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企业伦理与企业社会责任-英国coursework代写

时间:2017-02-06 09:03:28 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:www.ukassignment.org 点击:96
道德是一套正确的行为准则,它不仅仅是为利益而行动,而且是对公平的行为。它可以以错误的决策影响的行为,规划和沟通。
关于道德行为组织的两种观点首先是功利主义的意义,即增加最大多数人的最大利益。这个理论是由约翰·穆勒提出的功利主义倾向促进生产力和效率。功利主义是最常见的伦理理论在商业世界。虽然这是非常流行的理论有一些缺点,功利主义,如谁将决定什么是对谁好?意思是没有这样的协议来决定什么是真正好的最大的人。它不判断行为的对错。第二,正义理论认为,一切伦理决策都应以公平、公正、公正为原则。这个理论是由John Rawls提出,正义理论的优点是,它更容易编纂成法律法规比其他一些伦理原则。随着权利的角度,这一理论提供了许多国家法律的基础。在商业世界,它强调平等机会的所有,也可以帮助作出商业决策时。对正义理论的一些批评可能是,在什么情况下,个人可以不同意政府,他们能做些什么呢?谁决定什么是对什么是错?什么是公平?
 
Organization and Management 组织与管理
 
Question 1
 
Ethics is a set of principles of a right conduct, it is not just acting for profit but also what is right and fair. It can influence the behavior by taking the wrong decision, poor planning and miscommunication.
The two viewpoints on the ethical behavior organizations are firstly Utilitarianism meaning increasing the greatest good for the greatest number of people. This theory Utilitarianism was introduced by John Stuart Mill it also tends to promote productivity and efficiency .Utilitarianism is the most commonly ethical theory used in business world. Although it is very popular theory there are some drawbacks in utilitarianism such as who will decide what is good for whom? Meaning there is no such agreement set to decide what is actually good the greatest number of people. It does not judge the rightness or wrongness of the actions, the consequences. Secondly the theory of Justice which suggest that all ethical decisions should be based on the principles of fairness equity and impartiality. This theory was introduced by John Rawls, advantages of the theory of justice is that it more easily codify into regulations and laws than some other ethical principles. Along with the rights perspective this theory provides the foundation of many national laws. In business world it emphasis on equal opportunity for all and also can be helpful when making business decisions. Some of the criticism of the theory of justice can be that under what circumstances can individuals disagree with the government and what can they do about it? Who decides what is right and what is wrong? What is fair?
Three examples of how an organizational code of ethics can influence decision making are:
Poor and miscommunication within the organization which may lead the company to the wrong direction thus not meeting its goals.
Poor planning, making wrong decisions not doing the right thing at the right time.
No team involvement within an organization which can lack the production of the company and also incompletion of deadlines means failure in growth of the organization.
Three examples of how a code of ethics can be used for external purpose by an organization
Government – a company has to pay tax and rates each month.
Agents – for marketing purposes organizations has to deal with other agents.
Banks (finances) – for finances and support when they are need.

Question 2
 
Corporate social responsibility is how a business/organization behaves ethically and contributes to economic development while also making sure the quality of life of working environment and the people around the society.
The Two viewpoints of social responsibility of organization are: Classical View where the bosses and managers are focused on making profit without any concern for the community or society. This theory was introduced by Milton Friedman. Opposing View- where management is focused on their money making scheme but also take a step further than (classical view) to protect the environment and wellbeing of community.
Three ways in which social responsibility policy can influence decision making in an organization are:
Violation of profit-means business being too responsible only society and less focused on making profits.
Increase in costs –money social responsible actions just based on people and community and it does not cover for their costs, therefore someone has to pay their cost.
Lack of skills- business leaders/ managers are not competent enough to put social issues into correct order.
D. Three Benefits of CSR policy to an organization are:
ï‚· Better environment -Business involvement in a community/society will enhance everyday social problems.
Long term profits –socially responsible organizations tend to have more secure and long term future, they tend to do right things at the right time.
Public image –organizations can have a favorable public image because it is more people and environmentally friendly if projects a good business name in public.

QUESTION 3:
 
A .The main concept of organizational sustainability in an organization is:
All their visions and goals are realistic.
To not only try to make profit in an organization.
Not over doing things which may lead to not enough resources plus not enough money.
A sustained organization works more ethically and socially, where it has a set of principles for doing right things and socially responsible as involving more people and being environmentally friendly.
 
B.Keeping the goods and vision realistic at all times as it helps an organization determine its productivity and sustainablilty.
Doing right things on right time.
To be classically responsible but stepping further and being more socially responsible as this will put a good image of the organization.
Question 4
 
The two models that I have studied are:
-John Cotters 8 –step Change Model.
 
-The Mckinsey 7S Framework.
 
The two models that I have chosen are; one of the theories is John Cotters 8-step change model. It was introduced by John Katter in the 1980’s. The 8-steps of this theory are :
1. Create urgency –developing urgency around the need for change.
 
2. Form a powerful collation– gather people with the same attitude towards change and are influential people in the business. Putting such people together in a team leading the change
 
3. Create a vision for change – creating a vision of set goals and targets which the whole company works towards to achieve.
 
4. Communicate the vision- Making sure that everyone in the organization is familiar with the vision of the company.
 
5. Remove Obstacles- moving barriers which work against the change.
 
6. Create short term wins- give out early rewards.
 
7. Build on the Change- keeps monitoring and ways to improve change.
 
8. Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture –embedding the changes into the new cooperate culture.
 
Changes to an organization structure involve hierarchy of authority, job roles and other structural characteristics. Hierarchy change of authority meaning setting new layers of managers, they determine all the major business roles. Managers needs to create a vision to change thus create a vision which is closer to the change. Plus removing obstacles by looking at the current status and organizational structure including payroll and soppy... Similarly doing change for technology by creating an urgency identifying the potential threats and developing scenarios showing what can be done in the future to enhance technology. People change can be encouraged through thoroughly analyzing the potential pros and cons of their target and also reward people who help in achieving the goals. Plan thoroughly and have solid grounds to implement the change that can be done much easily thus improving the chances of success.
 
Second theory is the Mckinsey”s 7S framework, this theory was introduced in the early 1980s by Tom Peters and Waterman. In this principle there are 7 internal aspects of an organization that needs to be aligned if it is be successful. The 7s model involves seven independent factors which are:
 
1: Strategy - the plan which has to be set to achieve and build competitive advantage over the competition.
 
2: Structure- they way the organization is built up (structured) and who reports to whom.
 
3: System – the daily activities and procedure’s that employees engage in to get the job done
 
4: shared values- Also known as “super ordinate goals” these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethics.
 
5: style- The style of leadership adapted.
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6: Staff- the people that the company employees or works for them.
 
7: Skills- The actual skills and effort of the employees working for the company. The Mckinsey 7S model is one that can be applied to almost any organization or team effectiveness issue.
 
Structural change through the Mckinseys 7S Framework can be emphasized by seeing how well the company has been divided. What is the Hierarchy and who makes the decisions? To ensure structural change all decision making and controlling should be well planned.
 
In this Model technology change could be enriched or resolute how well the skills are represented within the company plus making sure that the staffs is fully complying with the changes. People change can be influenced by the way which they communicate and motivate each other to develop skills. Similarly a long term project involves continuous efforts at all levels of the organization.
 
Specialist Apparel Ltd could apply the two approaches which are firstly John Cotters 8-step change Model and secondly the Mckinsey 7S Framework.
The company needs to determine whether they need to change something which is small or considered or to be a big change for the business. Through John Kotter's model of change the company firstly needs to create an urgency as for change to happen it would be viable if everyone in the business really opens up to the change. Henry Buckworth the director of Specialist Apparel Ltd can start an honest discussion and give honest\ and positive outlook to get his staff to think and talk about. Henry should identify all the disadvantages and advantages of the changes for the business. Secondly Henry should form a powerful coalition, convincing his staff that change is necessary and asking for their commitment so the company can could get through with the big project they have on their hands. Thirdly Removing Obstacles put in place the structure for change and continually check for barriers to it. Henry wants to bring in the specialist to the company for new advanced machinery that his going to have for production but he needs to explain the current stuffs why his doing this change and also identifying staffs who are resisting the change to help them see what is needed and why it is important. Lastly to make change really work for Henry’s company he needs to put this as a core part of the company. Henry has signed one of the biggest contracts for the company and has big dreams of taking the company to the international market, to do this Henry needs to recognize the key other key contractors of the Specialist Apparel Ltd. As it mentions in the case study about one of their biggest buys of cloths are local New Zealand Company Rebel Sports.
 
It is important that the company’s managers are supporting change whole along the way; this includes the existing staff and the new staff members who are brought in. In the case study it states that Henry spoke to the Production manager Jim Foster and he was not quite happy of Henry subcontracting the design work to external specialist designers.
 
Special Apparel Ltd can also use The Mckinsey 7S Framework model to change management problems. The use of seven S, STRATEGY, STRUCTURE, SYSTEM, SHARED VALUES, SKILLS, STYLES, and STAFF could emphasis the company’s main managerial problem.
 
Henry managed to get the contract from a big Korean company although there is one of the leading companies from Australia who always tend to be one step ahead of the Specialist Apparel Ltd Henry could set up a good strategy to maintain this level of competence with other leading companies around. As stated in the case study Henry has already planned of subcontracting designers to operate the special machines that he wants to get in order to meet the deadlines. He has set a good strategy but current staffs are worried about their own petty concerns of what is going to happen to them and are the new staffs going to boss them around. So to improve that Henry needs to built a good structure of his company, he could divide the staffs into certain groups and mix them with new staff at the same time they also get to learn the new designing thus Henry could keep his promise of up-skilling training. Henry needs to make clear that he makes all the major decisions.
 
Henry needs to explain the benefits of new machinery and designers would have towards the growth of the company; he needs to make sure that the staffs are all working cooperatively rather than competitively. The Mckinsey 7S model could be used in most of the organization or for team effectiveness issue which Special Apparel Ltd is facing in the case study.
 
The three key Change agents in Special Apparel Ltd are
Henry The Managing Director
Jim Foster the Production Manager
The Staff
The main role of Henry in the company is to make all the major decision as the Managing Director. Henry’s strength is that he has the power to bring in change in the company he makes the decisions of what needs doing and what not and also doing the right things right. His limitation is that he cannot monitor the whole company at once that’s why he has to rely on his company managers Jim foster Production Manager and Sheila Parata the Sales Director.
 
The role of Jim Foster the Production Manager is that he controls the production line of the company. Jim’s strength is that he can influence he staffs majorly in the company and also delegate people. Strength is that he faces most of his staff everyday so he knows them all better than Henry so Jim can highly influence change in the company.
 
Jims limitation is that he cannot make any major decision by himself he will need to wait for Henry ‘s order to make any specific decision and then pass it on to the staff as far as change in the company is concerned.
 
The staff plays a major role in any organization as they are the one to determine the production. In Special Apparel Ltd the strength of the staff is that if they backed out of the company Henry will be facing a major delay in production thus failure in contract completion and also loss funds. The staff can bring in change to company as they are one of the key agents of the company and that is if they decide to comply with change.
 
The limitations of staffs are that they cannot take any major decision by themselves thus following orders from Henry and Jim. They cannot decide how to bring change unless they are told how to do so and if they are happy with it.
 
1. Organizational Culture – it is the culture within the company and the unwritten code of behavior that manipulates itself in the way things are done around.
It has influenced Special Apparel Ltd as Henry wants to bring in change in the company but the staff is not willing to fully go with it.
 
2. Management Style – is the way the managers tend to control and run the company. In Special Apparel ltd and Management style is not very encouraging as when Henry went to give the news to the staff about the contract they were not quite happy about it as Henry also mentioned about hiring new staff for the latest designing machines. They should have had a proper meeting within themselves first before announcing anything to the staff.
 
3. Organisational ethics and values- it determines the how the organization responds to the events which takes place within and outside of the organization.
 
At Special Apparel Ltd everyone has their own ethic and values which are colliding with each other they seem not to come together to a point as a whole.
 
4. Participation – is the action and involvement a person puts in something. In the case study it is quite clear that not everyone is willing to participate in fulfilling the contract the staff has their own petty concern of what is going to happen to them if new employees are hired.
 
5. Communication – is simply exchanging of messages through speaking, writing and sign language. In Special Apparel Ltd the communication is not effective and appears to be bit misleading. The News that Henry told the staff should have been put out in a positive way.
 
6. Environmental Pressures- is simply the competitors around the company. In the case study it is stated that there is an Australian company who always tend to be one step forward from The Special Apparel Ltd. It creates a pressure towards the work environment knowing that there is another company that could take over your contract if it is not done time.
 


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