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人力资源Essay范文:Methods of Employee Performance Appraisals

论文价格: 免费 时间:2022-03-18 13:24:53 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

本文是人力资源专业的Essay范例,题目是Methods of Employee Performance Appraisals(员工绩效评估方法)”,组织和管理者现在使用许多评估方法来评估员工的表现,这些方法既有好处也有坏处。员工绩效评估是对员工在某一年或另一特定时期的表现的评价和回顾(Woods, 2003)。绩效评估是成功企业最重要的过程之一,也是组织内部人力资源部门将被判断的关键指标之一(Kressler, 2003)。绩效评估和评估从亚里士多德时代就开始了,对员工绩效的衡量可以让公司在反思员工的绩效时,在个体员工的层面上做出理性的决定(Virginia Tech, 2010)。员工绩效评估提供了一个结构,管理者和员工见面,并讨论彼此的绩效(Lotich, 2014)Jafari et al.(2009)认为绩效考核是人力资源部门必须实施的最重要的过程之一。

Introduction介绍

Organisations and managers are now using a number of appraisal methods in order to assess employee performance, and these methods both have benefits and negatives. An employee performance appraisal is a critique and a review of an employees performance during the year, or another specified time period (Woods, 2003). Performance appraisals are one of the most important processes for successful businesses, and are one of the key metrics a human resource department within an organisation will be judged on (Kressler, 2003). Performance evaluations and appraisals have been conducted since the times of Aristotle, and the measurement of an employees performance can allow a company to take rational decisions on an individual employee level, when reflecting on their performance (Virginia Tech, 2010). Employee performance appraisals provide a structure for managers and employees to meet and discuss performance with each other (Lotich, 2014). Jafari et al., (2009) assert that performance appraisal is one of the most important processes that the human resource department has to implement. 人力资源Essay范例

Indeed, there is little disagreement that if well done, performance measurements and feedback can play a valuable role in effecting the grand compromise between the needs of the individual and the needs of the organisation(Virginia tech, 2010). Companies need to understand the purpose of appraising performance. This is to motivate an employee to increase their performance levels by attempting to help the employee understand why they are not performing effectively. It is also to identify how they can perform better (Kokemuller, 2012). This essay will look at a range of different employee performance appraisal methods, ranging from rating scales to team and self-evaluations. Both the benefits and the limitations of these will be looked at, in order to assess how effective they are as performance appraisal methods. Finally, the conclusion will discuss if there is one effective method that organisations should use, or if this is not the case.

事实上,“几乎没有异议,如果做得好,绩效测量和反馈可以发挥一个有价值的作用,在个人和组织的需要之间的巨大妥协”(弗吉尼亚技术,2010)。企业需要了解绩效评估的目的。这是通过帮助员工理解他们为什么不能有效地工作来激励员工提高他们的绩效水平。这也是为了确定他们如何能表现得更好(Kokemuller, 2012)。这篇文章将着眼于一系列不同的员工绩效评估方法,从评级量表到团队和自我评估。将审查这些方法的好处和局限性,以便评估它们作为考绩方法的效力。最后,结论将讨论是否有一个有效的方法,组织应该使用,或如果不是这样。

 

Rating Scales等级量表

One method of appraisal is rating scales, and this is one of the more common forms of performance appraisal found within organisations (Jafari et al., 2009). Two of these which are commonly used are the graphic rating scale as well as the behavioural rating scale. Using the graphical rating scale, the employees are assigned a score based upon different criteria which are important to job success (Kokemuller, 2012). The behavioural scale focuses on the actual behaviours an employee displays. The benefits of rating scales is the fact that they are easy to use and to understand. Many managers and employees are also familiar with this technique, and they offer a simple way to communicate areas of strengths and weaknesses to the employee (Kokemuller, 2012). The graphical rating scale is not very time consuming at all, and they are easy to develop and administer as well as allowing for a range of quantitative analysis. Negatives of rating scales is the assumption that they are tied to a raise or a bonus for the employee, and this can contribute towards score inflation. Managers can also have a negative bias towards employees when utilising this method too (Kokemuller, 2012).

评估的一种方法是评级量表,这是在组织内部发现的一种更常见的绩效评估形式(Jafari et al.2009)。其中常用的两种是图形评定量表和行为评定量表。使用图形评定量表,根据对工作成功至关重要的不同标准给员工打分(Kokemuller, 2012)。行为量表侧重于员工的实际行为。评定量表的好处在于它们易于使用和理解。许多经理和员工也熟悉这种技术,他们提供了一种简单的方式来沟通的强项和弱点的员工(Kokemuller, 2012)。图形评定量表并不耗费太多时间,而且很容易开发和管理,并允许进行一系列的定量分析。评级量表的缺点是假设它们与员工的加薪或奖金挂钩,这可能会导致分数膨胀。当使用这种方法时,管理者也会对员工产生消极的偏见(Kokemuller, 2012)

 

Narrative Techniques叙事技巧

Another technique is the narrative technique, which is similar to the critical independent method. When compared to the rating scales technique, these offer a more detailed analysis of job performance (Kokemuller, 2012). In these, an essay assessment is written of the performance for the narrative technique, with a log kept for the critical independent method. This log is based on the critical incidents which occur over the year, or the period of time the performance appraisal focuses on, and looks to the actual performance as opposed to behaviours like the essay technique (Jafari et al., 2009). A benefit of these techniques is the amount of detail, and how thorough they can be in analysing the behaviour of employees (Kokemuller, 2012). Maintaining a detailed set of notes throughout the year enables a manager to give a well-rounded and an accurate account of employee performance (Root, 2011). As well as this, there can be a focus on praising positive behaviours, as well as addressing areas where correction is needed. However, this thoroughness and scope for wide ranging discussion does leave the analysis up for open interpretation without a scoring and rating system, and therefore the employee may interpret the evaluation in a too positive or too negative light (Kokemuller, 2012). This method can be used in conjunction with other methods, such as the graphical scale, to enable something more quantitative with a qualitative rating too (Jafari et al., 2009).

另一种技巧是叙事技巧,类似于批判性独立方法。当与评定量表技术相比,这些提供了更详细的工作绩效分析(Kokemuller, 2012)。在这些测试中,叙述技术的表现会被写进论文评估,批判性独立方法的日志也会被保存下来。这种日志是基于在过去一年中发生的关键事件,或绩效评估关注的一段时间,并看实际的表现,而不是行为,如论文技巧(Jafari等人,2009)。这些技术的一个好处是细节的数量,以及它们在分析员工行为时的透彻程度(Kokemuller, 2012)。在全年保持一套详细的笔记,使经理能够给出一个全面和准确的员工绩效的帐户(根,2011)。除此之外,还可以注重表扬积极的行为,并指出需要纠正的地方。然而,这种彻底性和广泛讨论的范围确实让分析成为开放的解读,没有一个评分和评级系统,因此员工可能会在一个过于积极或过于消极的光下解释评估(Kokemuller, 2012)。这种方法可以与其他方法(如图形量表)结合使用,从而在定性评级的基础上实现更定量的东西(Jafari等,2009)

 

Comparison Methods比较的方法

Comparison methods is a multi-person method, which is a common appraisal technique. This approach, and the forced distribution method, compare the employees performance to the fellow workers within the organisation (Kokemuller, 2012). This allows the manager to communicate to an employee where they are performing well, and where they are not performing well in comparison to the other employees. The benefits of this are that this can motivate performance in competitive workplaces and among employees who have a competitive nature (Kokemuller, 2012). However this comparative methods could cause infighting, lack of teamwork and a lack of harmony among employees within the business, and this could lead to a deterioration in performance (Kokemuller, 2012). This method could be used in conjunction with the graphical scale, as the graphical scale would allow easy comparison between employees (Root, 2010).

比较法是一种多人法,是常用的评价方法。这种方法,和强制分配方法,比较员工的绩效与组织内的同事(Kokemuller, 2012)。这使得管理者可以和员工沟通他们在哪些方面表现良好,哪些方面与其他员工相比表现不佳。这样做的好处是,它可以在竞争激烈的工作场所和具有竞争天性的员工之间激励绩效(Kokemuller, 2012)。然而,这种比较方法可能会导致企业内部的内讧,缺乏团队合作,员工之间缺乏和谐,这可能会导致业绩的恶化(Kokemuller, 2012)。这种方法可以与图形量表结合使用,因为图形量表可以方便地在员工之间进行比较(Root, 2010)

人力资源Essay怎么写

360 Feedback

The development of an employee is dependent on the progress made within the specific department that they work in, as well as how effective they are when working with the rest of the company (Root, 2010). 360 degree feedback is a popular performance appraisal technique in modern organisations. In this method, the employee is evaluated by a wide range of people. This can range from co-workers, to supervisors as well as customers and those working under them (Kokemuller, 2012). One advantage of this is that the employee can see how a wide range of stakeholders view their performance in the key relationships that are critical to the employees job role. Different perspectives are also a positive in the appraisal process, and this is much more comprehensive than having just one person assessing the employees performance (Kokemuller, 2012). Hakala (2012) notes that 360 degree feedback is the most comprehensive, but also the most expensive performance appraisal measure and is normally only reserved for key employees within the organisation. Indeed, 360 degree feedback can be seen to be very good for gaining a broader perspective, having multi source feedback and for greater self-development. It is able to measure a range of different objectives effectively that other aspects may not, such as interpersonal skills and customer satisfaction (HRwale, 2015). There is also the 720 degree method, which Shaout and Yousif (2014) cite that it is 360 degree but practiced twice. It includes getting feedback from further external sources such as suppliers, family and communities of which the organisation is intertwined with. 360 degree feedback is expensive and time consuming for organisations to implement, as it is much more comprehensive, and requires much more time invested in it to implement as opposed to the other methods previously discussed.

 

Self Evaluation and Team Evaluations自我评估和团队评估

Another form of effective performance appraisal has been seen to be self-evaluation and team evaluation. The benefits of these are that they are easy to administer, involving forms that can be filled in and used to rate yourself or those in your team based on a number of different criteria (Root, 2011). These forms can also be used in conjunction with other methods in an attempt to see if their colleagues and self-performance evaluations are of a similar view to the managers. Indeed, Root (2010) mentions that this is particularly useful when teamed with a performance review. Fellow workers may possibly have a better perspective of the jobs that are performed by their peers, and also have a better insight into what working them is liked (Root, 2012). However, there is obviously the possibility that a bias may exist when self-evaluation, or evaluating colleagues who may be friends, or who may be disliked despite having stellar performance in their job roles. This evaluation by peers or by the team can help to open up conversation between the manager, the employee, and the team which can be extremely beneficial to the overall development for the employee (Root, 2010). This is because there can often be discrepancies between what the management, and what the employee consider to be important performance factors (Hakala, 2008).

另一种有效的绩效评估形式是自我评估和团队评估。它们的好处是易于管理,包括可以填写的表格,并根据许多不同的标准来评估你自己或你的团队成员(Root, 2011)。这些表格也可以与其他方法结合使用,以便了解他们的同事和自我绩效评价是否与管理人员的观点相似。实际上,Root(2010)提到,当与绩效评估相结合时,这是非常有用的。同事可能会对同事所做的工作有更好的看法,也会更好地了解他们喜欢什么样的工作(Root, 2012)。然而,很明显,在自我评价时,或在评价可能是朋友的同事时,或在工作中表现出色但不受欢迎的同事时,可能存在偏见。这种由同事或团队进行的评估有助于打开管理者、员工和团队之间的对话,这对员工的整体发展非常有益(Root, 2010)。这是因为管理层和员工认为重要的绩效因素之间经常存在差异(哈卡拉,2008)

 

Management By Objectives

The final technique of performance appraisal is management by objectives. Here, employees are assessed on how they can accomplish a specific set of objectives that the company have asserted are critical for the successful completion of the organisations corporate objectives (Jafari et al., 2009). Their performance can be graded against the objectives which are specified by the management (Shaout and Yousif, M, 2014). This is a process which converts objectives or organisations to objectives for the individual employees. This requires: setting goals, periodic reviews, plans of action as well as self-control (Jafari et al., 2009). So, the process would begin with statements of action such as reduce defected parts in the manufacturing process to 5%, throughout the process there would be a close monitoring and reviewing of the objectives previously identified to keep the employee focused on their goals (Hakala, 2008). Therefore at the end of year performance appraisal, the progress the employee has made towards their goals is assessed, with new goals set for the next year. This process can be seen to be more useful for managerial positions, as their key goals may be more closely aligned with corporate strategy, and thus easier to identify. Likewise, the negatives may not be applicable to all jobs. Another negative would be the fact that focusing on specific objectives in the performance review may lead the employee to neglect any objectives which are not so heavily scrutinised, or not tied to the allocation of merit pay (HRwale, 2010).

 

Conclusion Is there one best method of performance appraisals?结论:是否有一种最佳的绩效评估方法?

As has been seen in this essay, and as academics assert, there is no one size fits all approach to employee performance appraisal (Scott and Einstein, 2001). It can be seen that a range of different performance appraisal processes are effective when implemented (Root, 2010). As well as this, more and more companies are beginning to recognise that effective performance appraisal is key to successfully achieving corporate objectives (Grote, 2000). Human resource management and performance appraisals are aimed to improve corporate performance, while targeting individuals on the individual level as opposed to the business level. It is important to develop realistic and clear performance standards while reducing communication problems between the managers and their employees. Companies need to select the correct method for them based on a range of different factors, such as the need to compare employees, the cost of the method, the scope for error as well as the training needs evaluation for their specific company (Jafari et al., 2009).

正如在这篇文章中所看到的,正如学者所断言的,没有一种适合所有员工绩效评估的方法(ScottEinstein, 2001)。可以看出,一系列不同的绩效评估流程在实施时是有效的(Root, 2010)。除此之外,越来越多的公司开始认识到有效的绩效评估是成功实现企业目标的关键(Grote, 2000)。人力资源管理和绩效考核的目的是提高企业的绩效,而针对的是个人层面,而不是业务层面。重要的是要制定现实而清晰的绩效标准,同时减少管理者和员工之间的沟通问题。公司需要根据一系列不同的因素为他们选择正确的方法,例如需要比较员工,方法的成本,错误的范围,以及针对他们特定的公司的培训需求评估(Jafari et al.2009)

 

If performance appraisals are not done correctly, a mixed message can be left which leaves employees feeling disappointed and confused, whereas the purpose of performance appraisals are to reinforce the good work the best performers do, and to try and improve what poor performers do (Knight, 2011). In order for the performance appraisal process to be successful, it needs to have the same quality of businesses who thrive. It needs passion, agility, speed and alignment (Bersin, 2013). Organisations need to be flexible in their processes, and arrange them to meet the targets for their specific company. Organisations also need to be aware of overcoming the negatives of performance evaluation such as having a one sided conversation, or an evaluator bias (Johnson, 2011). If these are present, they can have a negative effect upon employees, which is not intended. Therefore it is impossible to recommend one process over all of the others. As has been seen, all the processes have negatives and positives and are more applicable in different situations. 360 degree feedback is the most comprehensive of all the methods, but this is expensive and time consuming and can still fall foul of the negative aspects of performance appraisal. Companies thus need to ensure efficient performance appraisal, and align the process with their corporate objectives.

如果绩效评估做得不正确,一个混杂的信息可能会留下,让员工感到失望和困惑,而绩效评估的目的是加强最好的员工做的好工作,并尝试和改善差的员工做的(Knight, 2011)。为了使绩效评估过程成功,它需要有同样质量的企业蓬勃发展。它需要激情,敏捷,速度和对齐(Bersin, 2013)。组织需要在他们的过程中灵活,并安排他们满足特定公司的目标。组织还需要意识到克服绩效评估的负面影响,如单方对话或评估者的偏见(Johnson, 2011)。如果存在这些问题,它们可能会对员工产生负面影响,而这并非有意为之。因此,不可能推荐一种流程而不是其他所有流程。正如已经看到的那样,所有的过程都有正反两面,并且更适用于不同的情况。360度反馈是所有方法中最全面的,但这是昂贵和耗时的,而且仍然会与绩效评估的负面方面相冲突。因此,企业需要确保高效的绩效评估,并将评估过程与企业目标保持一致。

 

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