many cases there is no difference between the leading position between men and women. In this article, we do not have Claiming that women lead differently as the chairman or chief executive officer of the board, but rather try to understand the impact of quotas on the number of women in leadership positions. The gender of the chairman is important because it may affect the contribution of the female director to the decision-making process. In fact, there is a negative correlation between the male CEO and the chairman of the board of men, and the negative contribution of women to the decision of the board of directors is that the gender of the leader may be an important factor in determining the level of influence of female directors. Women leaders in meeting rooms may make women directors feel more comfortable with their views, while male directors can show more respect and openness to women's perspectives. Women leaders can not only improve the effectiveness of board decisions, but also the operation of the entire organization. Female managers may be easier and more likely to change than male colleagues. In fact, the gender of the CEO and the chairman is considered to affect the level of organizational innovation. In the survey, only 5% of the CEO and 7% of the chair is female; if the CEO and the chairman are women, the level of organizational innovation will be higher.#p#分页标题#e#
Reference list: 
BANG, H, FUGLESANG, S, OVESEN, M, & EILERTSEN, D 2010, 'Effectiveness in top management group meetings: The role of goal clarity, focused communication, and learning behavior', Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 51, 3, pp. 253-261, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
Dinh Thai, H, Igel, B, &Laosirihongthong, T 2010, 'Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organisational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member', Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 21, 9, pp. 931-951, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017
Doms, M, &zuKnyphausen-Aufseß, D 2014, 'Structure and characteristics of top management teams as antecedents of outside executive appointments: a three-country study', International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 25, 22, pp. 3060-3085, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
Harteis, C, Billett, S, Goller, M, Rausch, A, &Seifried, J 2015, 'Effects of age, gender and occupation on perceived workplace learning support', International Journal Of Training Research, 13, 1, pp. 64-81, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 July 2017.
Longenecker, C, &Neubert, M 2000, 'Barriers and Gateways to Management Cooperation and Teamwork', Business Horizons, 43, 5, p. 37, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 July 2017.
Neale, J, &Özkanlı, O 2010, 'Organisational barriers for women in senior management: a comparison of Turkish and New Zealand universities', Gender & Education, 22, 5, pp. 547-563, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
Ruiz-Jiménez, J, Fuentes-Fuentes, M, & Ruiz-Arroyo, M 2016, 'Knowledge Combination Capability and Innovation: The Effects of Gender Diversity on Top Management Teams in Technology-Based Firms', Journal Of Business Ethics, 135, 3, pp. 503-515, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
SALUSTRI, J 2015, 'A 'Senior' Moment', Journal Of Property Management, 80, 3, pp. 56-57, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
SINGH, GG 2014, 'MANAGING TOP-DOWN ELEARNING STRATEGY AND BOTTOM-UP CULTURE IN THE ADOPTION OF ELEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION', Elearning& Software For Education, 3, pp. 558-565, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
SINGH, GG 2014, 'MANAGING TOP-DOWN ELEARNING STRATEGY AND BOTTOM-UP CULTURE IN THE ADOPTION OF ELEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION', Elearning& Software For Education, 3, pp. 558-565, Education Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
Vo, K, Forder, P, Tavener, M, Rodgers, B, Banks, E, Bauman, A, & Byles, J 2015, 'Retirement, age, gender and mental health: findings from the 45 and Up Study', Aging & Mental Health, 19, 7, pp. 647-657, Consumer Health Complete - EBSCOhost, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
Volpp Sierra, J, &Banzato, C 2016, 'IMPLICATIONS OF THEORY AND RESEARCH ON STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP: A CRITICAL REVIEW', RevistaIbero-Americana De Estratégia (RIAE), 15, 3, pp. 119-131, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 18 July 2017.
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