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代写essay范文—写作文化历史的新方向

时间:2017-04-20 13:52来源:http://www.ukassignment.org 作者:mango 点击:
本文对写作实践历史的一些新方向进行了综述,主要是集中在19世纪和20世纪早期的西欧和美洲。从对史学,人类学和文学的研究,我将展示了该领域里的主要学术理论。一些专门给普通人和半文盲的人学习的通俗读物等重要文档也在本文涉及。同时,还简要回顾了一些有关写作实践历史的选题。首先,这些都是函授和书信说明书的历史,其中介绍了两个重要概念:书信协议和书信素养。其次,介绍了三个在邮政业务发展上的新作品,强调了锻造民族凝聚力的作用。然后,本文还表明了移民者著作研究是如何对总体上对移民研究产生影响。还总结出抄写文化历史会对社会文化历史产生积极作用,证明了写作是在它的材料形式上被分析的,是作为一篇文本而不仅仅是信息来源。写作实践值得作为社会和文化现象进行深入研究。
 
ABSTRACT: This article reviews some new directions in the history of writing practices, concentrating on Western Europe and the Americas in the nineteenth and early twentieth century’s. I identify some major intellectual influences on the field, deriving from historiography, anthropology and literary studies. I indicate some important archives specializing in popular writings which sustain the study of the writings of ordinary and semi-literate people. A few selected topics in which the history of writing practices makes a contribution are then briefly reviewed. These are, firstly, the history of correspondence and letter-writing instruction manuals, which introduces two important concepts: the ‘epistolary pact’ and ‘epistolary literacy’. Secondly, I introduce three new works on the development of postal services, stressing their role in forging national cohesion. Thirdly, I indicate how the study of emigrants’ writings has contributed to a shift of focus in the study of emigration in general. I conclude that the history of scribal culture can make a significant contribution to socio-cultural history, provided that writing is analyzed in its material form, and as a text, not simply as a source of information. Writing practices deserve serious study as a social and cultural phenomenon in their own right.
 
KEYWORDS: Correspondence,World War One, Emigration,Modern France,Modern Italy, Modern Spain
 
INTRODUCTION 介绍
The origins of the history of the book, traditionally conceived, can be traced to 1958, the publication date of Lucien Fever and Henri-Jean Martin’s pioneering L’ Apparition du Liver. Fever and Martin (1958) invited historians to consider books as objects of consumption, the products of a complex manufacturing process whose sale and distribution obeyed commercial imperatives and depended on established trade networks. More recently, the history of reading itself as a social and cultural practice has emerged, as the examination of readers and their responses have illuminated broader issues in European history. Investigating the ways readers appropriated and interpreted their texts has contributed, for example, to our understanding of the popular reception of the Protestant Reformation, and formed a central issue in the debate between Robert Danton and Roger Chertier on the cultural origins of the French Revolution. The subject of this article, however, is an even new ruff spring of the conventional histoire du liver: namely, the history of writing practices. Reading and writing have for a long time been treated separately by cultural historians, and there were good reasons for this. Until the nineteenth century, after all, they were distinct literary skills, taught independently of each other, and writing competence was always rarer than reading ability. If, however, we wish to study the history of letter-writing or of the private diary, the division between reading and writing no longer makes sense. In these genres, readers were writers and writers were readers. My purpose here is to briefly sketch some of the historiographical influences on the history of written culture, and to suggest some new directions in the field. I concentrate on the nineteenth century, with some excursions into the early modern period. My geographical focus is on Western Europe and North America.
 
THE IMPORTANCE OF WRITING写作的重要性
Writing was once an instrument of oppression and a cultural practice confined to social and political élites; but by the end of the nineteenth century it had become indispensable at every level of European society. Handwriting is now a lost art, but in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s it served arrange of essential functions. Writing by hand was essential for personal communication at a distance, for business transactions and for maintaining family networks. Faithful supplicants sent prayers to heaven in writing, while pastors and confessors recommended writing as part of the individual’s spiritual development, so that self-writing became a crucial instrument in the examination of the Christian conscience. Subjects and citizens used writing to petition or insult their governments. Through writing, one managed family problems, conducted love affairs and tried to keep one’s budget under control. In the twenty-first century, we are in danger of underestimating its importance, because the intense and widespread scribal culture of that period has all but disappeared. Today, personal writing has been relegated to a private and domestic universe of shopping lists and hastily scribbled mobile phone numbers. But in a world before telephones, e-mails and text messaging, writing sustained daily life and human contact. The re´sume´sof today’s job applicants list their skill and experience with the latest computer software programmers; but their nineteenth-century equivalents had to demonstrate good handwriting as the essential professional asset for any clerical or professional employment. In the 1840s, for example, the future American novelist Herman Melville could not get a job in Manhattan because his handwriting was too poor (August, 2003:219). Men away on business trips wrote home daily, soldiers in the trenches wrote almost as frequently toothier relatives and loved ones, and emigrants across the oceans kept in contact with their family of origin through writing. Middle-class spouses even wrote teach other when they were not separated, the husband having notes delivered to his wife while she was busying another room of their spacious residence. 
 
Until recently, however, only the writings of educated people attracted the serious attention of cultural historians. The private correspondence of bourgeois families revealed their extended networks, their inner dynamics and the issues which concerned them. The study of letters has thrown new light on the different roles and responsibilities of middle-classmen and women in sustaining family relationships (Dauphin et al., 1995). Similarly, the proliferation of private journals in nineteenth-century European society helped to focus attention on the role of writing in the development of the individual personality. Feminist scholars were in the forefront of the study of diaries and journaux in times; investigating the development of female individuality and gendered self representation (Bunkers and Huff, 1996; Sinor, 2002).
 
These studies have usually been confined to the writings of social strata for which writing came easily. For the educated middle classes, writing was familiar cultural practice in which they had been well trained. They had mastered the technology of writing, its materials and instruments and the physical discipline required to make use of them. They knew how to manipulate a quill or later a steel pen, how to apply the ink without smudging the page, how to write-in a straight line, constructing sentences and paragraphs, and how to dry the ink later with sand or finely ground shell. Writing letters to other correspondents from various ranks involved social protocols in which they had been thoroughly educated. Rarely, until now, has the same spotlight been directed at the writings of the semi-literate and partly educated. Illiterate people, too, were writers with the help of intermediaries, and they also were part of the scribal culture of the poor. The correspondence of peasant soldiers in the trenches during the First World War demonstrates some essential characteristics of ordinary writings. Punctuation was used randomly and often not at all. Word separation was haphazard, and dialect and oral speech strongly influenced their writing. We cannot expect semi-literate writers to show a good grasp of the syntax or spelling of their national language, especially when this was not always familiar to them. Their writing style borrowed from their brief and rudimentary schooling and from the bureaucratic speech they had learned in the army. And yet, in an emergency, soldiers found a way to write home.
 
ARCHIVES档案
Two momentous events made a fundamental impact on the cultural lives of ordinary people in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s. These were firstly, the beginning of mass emigration across the oceans, particularly to the Americas, and secondly, the First World War. Quite apart from the enormous social and economic repercussions of these events, they both generated a seismic cultural shift: they produced a massive outpouring of letter-writing amongst people who were barely literate and totally unaccustomed to handling a pen. The prolonged and painful separation of loved ones and family members caused by the extraordinary circumstances of war and emigration made writing essential. Writing was needed to hold families together and manage their collective affairs. Through writing, individuals worked from a distance to sustain their social identities as members of a family group. This enormous corpus of popular writing was a writing of absence and desire _the desire to return to one’s loved ones, too familiar surroundings and to the stable co-ordinates of a world which was irretrievably disappearing. In the First World War, it was also a writing of survival _‘writing to stay alive’ (scrivener per non moiré) was how the Italian soldier Francesco Ferrari put it (Croce, 1992).Writing was synonymous with existence itself. 


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