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品牌在市场营销中的使用

时间:2016-03-25 09:21来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

品牌在市场营销中的使用
The use of branding in marketing

 

品牌不仅是一种营销工具,公司将他们的品牌努力开发产品和企业品牌。这也是一个有效的工具,可用于人力资源管理领域。

本研究的目的,文献综述将被分为两个部分。第一部分将解决营销管理的概念,其中包括公司级营销,营销组合,品牌的概念,企业品牌推广和企业沟通。第二部分将主要基于人力资源管理概念有子部分,如战略人力资源管理、文化、承诺、培训和性能指标。

第一节:营销管理文献综述

企业品牌在营销文献和学术研究中是相当新的概念,在这方面是相当有限的。然而,尽管一个新的理论,许多作者鼓励经理和首席执行官在他们的决策中整合品牌,因为组织的竞争优势给该公司一个强大的品牌。

必须指出的是,这对产品品牌和企业品牌有不同的影响。事实上,公司发展良好的企业品牌战略有很多需要考虑的元素。

公司级营销

哈奇和舒尔茨(2003)观察到,这很难维持可靠的产品差异化,当企业面临模仿,产品和服务均化和碎片化的传统市场。他们认为,在这个全球化的时代,分化需要定位整个公司,在价值观和情感象征着该组织成为差异化战略的关键要素,和组织本身移动舞台的中心。

过去的最近几年,担忧层级营销是获得多少级。事实上,巴尔末和格雷瑟(2003)试图提供一个层级营销的理解。

Branding is not only a marketing tool for firms to direct their branding efforts to developing product and corporate brands. It is also an effective instrument which can be used in the area of Human Resource Management.

For the purpose of this study, the Literature Review will be in two parts. The first section will address the Marketing Management Concepts, which includes corporate level marketing, the marketing mix, branding concept, corporate branding and corporate communication. The second part will be based mainly on Human Resource Management concepts having sub sections such as Strategic Human Resource Management, culture, commitment, training and performance metrics.


第一节:营销管理文献综述——Section 1: Marketing Management Literature Review


Corporate Branding is quite a new concept in the Marketing literature and academic research in this area is quite limited. However, although a new theory, many authors have encouraged managers and Chief Executives to integrate the brand of the organisation in their decision making because of the competitive edge a strong brand would give to the firm.

It has to be noted that there are different implications for product branding and corporate branding. As a matter of fact, for a firm to develop a good strategy for its corporate brand there are many elements to be considered.


公司级营销——Corporate Level Marketing


As Hatch and Schultz (2003) have observed, it is difficult to maintain credible product differentiation as businesses face imitation, homogenisation of products and services and fragmentation of traditional market segments. They argued that, in this era of globalisation, differentiation requires positioning the whole corporation, where the values and emotions symbolised by the organisation become key elements of differentiation strategies, and the organisation itself moves center stage.

From the past recent years, concern over Corporate-level marketing is gaining much magnitude. In point of fact, Balmer and Greyser (2003) have attempted to provide an understanding of Corporate-level marketing. According to the authors, a move towards corporate level concerns is evinced by several ascendant areas of marketing such as relationship marketing, services marketing, international marketing, marketing for non-profits, integrated marketing communications, corporate public relations and, more acutely, in relation to corporate and to services branding.

It is imperative to note that the "corporate-level" concerns strategic management and the CEO and the board of directors should be familiar with the scope and significance of this nascent area (Balmer and Greyser 2003, p.349).

Rethinking the Marketing mix: The 10 Ps of the corporate marketing mix

As said by Boyd et al. (1998), the traditional 4 Ps, the controllable elements of a marketing program are the product, price, promotion and place. Decisions about each element should be consistent and integrated with decisions concerning the other three (Boyd et al. 1998, p.19). The latter is the conventional marketing mix of a product. For Corporate level marketing, another set of marketing mix will be used. According to Balmer and Greyser (2003), there are three differences between the marketing mix and the corporate-level marketing mix:

The elements are broader than the traditional "4Ps" of the marketing mix.

The elements of the traditional mix require a radical reconfiguration.

The third is that the mix elements have distinct disciplinary traditions. They also transcend the traditional organisational boundaries.

Initially in 1998, Balmer attempted at articulating the traditional marketing mix to ten elements as depicted in Exhibit 1 and described in Exhibit 2 (Balmer 1998, p.963-996). However, it has been argued that it is difficult to operationalise and to recall the ten elements of the new marketing mix, when compared to the 4Ps (Balmer and Greyser 2003).

The 10 Ps of the Corporate Marketing Mix:

Exhibit 1: The "Ten Ps" of the corporate marketing mix(Balmer 1998, p.963-996)

As can be seen from the above diagram, in addition to the 4Ps (product, price, place, promotion), the additional 6Ps are philosophy, personality, people, performance, perception and positioning.

The 10Ps of the marketing mix are further described below.


哲学和精神——Philosophy and Ethos


What the organization stands for, and how it undertakes its work

Personality

The mix of subcultures within the organization which contributes to its distinctiveness

People

They represent the life-blood of an organization's identity. It is important to consider their interface with stakeholder groups and have a crucial role in product and service quality.

Product

What an organization makes or does: its core business or businesses

Price

What an organization charges for its products and services, including the goodwill element in the valuation of its corporate and product brands; the price of the corporation's stock, and staff salaries

Place

Distribution channels, company's relationships with distributors, franchising arrangements

Promotion

A concern with Total Corporate Communications also visual identification, and branding policies

Performance

How the organization's performance is rated by key stakeholders vis a vis the organization's espoused philosophy and ethos and how it is rated against competitors

Perception

Questions relating to corporate image and reputation. Perception of the industry/country-of-origin/corporate brand may also be important

Positioning

In relation to important stakeholders, competitors, and the external environment

Exhibit 2: The original Corporate-level marketing mix

(Balmer 2001, p.248-291)

These 10Ps will allow management to focus on the organisation itself and help in the process of branding the organisation.


品牌概念——The Branding Concept


Over the past years, there has been considerable understanding of the nature of branding and in the formulation of effective branding strategies. For firms to develop successful and effective brand, it will need resources, effort and a belief in the concept of branding (Wong and Merrilees 2008).

Recent developments in the brand management literature have looked beyond the consumers' perception of the brand to consider how an organisation's employees approach the brand and make it a distinctive offering in the market place. De Charnatony (1999) points the fact that it is very crucial to take into consideration the values and corporate culture of organisation in deciding on the brand promises. Furthermore, brand management should be embedded in the whole company and should not be seen solely as a marketing development role. Hence, there is the emergence of Corporate Branding.


公司品牌——Corporate Branding


Knox et al. (2000) have claimed that the branding of product is not enough in contemporary competition. In other words, to ensure competitiveness and survival in the long term, firms have to go beyond branding only the products. Corporate branding allows the firm to come into play, involving the identity of the company (Ind 1997).

The basic concern is to integrate corporate activities into a coherent and consistent strategic framework which presents the company's functional and emotional values with a promised experience, i.e. the brand promise (de Chernatony 2002).

De Charnatony and Harris (2000) note that consumers are not the only stakeholders whose perception matter. They argue that employees of the organisation are influential contributors to the building and maintenance of an appealing corporate brand. As the corporation itself is in center stage as the brand, employees are pushed into an active mode. Their values, attitudes, professional and cultural identities become visible (Morsing and Kristensen 2001).

Hatch and Schultz (2003) have also pointed out the fact that the corporate brand contributes to the images formed and held by its stakeholders. These are listed as:



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