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Essay代写中常用的专业词汇

时间:2015-09-29 21:06来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:anne 点击:
在写作essays和写作作业的时候你会注意到某些关键短语之前写作的时候也遇到过,并会再次出现在你的文章标题里。下面是一些最常见的词汇而它们的字面意思我们来看看:As you become more familiar with writing essays and sitting exams, you will notice that certain key phrases occur time and time again in your essay titles. Below are some of the most common, with an 

explanation of what they mean:

analyse: look at the concepts and ideas under discussion in depth.分析:深入地讨论在讨论中的概念和观点。
 
assess: make comments about the value/importance of the concepts and ideas under discussion.评估:在讨论的概念和想法的价值/重要性作出评论。
 
compare: look for similarities between the concepts and ideas under discussion.比较:在讨论的概念和想法之间的相似性。
 
contrast: look for differences between the concepts and ideas under discussion.对比:在讨论中的概念和想法之间的差异。
 
criticise: judge the strengths and weaknesses of a particular issue, theory or concept, using reasoned argument (and references) to back up your points.批评:判断一个特定问题,理论或概念的优点和不足,使用合理的论据(和引用)来支持你的观点。

critically: analyse as above, but in depth.批判性:分析如上,但深入。

define: state precisely what is meant by a particular issue, theory or concept.定义:一个特定的问题,理论或概念的确切含义。

describe: give a detailed account of.描述:详细说明。

discuss: give reasons for and against; investigate and examine by argument.讨论:给出理由和反对;通过争论调查和检查。

enumerate: recount, one by one, in concise form, the points required.枚举:一个由一个由一个由一个以简明的形式,所需的点。

evaluate: weigh up the arguments surrounding an issue, using your own opinions and, more importantly, reference to the work of others.评估:用你自己的观点来衡量一个问题,更重要的是,对其他人的工作有参考价值。

explain: clarify and interpret the material you present; state the "how or why" of the conditions which give rise to whatever you are examining.解释:澄清和解释你目前的材料,说明“如何或为什么”的条件,产生任何你正在检查。

illustrate: make clear by the use of example.举例说明:用实例说明。

interpret: translate, exemplify, solve, or comment upon the subject and, usually, give your judgment or reaction to the problem.翻译:翻译,举例说明,解决,或评论的话题,通常,给你的判断或对问题的反应。

justify: prove or show grounds for something. In such an answer, evidence should be presented in convincing form.证明:证明或证明某事的理由。在这样的回答中,证据应该以令人信服的形式呈现。

outline: give the main features of.概述:给出主要特征。

prove: establish something with certainty by evaluating and citing experimental evidence or by logical reasoning.证明:用实验证据或逻辑推理来确定和确定的东西。

relate: show how issues are connected.关系:显示问题如何连接。

review: list all that is available (or that you have access to) on a particular subject.审查:列出所有可用的(或您有访问)在一个特定的主题。

state: present in a clear, concise form.状态:目前在一个清晰,简明的形式。

summarise: give an account of all the main points of the concepts and ideas under discussion with reference to use specific examples to make the meaning clear.总结:参考用具体的例子使意义明确的讨论下给出的概念和想法都要点一个帐户。

trace: give a description of progress, historical sequence, or development from the point of origin.追溯:从起源的角度给出一个进展、历史顺序或发展的描述。

ESSAY写作常用词汇与表达方式

以下介绍英文Essay写作中常用的词汇与表达方式。
引用数据(图表、表格):
•    常用的动词:show, present, illustrate, summarize, demonstrate, contain, provide, list, report, give, reveal, display, indicate, suggest, describe, …
•    as从句: As shown in …/ As can be seen in …/ As revealed by …
引用/简述他人的研究/观点:
•    XXX + Verb. + n./that … 其中Verb可以为:state, claim, argue, maintain, suggest, assert, hypothesize, conclude, describe, develop, propose, find, show, report, use, study, demonstrate, note, discuss, observe, explain, expand, publish, give, examine, analyze, focus, presume, speculate, assume, support, theorize, contend, recommend …
•    其它:Based on …/ In the view of …/ According to …
表达可能性:
•    It is certain that …
•    It is almost certain that …
•    It is very probable/ highly likely that …
•    It is probable/likely that …
•    It is possible that …
•    It is unlikely that …
•    It is very/highly unlikely that …
用于表达可能性的另一种途径:
•    There is a definite possibility that …
•    There is a strong possibility that …
•    There is a good possibility that …
•    There is a slight possibility that …
•    There is little possibility that …
表示例外:
•    With the exception of …
•    Apart from …
•    Except for …
表示原因/缘由:
•    be due to
•    be attibuted to
•    be accounted for
•    be a consequence of
•    stem from
表示定义/命名:
•    be named
•    be called
•    be denoted by
•    be known as
•    be defined as
•    be referred to
引出设问句(不能直接使用设问句):
•    It is uncertain/unclear …
•    It has not been determined …
•    It is necessary to consider …
•    The question remains …
•    Current studies provide little information on …
•    We need to know/consider …
•    There is some question as to …
•    Another issue raised by this study is …
指出问题所在:
•    This system/process/idea has its problems.
•    There remains the issue of reliability.
•    This model has some serious liminations.
•    Few solutions have been found to …
•    Little progress has been made in …
•    The problem remains as to how …
•    Researchers still have to find a way to …
引出解决方案:
•    Solutions to this problem are now widely discussed. One remedy is to …
•    One method to address this difficulty is to …
•    There are two possible ways of handling this problem. The first … The second …
•    Several options are available to address this obstacle. However, the best one seems to be …
•    A radically different design/model is needed to overcome this limitation.
•    Recently, researchers have made significant progress in overcoming this difficulty by …
引出中心话题:
•    Recently, there has been growing interest in …
•    The possibility of … has generated wide interest in …
•    The development of … is a classic problem in …
•    The development of … has led to the hope that …
•    The … has become a favorite topic for analysis …
•    Knowledge of … has great importance for …
•    The study of … has become an important aspect of …
•    A central issue in … is …
•    (The) … has been extensively studied in recent years.
•    Many investigators have recently turned to …
•    The relationship between … and … has been investigated by many researchers.
•    Many recent studies have focused on …
表达相似之处:
•    Similarly, …
•    Likewise, …
•    In the same fashion, …
•    As in X, in Y …
•    Like X, Y …
•    The same …
•    X is similar/comparable to Y
•    X resemble Y
•    X correspond to Y
表达不同之处或比较/对照:
•    In contrast, …
•    Unlike X, Y …
•    In contrast to …
•    On the other hand, …
•    …; however, …
•    …, but …
•    Whereas/While …, …
•    …, whereas/while …
•    X differ from Y
•    X is different from Y
•    X contrast with
评价他人的研究/论著:
•    正面:useful, important, interesting, clarity, accessibility, detailed, up-to-date, insightful, significant, comprehensive, practical, successful, remarkable, impressive, elegant, scholoarly, original, perceptive, rigorous, economical
•    负面:inconsistent, restricted, misleading, thin, anecdotal, sloppy
总结:
•    Overall, …
•    In general, …
•    On the whole, …
•    In the main, …
•    With … exception(s), …
•    The overall results indicate …
•    The results indicate, overall, that …
指出本研究的局限:
•    It should be noted that this study has been primarily concerned with …
•    This analysis has concentrated on …
•    The findings of this study are restricted to …
•    This study has addressed only the question of …
•    The limination of this study are clear: …
•    We would like to point out that we have not …
指出研究结果的局限:
•    However, the findings do not imply …
•    The results of this study cannot be taken as evidence for …
•    Unfortunately, we are unable to determine from this data …
•    The lack of … means that we cannot be certain …
指出本研究的意义:
•    Notwithstanding its limitations, this study does suggest …
•    Despite its preliminary character, the research reported here would seem to indicate …
•    However exploratory, this study may offer some insight into …
常用的拉丁文缩写:
•    cf. = compare
•    e.g. = for example
•    et al. = and other authors
•    etc. = and others
•    errata = list of typographical mistakes
•    ibid. = the same as the previous reference
•    i.e. = that is to say
•    infra = see below
•    loc. cit. = in the place cited
•    N.B. = take note
•    op. cit. = in the work cited
•    sic = the error is in the original quote
•    supra = see above
•    viz. = namely
在介绍概念时常见的段落结构如下:
One sentence definition –> components/types/classifications/applications/history/examples/operations/principles/causes/effects
如有必要还可通过和相似概念的比较,概念的历史发展,或对不同专家看法的综合来明晰概念。
另外,当一个概念的定义有广泛争议时,应当申明自己使用的是哪种定义。常用的句式有:
•    For the purpose of this paper, XX is defined as …
•    Here we define XX as …
•    In this paper, I have adopted AA’s definition of XX.
•    This paper follows AA’s definition of XX.
参考文献
•    Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. (1994). Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills: A Course for Nonnative Speakers of English. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

英文著作常用缩写词

翻译或者阅读英文学术著作,常为一些缩略词所困扰,这几天翻译《政治人》就两次被注解中出现的页码后面的ff所难倒,经过不懈努力,终于查到了一个缩略词“大全”。兹录于下,以飨大家。

以下列举的缩写可能会出现在参考书目、参考资料列表、及笔记。其中的拉丁文现在比过去较
少使用,并一般只在与人文学有关的学术文章中使用。

app. appendix 附录
art. article 文章
bk book 书籍
c. approximately, about; (Latin circa); 约;例如:c 1835
for example, c 1835
cf. compare 对比
ch., c. chapter (c. for legislation) 章节(c.用于法例)
col., cols column(s) 专栏
Comp., comps compiler(s) 汇编者

div. division 部份
ed., eds editor(s) 校订者
edn, edns edition(s) 版
eq., eqs equation(s) 等式
et al. and others (Latin et alii) 与其他
et seq. and following (Latin et sequentes) 与接下来的
ex., exx. example(s) 例子
f., ff. following 接下来的
fig., figs figure(s) 图表
fn., fnn. footnote(s) 脚注
ibid. in the same work (Latin ibidem) 在同一篇文章中

id. the same (Latin idem) 相同
ill., ills. illustrator(s) 说明
inf. below (Latin infra) 以下
l., ll. line(s) 行
loc. cit. in the place cited (Latin loco citato) 所引用的地方
MS, MSS manuscript(s) (Latin manuscriptum(a)) 手稿
n., nn. note(s) 注释
n.d. no date 没有日期
no., nos number(s) 数
n.p. no place 没有地方
op. cit. in the work cited (Latin opera citato) 在引用的文章里
p., pp. page(s) 页
para., paras paragraph(s) 段
passim here and there, throughout 这里与那里,整篇 (a word, not an abbreviation) (一个词,不是缩写)

pl. (plural: plates) plate 板
pt, pts part(s) 部份
q.v., qq.v. which see (Latin quod vide, quae vide) 可看到

r., rr. regulation(s) 规则
rev. revised, reviser 已修订,修订者
Sc. scene 情景
sec., s., ss. sections (s. and ss. for legislation) 章节(法例为 s.与 ss.)
ser. serious 系列
St. stanza 节
sup. above (Latin supra) 以上
supp. supplement 补遗
trans. translator(s) 翻译者
v., vv. verse(s) 诗篇
vide see (a word, not an abbreviation) 参阅(一个词,不是缩写)
vol., vols volume(s) 卷


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