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过去、现在和未来的蒙古会计法律

时间:2016-04-20 09:28来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

过去、现在和未来的蒙古会计法律
PAST PRESENT AND FUTURE OF MONGOLIAN ACCOUNTING LAW


蒙古国是第一个在中国的统治下的国家,直到1921年他们才有了国家独立性。独立后第一年,蒙古采用了共产主义。由于蒙古和苏联在地理位置上的相近,蒙古为了他们想要的发展需要而采用苏联政府作为指南。事实上,蒙古所使用的会计制度和苏联是一模一样的。在这一点上,他们的系统和记录保持得非常好,所以没有会计的必要性。但这是时候蒙古建立使用改良的会计原则。在开始,蒙古就像其他国家一样,企业开始使用权责发生制会计和复式记账法。他们开始教育人们基本的会计信息来支撑经济,这段时间里,开始蓬勃发展。在1980年代末,蒙古开始摆脱共产主义社会主义经济。加强会计基础设施确认帮助蒙古转移到更多的市场经济。

从1993年开始,世界银行以及蒙古和其他银行的发展伙伴提供资金和技术支持,帮助蒙古建立一个法律框架,促进会计教育,企业采用IFRS和ISA,构成一个新的专业机构,建立注册会计师的考试,加强公共和私人部门会计和审计。结果,蒙古做出了重大变化,从旧的计划经济体制占到一个新的以市场为导向的会计制度符合国际最佳实践。


介绍


这学期论文提供了蒙古的会计信息。这个概述是蒙古会计和审计安排。

蒙古是一个极端土地的物理和自然美景。面积160万平方公里,人口256万,在世界各地,蒙古是人口稠密的国家。

The country of Mongolia was first under the Chinese rule until 1921 when they got their independence. The following year after it, Mongolia adopted communism. Due to their, Mongolia and the Soviets, closeness, Mongolia used Soviets as a guide for the development they want. In fact, the accounting system used by Mongolian is exactly the same as the Soviets. Their system and record keeping, at this point, were so fine that there was no need for accounting. But it came time for Mongolia to establish using accounting principles for the betterment. At start, Mongolian businesses started using of accrual method accounting and double entry bookkeeping just like other country. They begin to educate people with basic accounting information in order to sustain the economy which, that time, began to flourish. And it was in the late 1980s that Mongolia begun to move away from communism to socialist economy. The stronger accounting infrastructure confirmed to be helpful in shifting Mongolia into more of a market economy.

Starting 1993, World Bank and other bank development partners of Mongolia offered financial and technical support to assist Mongolia develop a legal framework, facilitate accounting education and adoption of IFRS and ISA by enterprises, constitute a new professional body, establish the examination of certified public accountants, and strengthen accounting and auditing in both public and private sectors. As a result, Mongolia has made momentous changes from the old accounting for planned economic system to a new market-oriented accounting system that follows international good practices.


介绍——Introduction


This term paper provides information of the accounting in Mongolia. This presents an overview of accounting and auditing arrangements in Mongolia.

Mongolia is a land of physical extremes and natural beauty. Given with an area of 1.6 million square kilometers and a population of 2.56 million, Mongolia is the least densely populated country all over the world. The nation adopted a new constitution in 1992 that embraces values of democracy and private ownership. The nation has become one of the most open economies in the region, setting at no cost government-administered prices, exchange rates, and interest rates, as well as establishing a two-tier banking structure and opening doors for private proposals.

Since the foundation of economic transformation in 1991, Mongolia achieved remarkable success in the evolution toward market economy and has made significant steps in achieving macroeconomic stability and structural reforms. Economic growth, although positive, is slow as the economy is controlled by its heavy reliance upon mineral resources and animal husbandry.

In spite of embarking on several reform measures, the financial sectors of Mongolia still remain vulnerable. The Bank of Mongolia (BOM) is mainly accountable for implementing the Government's monetary and exchange rate policies, maintaining banking system stability, and supervising the activities of the banks and related financial institutions. The bank of Mongolia can't do their responsibility alone without the help of Mongolian accounting law that will supervise and interpret every transaction which happened.

It is indeed given that accounting is very important to monitor the real situation of an economy. Without this, everything may be impossible.


会计和审计方面的蒙古法律——Mongolian Law on Accounting and Auditing


Accounting Law governs the accounting and financial reporting in Mongolia. The Mongolian Parliament approved the first Accounting Law in 1993 with subsequent modifications in 2002, 2003, and 2006.

As stated: The purpose of the Accounting Law in Mongolia is to determine the legal ground for accounting principles management and institution and to regulate the relationship pertaining to maintenance of accounting records and the preparation of financial statements of the business entity or organization. (Article 1 Purpose of the Law)

But Mongolia has also adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Their Accounting Law obliged all entities whether for profit or non-profit, including small and medium enterprises (SME), state-owned enterprises (SOE), and other entities to prepare financial statements in full compliance with IFRS. However, the majority of entities in Mongolia do not prepare financial statements in compliance with IFRS because it is too costly and too difficult on their part, particularly for small and medium entities. As a result, the Accounting Law lay down double-entry accrual accounting and allows some deviation from IFRS due to Mongolia national context or situation with additional interpretation or clarification in the notes to the financial statements.

The Mongolia auditing system, on the other hand, is mainly regulated by the 1997 Law on Auditing and its subsequent modification was in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2006. The Law on Auditing is harmonized by MOF and the Mongolian Institute of Certified Public Accountant and is geared toward determination of auditing principles, organization, and administration for registering auditing companies, licensing certified public accountants and organizations in auditing, and overseeing their activities. As stated in the Mongolian Audit Law:

The following entities and organizations written below are required to have their financial statements certified by an audit firm; all shareholding companies that are listed on the stock exchange; a corporation that is requesting to be listed on the stock exchange; business entity having statutory fund amounts of 50 million or more; a company that plans to put up for sale all of its assets to public bidding; business entities and organizations with foreign investment unless otherwise stipulated in the laws and international treaties of Mongolia; fully or partially state owned entities; bank, financial, and insurance organizations; companies engaged in brokerage and dealer or running a business as an investment fund; and labor unions.

The Law on Auditing stipulates that only licensed audit companies can conduct audits. In 2002, the Parliament adopted the State Audit Law resulting in the renovation of the state audit organization from the previous State Audit Board into the Mongolia National Audit Office (MNAO). The State Audit Law dictates that MNAO, as an independent agency, reports directly to Parliament. The MNAO is in charge for annual financial statements audit of all government entities, including state-owned enterprises, and conducting performance audits of selected functions of budget entities. Several sector specific laws and regulations are also in place to regulate auditing activities in Mongolia.

会计原理——Accounting Principles

Mongolian accounting principles states:

The financial statements of a business entity and organization shall be in conformity with the International Accounting Standards (IAS); The financial statements shall be based on the correct, neutral and fair material documents, figures and information; Disclosures in report and statements shall simple, clear and easy to understand in order to prevent misinterpretation; For each method used, accounting and reports information shall be organized as possible to compare with present figure and past information; The best choice that met its features should be applied in administrative and cost accounting; And the actions should be continued permanently.


会计标准——Accounting Standards


Mongolian accounting standards are building blocks of a 'uniform accounting system' based on the former accounting system of Soviet. In this respect, detailed accounting instructions and reporting formats are issued, of which accounting standards are a vital part. The accounting commands also comprise taxation requirements.

蒙古会计的历史——History of Mongolian Accounting

Mongolian country was under Chinese rule until they fought for their liberty in 1921. It wasn't until 1922 that this country first integrated an accounting infrastructure, and parallel to the Soviets, adopted communism also. Due to their proximity, among other things, Mongolia shadowed the Soviets very much. In fact, the Uniform Accounting System used by Mongolia at the time was directly taken from the Soviets.



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