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英国期末课程论文:讨论科学管理(泰勒主义)在薪酬、员工激励方面的利弊。

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-07-22 15:56:24 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
1.0 Introduction介绍
泰勒的科学管理是针对传统的经验管理而提出的。核心问题是如何提高劳动生产率(uddin和hossain,2015年)。从这个角度出发,科学管理提出了一系列的管理制度和方法,其中如何通过薪酬提高劳动生产率,员工激励是科学管理的重要组成部分(赵,2011)。科学管理诞生于20世纪初,它的一些管理理念和方法在今天已经被使用,也受到了质疑。本文旨在探讨科学管理在薪酬、员工激励等方面的利弊,并对如何改进这些不足提出建议。本文首先回顾了科学管理的相关内容,指出了科学管理的意义和不足,并对如何弥补这些不足提出了建议。
Taylor's scientific management is proposed aiming at traditional experience management. The central issue is how to increase labor productivity (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). From this perspective, scientific management puts forward a series of management systems and methods, of which how to increase labor productivity through pay and reward, as well as employee motivation is an important part of scientific management (Zhao, 2011). Scientific management was born in the early 20th century, and some of its management concepts and methods have been used today and have also been questioned. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of scientific management with regards to pay and reward, and employee motivation, making suggestions on how to improve these deficiencies. This essay first reviews relevant content of scientific management, then it points out its significance and deficiencies to make recommendations on how to make up for these deficiencies.
2.0 Main body主体
2.1 Scientific management科学管理
Taylor认为科学管理的根本目的是寻求最大的劳动生产率(Uddin和Hossain,2015年)。最高的效率是雇主和雇员实现共同繁荣的基础。用科学规范的管理方法代替经验管理,是实现最高工作效率的重要手段。泰勒认为,在一个科学的管理体系中,工人们正在最大限度地发挥他们的积极性;作为回报,他们从雇主那里获得了某些特殊的刺激,他认为科学管理是最好的管理模式(uddin和hossain,2015年)。
Taylor believed that the fundamental purpose of scientific management is to seek maximum labor productivity (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). The highest efficiency is the basis for employers and employees to achieve common prosperity. An important means to achieve the highest work efficiency is to use scientific and standardized management methods instead of empirical management. Taylor thought that in a scientific management system, the workers are maximizing their enthusiasm; in return, they obtain certain special stimuli from their employers, he figured that scientific management is the best management model (Uddin and Hossain, 2015).
2.2 Economic man hypothesis经济人假设
泰勒的科学管理理论涉及员工、薪酬和报酬的内容,这与经济人假设密切相关(Uddin和Hossain,2015)。经济人假设把人的特征概括为以下几个特征:第一,大多数人很懒惰,总是试图逃避工作;第二,大多数人没有野心,不想承担任何责任,强制和惩罚的方法必须是为了迫使他们努力实现组织的目标,大多数人为了满足他们的基本需求而工作,只有金钱和地位才能激励他们工作(Tverdohleb,2012年)。
Taylor's scientific management theory involves the content of employee, pay and reward, which is closely related to economic man hypothesis (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). Economic man hypothesis summarizes the characteristics of people as the following characteristics: first, most people are very lazy and they always try to escape from work; second, most people do not have ambitions, do not want to take any responsibility, methods of coercion and punishment must be used in order to force them to work to achieve the goals of an organization, most people work in order to meet their basic needs, only money and status can motivate them to work (Tverdohleb, 2012).
2.3 Methods of scientific management
Taylor's scientific management theory extends the managerial philosophy and methods based on the characteristics of economic man. It includes the following aspects: first, management work focuses on increasing productivity and fulfilling production tasks, considering human feelings and moral responsibility, it is irrelevant; second, management work is only a matter of a few people’s and it has nothing to do with the masses of workers, the main task of workers is to follow the command of managers; third, as far as a reward system is concerned, money is mainly used to stimulate workers' enthusiasm for production, while severe punishment is used for passive absenteeism. In layman's terms, it is the "carrot and stick" policy (Tomer, 2008).
2.4 Significance of scientific management
Scientific management was positive for pay and reward, and employee motivation at that time, which was mainly reflected in two aspects (Asyali and Bastug, 2014). First, it guarantees fairness to a certain extent, and employees are able to get more pay by improving their own performance, instead of relying on years of work, social status and other factors (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). Second, by using the psychology of employees’ to seek profits and avoid disadvantages, employees are guided to comply with an enterprise’s management system, through actively working to obtain more wages, the productivity of workers is greatly improved (Kim, 2018).
2.5 Deficiencies of scientific management
2.5.1 Employee motivation 
Scientific management mainly uses money to motivate employees and restricts employees through a strict punishment system (Asyali and Bastug, 2014). Although this kind of employee incentive method has a certain degree of rationality at that time, but with the extensive use of this method and the development of enterprise management theory and practice, the inadequacies of this employee incentive method are also increasingly reflected (Kim, 2018). It is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. First, a large number of studies have shown that the motivating effect of money on employees shows marginal decline as money is increased, that is, as the monetary rewards given are increased to a certain degree, the incentive effect of money on employees will be reduced, on the one hand, companies pay a lot of money to motivate employees but increase company costs, on the other hand, the enthusiasm and satisfaction of employees can not be effectively improved (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). Second, the needs of employees are not only the demand for money but also the demand for other aspects, such as the need for respect, the need for self-value realization, and scientific management adopts a strict punishment system to restrain employees, which cannot satisfy employees’ need for respect. Scientific management believes that employees do not need to participate in management, which can not meet the needs of staff’s self-realization (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). Finally, the carrot-and-stick staff incentive policies of scientific management are unfavorable to the formation of a harmonious and united corporate culture and improving employees’ sense of belonging to a company, especially for those knowledge workers who have mastered the technology and resources needed for a company, if a company can not give them enough respect and opportunities of participation in management, just relying on money can not effectively stimulate and retain them (Asyali and Bastug, 2014).
2.5.2 Pay and reward
Scientific management advocates adopting a stimulus-based compensation system called “differential piece-based system” to adopt different wage rates according to whether workers complete their quotas; wages are paid for workers instead of positions, that is, according to the actual performance of workers, salary is not paid according to job category (Uddin and Hossain, 2015). However, the problem with this type of remuneration system is that when considering individual performance, it can create undesirable competition among members of a department or within a team. In order to achieve good personal performance, employees may reduce cooperation. In addition, performance pay has too much emphasis on the stimulating effect of money on employees, which will lead to a bad direction after long-term use, such as: when a company's growth is slow, the employees can not get high material rewards, the incentive to employees is reduced, When the business is in difficulty, it is difficult for the employees to share difficulties with the company and they may choose to leave or work in a negative manner. Paying employees based on performance only has not enough attractiveness for those employees who have the core technology and resources of an enterprise, it will make these core employees be invited by other companies.
2.6 Recommendation
2.6.1 Meet the diverse needs of employees
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory points out that the needs of employees are diverse, and the level of human needs will continue to increase (Salado and Nilchiani, 2013). Therefore, it is not enough to use only money to motivate employees, it must also pay attention to meeting employees' high-level needs. For example, it should meet employees' needs for respect, companies should not rely solely on strict management systems to restrict employees, but should also communicate with employees, understanding employees' opinions, as well as employees' difficulties and ideas to improving the imperfections in systems while helping employees to improve their performance and their work attitudes to avoid being punished by the systems. It should also meet the self-fulfilling needs of employees, companies should be able to provide targeted training to employees and help them to improve their technical skills. At the same time, they should give excellent employees the opportunity to participate in business management, research and development, and institutional development, so that employees can have opportunities to achieve their own value. High-level needs of employees should also be satisfied, which is more effective than just satisfying employees' demand for money in effectively motivating employees, at the same time, it can also reduce the cost of a company and improve the production efficiency of the company.#p#分页标题#e#
2.6.2 Use a mixed pay and reward system
A mixed pay and reward system can be a more reasonable way for different employees in a company. Scientific management theory advocates adopting a stimulatory pay system of “differential piece-based system”, which is based on the characteristics of enterprises and labor in that era. Now, the ownership structure, competition methods, production processes, and core resources of an enterprise are all largely different from those in the past, and labor has changed greatly in terms of skills and knowledge, rights awareness, and work mobility. Enterprises can not meet what companies and employees need by adopting only a pay system. . It may be a more reasonable way for enterprises to adopt a mixed pay and reward system for different employees on the basis of ensuring fairness and reasonableness. For example, adopting equity incentives for core employees can better motivate them to serve the enterprise, giving employees wages based on their working years can better reduce staff turnover rate and increase employee loyalty, and annual salary system should be used for senior executives.
3.0 Conclusion
The emergence of scientific management theory is of great significance. However, with the development of the times and the advancement of corporate management, the inadequacies in pay and reward, and employee motivation have gradually emerged. They are mainly reflected in the inability to meet the various needs of employees and the marginally diminished incentive effect, and so on. The author's suggestions for improvement include: meeting the high-level needs of employees and adopting a mixed pay and reward system.
 
References
Asyali, E. and Bastug, S. (2014). Influence of scientific management principles on ISM Code. Safety Science, 68(10), 121-127.
Kim, J. (2018). School accountability and standard-based education reform: The recall of social efficiency movement and scientific management. International Journal of Educational Development, 60(5), 80-87.
Salado, A. and Nilchiani, R. (2013). Using Maslow's hierarchy of needs to define elegance in system architecture. Procedia Computer Science, 16, 927-936. 
Tomer, J. (2008). Beyond the rationality of economic man, toward the true rationality of human man. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(5), 1703-1712.
Tverdohleb, E. (2012). The institutional change in action: transitioning to economic man. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 45(3–4), 363-373.
Uddin, N. and Hossain, F. (2015). Evolution of modern management through Taylorism: an adjustment of scientific management. Procedia Computer Science, 62, 578-584.
Zhao, C. P. (2011). On the theory of scientific management and the development of Chongqing's catering chain industry. Procedia Engineering, 15, 5420-5424.
 
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