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英文论文写作技巧

时间:2016-02-05 09:17来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:无忧论文网 点击:
Techniques On How To Write
英文论文写作技巧


简介
文章写作涉及到一个特定的主题领域表达自己的意见和解释,这显然不能按照一个固定的或普遍适用的公式。我认为,一篇文章可以从读者的角度来判断,也就是说,“好”的文章就是会使一个读者会发现有趣、丰富和容易理解的东西。如果这是公认的,它将成为一篇更有趣,更丰富更容易理解的文章。
1标出问题或标题;
2遵循一个有条理的符号序列;
3运用相关文献来证明;
4对所讨论的思想和理论的分析与评价;
5揭示内在的整合与连贯;
6使用引用和实例来支持其声明和参数;
 
Introduction简介

Essay writing involves expressing one's views and interpretations in relation to a specified subject area, and this clearly cannot be done in accordance with a fixed or universally applicable formula. Yet we would, I think, all agree that an essay can be judged in terms of what an informed reader can 'get out of it' and also that a 'good' essay is one which such a reader will find interesting, informative and easy to understand. If this is accepted it becomes possible to articulate some general features of an essay which will make it more interesting, informative and accessible.
 
1 Address the question or title;
2 Follow a structured and sign-posted sequence;
3 Demonstrate a familiarity with relevant literature;
4 Present an analysis and evaluation of the ideas and theories discussed;
5 Reveal internal integration and coherence;
6 Use references and examples to support its claims and arguments;
7 Detail references and sources and bibliography/referencing sections.
 
Part 1: Writing an Essay 第1部分:写一篇文章
1 Addressing the Question/Title 1标出问题或标题;

An essay should address what is meant by the title/question to which it refers. It should, in other words inform the reader of the issues of which are to be considered and the manner in which they are to be related. This may, for example, be achieved by describing previous definitions of, or approaches to, a problem and/of by offering the writers own interpretation of the issue/s.
 
For Example, on approach to writing an essay entitled 'Is intelligence a valid concept for the educational psychologist' could be introduced as follows:
 
'The concept of intelligence has been used differently by different psychologists, so
 
that, the very meaning of the term has become a matter of debate.
 
Most noticeable, perhaps, is the divergence of definitions and research
 
programmes adopted by, on one hand, psychometricians, such as Spearman,
 
Burt and Eysenck, and, on the other developmentalists such as Bruner and Piaget...
 
In this essay I shall consider the applicability of these alternative perspectives on
 
'Intelligence' to the process of education.'
 
Such an introduction serves to 'frame' the issues for the reader so that she/he knows what
 
the essay will be about. Having thus 'framed' the content of the essay the writer must ensure that the arguments and evidence she/he presents are directly relevant to the issues as she/he has interpreted them. Briefly then, the essay must outline the issue, which the writer sees as pertinent to the title and must then proceed to present material, which can be clearly demonstrated to be relevant to those issues.
 
2 Following a Standard and Sign-posted Sequence2遵循一个有条理的符号序列;
 
The material in an essay should be seen to be related to the unfolding of the central
 
argument or discussion. The order in which material is presented will, therefore, depend upon the development of the overall structure with earlier sections preparing the ground for later connections and conclusions. This development should be 'sign-posted' for while it may be obvious to the writer it may be far from clear to the reader. For example:
 
'Having discussed the two different notions of 'ability' which underline the psychometric and developmental approach to intelligence, I shall now consider the implications of each for the organisation of an 'educational system'.
 
Such 'sign-posting' informs the reader of the significance of what has just been said and prepares her/him for what is to come.
 
Of course the organisation of an essay in terms of such a structured sequence is made a lot easier if the writer begins by spelling out how she/he intends to address the question/title. It is essential, therefore, that before beginning the essayist considers' the question/title in detail and constructs a plan of the points, connections and conclusions she/he wishes to make.
 
Demonstrating Familiarity with the Literature用文学论证

An essay should aim to briefly review a number of the major works or positions, which are directly relevant to the topic under discussion. This will serve to inform the reader of the previous research and analyses upon which the writer is basing her/his case. This should not take the form of endless quotations or listings of other people's ideas, but rather concise descriptions (in the essayist's own words) of the approaches adopted by other workers in the field. With regard to the essay on intelligence and educational psychology for example, it would seem almost inevitable that the contributions made by Binet, Burt and Bruner would be relevant at some stage or another.
 
A knowledge of the relevant literature can, of course, only be acquired by reading that literature and an essay will often reveal just how familiar the essayist is with her/his
 
chosen topic. 选定主题
 
Presenting and Analysis and Evaluation of the Ideas and Theories思想与理论的呈现,分析与评价
Discussed讨论
An essay should, however, do more than report on previous work in the area. It should attempt to relate the various positions reviewed both to one another and to the writer's own position on the issues under discussion. This involves articulating the similarities and differences between different writers' perspectives and evaluating them in terms of a set of criteria arising out of me essayist's own discussion. The essayist must, in other words, develop her/his own ideas as she/he explores the topic and judge other writers' approaches in terms of developed arguments. This is often the distinguishing feature of a very 'good' essay.


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