指导澳大利亚essay:可持续系统工程Sustainable Systems Engineering

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-03-11 14:27:48 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
Background and site description可持续系统工程背景和现场描述
The Development Project (DP) consists of a poultry broiler facility located in Milperra. The purpose of the facility is to produce approximately 3 million chickens annually. The DP will promote regional economic growth as well as providing jobs in the area. While under construction, local businesses and other related sectors of the economy will benefit.
The DP is located on 200 hectares in Milperra, NSW. Milperra is a southwest suburb of Sydney. The site is primarily covered by underbrush, grass or dense and tall vegetation, with no major steep terrain. Runoff from industrialised areas around the site contributes to poor quality water within the Milperra Drain. This negatively affects the fauna in the region, mainly frogs, reptiles and birds.
Due to the size of the DP, its implementation will result in deforestation of the region. It will also need to take some ground that is currently used as residential area. The site is also the home of a softball complex, which will have to be closed. The area has a population of around 3900 people and consists of around 1145 families. The dwellings in the region are primarily houses.
In the assessment of the Environmental Impact for the DP with improvement of the New South Wales (NSW) state government, the main aim of environmental impact assessment fora poultry broiler facility located in Milperra is toconfirm the effect on the local environment, and ensure the preventive environment protectionmeasures.Impact of environmental change in the implementation of the project before the fullsurvey, describe and evaluate their impact on the environment.
在新南威尔士州政府改进后的DP环境影响评估中,对位于米尔佩拉的家禽肉鸡设施进行环境影响评估的主要目的是确认对当地环境的影响,并确保采取预防性环境保护措施。环境影响全面调查前项目实施的变化,描述和评价其对环境的影响Spatial autocorrelation may occur as a consequence ofseabirds responding to variation over time in environmentalfactors such as water temperature, salinity and water transparency that are in turn spatially auto correlatedSpatial autocorrelation in species abundance data at suchcoarse scales can be addressed by building a deterministicmodel relating the expected (or mean) number of birds to environmentalfactors. However, the residuals of the fitted modelmay still be spatially auto correlated. Thismay occur, for example, if other environmental factorsaffecting seabirds were omitted or due to the flock behaviorof birds. Where there is unexplained positive spatialstructure to the data, pairs of species observations at given distanceswill tend to have similar values, hence cannot be consideredas independent observations. Traditional (non-spatial)statistical tests for calculating significant differences in thenumber of birds between the pre- and post-construction periodsare not suitable, as the standard errors will be underestimated.This would result in inflation of Type I errors, i.e. anincrease in the risk of wrongly identifying an effect of the DP on the number of birds.The dynamic nature of environmental factors will affectthe spatial distribution of seabirds because conditions duringpre- and post-construction surveys may not be the same.It will therefore be difficult to isolate the effect of the windfarm.Finally, differences in survey effort and design (number andlocation of observations) between the pre- and post-constructionperiods may also generate differences in the number of birds observed that may be unrelated to wind farm construction.
The objective of this paper is to present a transparent andflexible method to detect differences in the number of a givenspecies due to the presence of an offshore wind farm. In statisticalterms, this means testing the null hypothesis of ‘no change’in bird numbers between pre- and post-DP construction.The method explicitly takes into account the effect of differencesin the spatial structures of species abundance atvarious scales as well as the effect of variation in post-constructionsurvey effort and design.
Quarantine facilities should be installed due to the high risk of bio-security. Birds may carry flu and parasites that directly impact human health and biodiversity of the environment. Veterinarian and poultry health testing systems will be required in order to ensure the quality of the poultry. Advanced feed systems, illumination systems and air-conditioning systemsare important to ensure the poultry product achieves certain standards. An appropriate exhaust system is also needed. Waste recycling technologies may be used to avoid secondary pollution. 
Selected impacts for analysis
There are several important environmental, social and economic impacts that occur as a result of the DP. Three major impacts are waste production, soil and water quality, and air quality. Minor impacts that will occur during construction areincreased traffic,noise and vibration. These impacts have been selected because they represent the key issues associated with the facility both during construction and operation. These issues will be analysed by comparison with similar impacts from other industrial projects and other EIAs. Some issues such as traffic and noise levels can be quantified with the help of RMS and other publications.   
Waste will be generated during construction and mainly includes building materials. What cannot be reused or recycled will be removed from the site to prevent contamination. By predicting the variety and quantity of materials used in construction, we can estimate the amount of waste produced. 
Soil, water and air qualities are all a public health concern and must be regularly monitored. Testing will occur on site and in other strategic locations to observe current levels of pollution and to alert against any abnormalities.  
Choosing the stakeholder as a company that will construct the facility but not run it, their main goal is to have the highest profit when selling the facility to the company that will run it. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the development of the project will be with the cheapest capital cost possible, not considering the running cost. The company would also tend not to care about long terms issues like the poor water quality that the region presents, which would imply a future problem for the owner of the facility.
In case of the stakeholder being the same company that will run the facility, their objective will be to profit monthly according to the production of the poultry broiler facility. Thus, the project will tend to have a high quality infrastructure, implying in a big capital cost and a cheaper running cost. Matters that interfere in the production, like the poor water quality due to the industrialised area would be repaired.
Finally, considering the stakeholder as a public institution, their aim would be the development of the region. Therefore, the effort of the construction would be focused on fixing the regions infrastructure problems, like the poor water quality and the replacement of flora and fauna, and the houses that would likely be damaged or demolishedduring the construction of the facility. This last impact, the demolition of houses, deserves even more attention.Once the construction of the poultry broiler facility is complete, it would provide more job opportunities, thus attracting more people to the region who need places to live. All these concerns mean the stakeholder has to spend more money.
Currently, every group member is familiar with the task and has done extra research into the EIA process. All group members are committed to the report and completed their set tasks quickly.   We have held two meetings to discuss the aims, method and division of labour. Our progress is on target with our work plan and we aim to stick closely to this plan. 
There were some minor problems encountered in researching the project. It was difficult to find relevant information quickly. This meant a lot of time was spent sorting through a large amount of data to find appropriately related content. To overcome this problem, some keywords were identified and used to help find relevant information. Once the information was sourced, its reliability needed to be assessed. This was achieved through common sense and further background research. It was also noted that government sources tended to be highly reliable. Another difficulty is that none of the group members are familiar with the area the facility is located in. This made it hard to describe the location and features but it also makes it challenging to truly understand the social impacts the DP may have. To address this problem, we may decide to visit Milperra in the near future to better understand the community atmosphere.  #p#分页标题#e#
Work plan
Deadline Task
15/04 Progress Report completed
22/04 Have the ‘Background’, ‘Suggested Site’ and ‘Project Impacts’ sections of the Final Report completed
29/04 Have the ‘Impacts Analysis’, ‘Community Consultation’ and ‘Alternative Technologies, Projects or Ways of Achieving Objectives’ sections of the Final Report done
06/05 Have the ‘Alternative Sites’, ‘Recommendations’ and ‘Reflections on the EIA Process’ sections of the Final Report completed
13/05 Have the presentation and Final Report finished
08/06 Submission of Final Report
Division of labour
Name Section
Daniel Researched the site, including its location, technical information relevant to the project and demographic and heritage characteristics
Erica Selected the different impacts that needed to be analysed, why they’re important and how they can be addressed
Jeannette Discussed what the DP is, its purpose, why it’s important and what technologies are involved
Marcelo Analysed the position of each stakeholder in relation to the development of the project
Wu Researched the basic facilities necessary to prevent social and environmental impacts

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