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Literature review和 Research methodology范文:Team work and dive

时间:2019-06-24 10:53来源:未知 作者:anne 点击:
The top management team (TMT) is made up of chief executives and other executives, and is undoubtedly playing an increasingly important role in the enterprise.高层管理团队(TMT)由首席执行官和其他高管组成,无疑在企业中发挥着
The top management team (TMT) is made up of chief executives and other executives, and is undoubtedly playing an increasingly important role in the enterprise.高层管理团队(TMT)由首席执行官和其他高管组成,无疑在企业中发挥着越来越重要的作用。
为了使决策者的影响力越来越受到重视,提出了高层管理理论,而企业是高层管理者的反映是其核心思想(Harteiset.,al,2015)。高级管理人员的背景特征会影响高级管理人员的战略选择,进而影响其在组织中的活动。管理者的规模、年龄、性别和教育背景比管理者的个人素质和价值观更能衡量。
The theory of high echelon is put forward to make the influence of decision makers more and more attention, and the enterprise is the reflection of senior managers is its central idea(Harteiset.,al, 2015). The background characteristics of senior executives can influence the strategic choice of senior executives and thus influence their activities on the organization. The scale, age, gender and education background of the manager are more measurable than the personal qualities and values of the manager. 
企业管理者的团队规模反映了不同个体的背景特征。较大的团队将为问题提供更多的解决方案,但随着团队成员数量的增加,也将增加内部冲突的可能性。一方面,过多的数量会增加协调的难度,使企业有效决策的难度更大,因为在建立内部控制的初期,是管理层使内部控制不能有效沟通(Longenecker和Neubert,2000年)。另一方面,高层会议产生利益集团,各利益集团寻求自身的最佳利益,使内部控制成为利益集团协调和妥协的工具。此外,团队规模可以减少成员的归属感和使命感,从而减少团队成员之间的沟通,增加内部矛盾。
The team size of enterprise managers reflects the background characteristics of different individuals. The larger team will provide more solutions to the problem, but as the number of team members increases, it will also increase the likelihood of internal conflict. On the one hand, the number of too much will increase the difficulty of the coordination, make the enterprise effective decision-making difficulty bigger, because in the beginning of establishing internal control is the management to make internal control cannot be effective communication(Longenecker, &Neubert, 2000). On the other hand, high-level meetings generate interest groups, and each interest group seeks its own best interests so that internal control becomes a tool for the coordination and compromise of interest groups. In addition, team size can reduce the sense of belonging and mission of members, thus reducing the communication among team members and increasing internal contradictions.
研究表明,不同背景的高级管理人员对组织绩效和创新能力有一定的影响。本研究以高层认知和社会网络为工具,研究团队动态对团队管理多元化与组织创新关系的影响。具体来说,如果存在功能性团队动态,我们建议建立一个与业务创新积极相关的多元化团队。功能团队动态的特点是团队成员之间的角色平衡、协作和建设性互动(Wang和Kelan,2013)。功能团队动态地反映团队成员在决策行为上的一致性,团队成员在相互信任和尊重的基础上相互作用。当团队有团结意识时,你可以减少成员之间的差异。因此,随着职能团队的发展,TMT多样性的潜在负面因素将得到缓解,团队合作的有效性将得到提高。
Research shows that the different backgrounds of senior management have an impact on organizational performance and innovation. In this study, the influence of team dynamics on the relationship between TMT diversity and organizational innovation was studied by using the upper level cognition and social network. Specifically, if there is a functional team dynamics, we recommend a diversified team that is positively related to business innovation. Functional team dynamics is characterized by the balance of roles, collaboration, and constructive interactions among team members(Wang, & Kelan, 2013). The functional team dynamically reflects the consistency of the team members in the decision-making behavior, and the team members interact with each other on the basis of mutual trust and respect. When the team has a sense of unity, you can reduce the differences between members. Thus, with the development of functional teams, the underlying negative factors of TMT diversity will be mitigated and the effectiveness of teamwork will be improved.
Most studies on the impact of TMT diversity on enterprise innovation demonstrate the positive relationship between them. Some people think that the diversity of TMT provides new information, knowledge and different insights that are conducive to business innovation(Wei, & Lau, 2012). For example, they found that there is a positive correlation between TMT diversity and product market innovation. Similarly, education and functional diversity have a positive impact on business innovation. The benefits of diversity are considered to be made from members of different backgrounds. This is because innovation often involves the use of new technologies and creative production and manufacturing methods. On the basis of the cognitive and information processing perspectives of the upper classes, a diversified team enables companies to offer broader views in assessing innovation plans and promoting organizational change. Diversified teams may lead to richer cognitive outputs, such as more new ideas and different perspectives, and promote the adoption of different methods or projects that lead to product and administrative innovation. Therefore, companies with different TMTs should be more innovative. However, TMT diversity may also have a negative impact on team effectiveness, such as creating conflicts. TMT diversity, especially functional diversification, leads to conflict, resulting in poor cooperation and communication, but has a negative impact on TMT strategic decisions and organizational results (but also the results show that the relevant conflicts may improve team performance(Xinet.,al, 2010).
Previous studies have shown that there are two types of TMT demographic diversity between TMT demographics (age, usage rights, educational and functional background) of the four main members of the team. The first diversity reflects the significant differences between group members in certain social categories (eg, age and gender), while the other involves more knowledge base differences and more work-related perspectives such as education, Functions and tenure(Volpp Sierra, &Banzato, 2016).
Related psychology research suggests that the age of the executive and behavior relationship, most psychologists generally believe that as managers age, individual learning ability, innovation ability, environment adaptability will gradually diminish. There are differences in the results of the study. Separate individual feelings and cognition of things and processing method has limitations, so an exploratory examination of the heterogeneity of the management team will promote the team construction, improve the enterprise planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and innovation function(Dinh Thai, Igel, &Laosirihongthong, 2010).
 
Age
Often defined as older employees over 50 years of age are often affected by social negative emotions. These include conclusions about the performance bias, the so-called boycott of change, and the ability to learn about the experience of the stereotypes of these stereotypes. "There is little evidence that employees are getting older and job performance declines(Neale&Özkanlı, 2010)." Otherwise, older employees can afford the same pressure as their young counterparts. Thus, empirical evidence is not decisive, the lack of older employees, low productivity, and the relatively young counterparts lack the opportunity to develop their professional abilities. It seems that even after 40 years, the groundbreaking research results are still valid. On the other hand, older employees can assign tasks to already know what to do. The use of self-report to investigate employee's perception of workplace learning potential was found to be less than two years of age and older employees (18-24 years) experienced and staff service period (6 years or more). Employees in different age groups of 31 different organizations have different learning opportunities. However, it is not surprising that older staff members say they are less valuable than their young counterparts in "Coach". With regard to other interactions at work, the report says that teachers tend to compare with younger colleagues, similarly reporting that age is related to the network behavior of employees in their own organization (university), which mainly includes information on information exchange What happened in the organization. However, empirical evidence shows contradictory evidence. In a German sample, there was a negative correlation between job control and age but no significant correlation, whereas in another German sample it was associated with zero. In the UK's railroad employees and 50 to 59-year-old Belgian employee samples(SINGH, 2014). 
Gender
Taking into account gender segregation in most occupations, the separation of gender and occupational effects means that attempts at workplace learning support have led to particular difficulties(BANGet.,al, 2010). In addition, women with children tend to work more in part-time jobs, which can lead to task discrimination because of the high priority and highly discretionary work allocated to full-time employees. For example, there are ambiguous conclusions about the gender impact of providing social support at work, for example, finding that female employees and senior staff are more likely to work. This may lead to more feedback and more information exchange with women's work, rather than men. 68. The higher general social support for female employees at work is determined, but the size of the effect is negligible. In the four US organizations (116 cases) found that men and women feel the support of the supervisors and colleagues no difference(Voet.,al, 2015). On the other hand, other authors argue that women are faced with the problem of access to and use of social capital in their work. The report says women are often excluded from some informal networks, which means that they have limited access to work-related information compared to male colleagues. 


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