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英国经济学Assignment:在自由市场中影响房屋价格的因素

时间:2015-10-13 10:59来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网 点击:
在自由市场中影响房屋价格的因素
 
自由市场指的是政府对产品的成本没有干扰或控制的市场,在那里对特殊产品或服务的供应和需求决定成本。基本上自由市场的客户就是国王,因为他们可以自由地购买任何东西,这样就使特定产品或服务的需求上升或是下降,一旦需求上升,同一产品的成本也将上升。{买者对产品或服务的需求与他们对于其质量的追求和市场提供的价格密不可分}。
 
以美国、英国、日本为例
 
英国房地产市场
 
在熟悉了自由经济中特定商品或服务的供给和需求扮演的角色后,我将介绍英国的住房市场。
 
由于英国住房市场规模非常大再加上经济衰退前的前几年里其市场的繁荣发展,导致房地产市场的运转缓慢。
 
英国住房市场在经历了1990年一个灾难性的事故后恢复的很好。从HBOS的报告中可以看出目前平均房屋价格约为165000英镑是之前的85000英镑相比几乎是它的近一倍。
 
给定的图像显示,在英国特定地区的住房市场的增长。
 
如图所示,从1999年开始价格就有所回升,之后在每一个环节都保持良好的循环。
 
事实上,近期的经济衰退对房地产市场影响巨大,使其发展速度变得缓,这也是有史以来第一次。
 
英国房地产市场
 
影响房价的因素很多。下面是一些简要解释:
 
供给和需求是一个关键的因素,价格就是从住房的数量和需求量中产生的。
 
弹性-随着供需的浮动,价格可能会根据房子的弹性急剧变化。
 
利息/按揭利率-这会影响市场上所有的东西,在高利率/抵押贷款利率的情况下,对于购买房子的需求会减少。
 
Factors that determine housing prices in free market
 
A Free Market means the market where government has no interference or control over the cost of the product, where cost decides by the supply and demand of the particular product or services. Basically in free market customer are the kings as they are free to buy anything what they like which increases or decreases the demand of that particular product or services and once the demand is high the cost will go up for the same product. {Demand which refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service are in want of the buyers where supply stand for how much (price) the market can offer.}
 
Ex- USA, UK, Japan
 
UK Housing market
 
After being familiar with the role of supply and demand for the particular goods or services in a free economy, I would introduce with the housing market of the UK.
 
As UK housing market is really broad in sizes and it'd being booming on past couple of year before recession came into the picture which caused housing market to be slower down.
 
UK housing market did remarkable recovery after disastrous crash has happen in past around 1990. The report of HBOS sows that currently on an average the price of the houses is approximately £165,000 which is almost double of the price comparatively £85,000 (before).
 
The Given image shows the growth of the housing market in particular region of the UK.
 
As you can see on the given figure that there is good deal of cyclicle behaviour in each series with increasing starling since 1999.
 
In fact, Recent reccession came which affect housing market very seriously and slowed it down recordably for the first time.
 
英国房地产市场-HOUSING MARKET OF THE UK
 
Many factors affect the price of houses. Some of these are briefly explained below:
 
Supply and demand - a crucial factor that enables a price to be produced from the amount of housing there is and the demand for them.
 
Elasticity - with more/less supply/demand of a property, prices could dramatically change according to the elasticity of the house.
 
Interest/Mortgage rates - These affect all things on the market today and with a high interest/mortgage rate, there will be less demand for purchasing a house.
 
Consumer confidence - with house prices booming, the expectation for people is that they will continue to rise, boosting consumer confidence. This will put more demand for houses and more profit for the sellers. However if their confidence deteriorates, then less houses will be bought.
 
Employment - A job can sustain someone for a long time, especially when considering buying a house. An increasing number of people have jobs and more demand a house, effectively driving up prices.
 
Income - people with a higher income are more able to buy a house compared to someone on a low income. Therefore more (expensive) houses are demanded more by those who want a better standard of living.
 
Availability of Substitutes - Hotels, apartments-to-let and caravans.
 
Location - The closer the house is to a main town or city; the higher the price. This factor coincides with many other minor factors all associated to location.
 
Property quality - The more assets the house contains; the more it will cost. More crime rate will lower the price of the house. The size will also affect the price and demand. Some people do not want or can't afford such expensive houses so they choose other sizes such as detached to flats according to their tastes.
 
Supply and demand:
 
The diagram is given above is explaining the equilibrium point of the market stand as 'P1'. The amount of demand or supply is in the market produces the price of the house. If we see any changes in supply of the houses or when it goes up which causes price to go up too because the demand of the houses is more (Q1-Q3), meaning that the supply of housing is limited.
 
Once supply rose with an increased price buyer would limit their pocket and post pond the desire of buying a house which will decrease the demand of the housing market so contraction on demand curve will occur. Since increased supply and lower demand would force seller to decrease the price and sell the properties at lower rate in the market place as the demand is too low, with excess supply of the houses (Q2-Q3)
 
As we can see on the image above which shows shifting of demand curve caused by several other factors, and once demand is high further cause's price of the housing market to be up also. If we talk about elasticity, yes demand curve is elastic as there are many substitutes available in the market which people can easily go for, if prices are too high. So If prices of the houses goes up leads to decrease in the quantity demanded by the costumers.
 
Even there are so many other factors that affect demand curve to be shifted
 
If the expectation of the people concerning price to be rise which attract people to invest more cause shifting of the demand curve to right side shows increase in demand.
 
The other main factor is Rise in real incomes, if the real income rises which produce more disposable income therefore increase in purchasing power of the people would cause demand curve to be shifted to right side in result of demand is more.
 
Decrease in Interest rates/mortgage rate would raise the demand of the houses.
 
Population of country - Shifting of demand curve is depends on the population of the country. The more populated country is the more demand of the housing will be.
 
And at least but not the last the rise in price of substitute like renting a house, council taxes etc causes the change in mind of consumer to buy an alternative which is house. As buying a house would be cheaper than to be in rental house.
 
These are the factor which will force prices to go up. However if the prices will go down (the opposite situation) suppose decrease in earning which will leads to decrease the disposable income of the people and once the disposable income fall down of course purchasing power would fall down also causing shifting of demand(demand 2) curve to the downwards.
 
As because of very limited amount of land and it takes time to alter the price of the houses (Rise/Fall) and constructing the building takes time or even frequency of home owners decides to put their home or properties on sale is long which makes supply curve relatively inelastic.
 
决定英国房屋价格的两个方面-There is two side which determine the prices of the houses in the UK
 
A Sellers Side;
 
Seller side means the situation where the good quality properties are not available as per the demand or we can say on the shortage of the good qualities properties occur and the demand is high then the balance of the power on that particular market shifts to the seller side. And by taking an advantages of the situation seller increases the prices of the houses or seller can wait for the offer of the same price as much as seller wish it to be sold.


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