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留学生论文Literature review-文献综述-英语范例

论文价格: 免费 时间:2011-10-08 11:47:42 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网

留学生论文Literature review-留学生论文文献综述范文-英语论文文献综述范例

An empirical study of the impact of e-commerce applications on an enterprise's marketing performance in China

Chapter II Literature review

2.1 Introduction of literature review
The second part of this chapter first reviews researches related to the nature of e-commerce and understands the role and characteristics of e-commerce, then it reviews the relevant literature related to the relationship between e-commerce and enterprise performance. In the following section, it reviews and the dimensions of e-commerce application and determine the research indicators of e- commerce application in this study. The third part first reviews the nature of marketing capability and understands the role and characteristics of marketing capability, and it reviews the related literature of marketing capability and enterprise performance, then it reviews the research dimensions of marketing capacity to determine the research dimensions of marketing capacity. The fourth part first reviews the relevant studies on the relationship between marketing performance and enterprise performance, then it reviews the research dimensions of marketing performance and determines the research indicators of marketing performance. The fifth part indicates the theoretical significance of this study.

2.2 Research on e-commerce application
2.2.1 Research on the nature of e-commerce application
There is no unified definition for e-commerce application and different researchers have described it from different perspectives and dimensions.
Porter (2001) analyzed the specific content of Internet application from the perspective of enterprise value chain enterprise, that is, from the perspective of enterprise infrastructure, human resource management, technology development, procurement, internal logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, after-sales service to analyze the possibility of e-commerce application. Wu, Vijay and Sridhar (2003) figured that different companies have different focus for e-commerce application, therefore to distinguish different functions of e- commerce application is very important. Based on the interviews with enterprises and the observations towards corporate websites, Wu figures that e-commerce is the use of network and IT technology to manage business process, he focuses his research on e-commerce application on four operational functions, including: communication, internal management, order reception and procurement, and in accordance with the scope designed accordingly to enterprises’ value added activities to build a matrix of e-commerce.
Zwass (1996; 2003) considered that the e-commerce is sharing information, maintaining business relationships and conducting business transactions in the telecommunications network, accordingly, e-commerce activities include inter-organizational processes related to particular activities, as well as internal process for supporting them. E-commerce should not just making purchase and selling electronic, it should also include a very wide sales of pre-and post-sales behavior

Apigian et al (2005) brought forward the idea of enterprises’ use of the Internet through methods of the literature research and survey towards enterprises, they defined it as internal and external use of the Internet to support the organization's activities and processes, including the five aspects: the Internet-driven market channels, the internal operations in the Internet, the interaction with customers through the Internet, the interaction with suppliers through the Internet and distribution supported by the Internet.
Through a summary of the above literatures, this study finds that, in general, although there are some people who feel that companies use the Internet primarily for achieve business transactions, but more scholars tend to hold the view that e-commerce application is not just the realization of transactions, but also the integration of corporate management functions (Wu, Vijay & Sridhar, 2003; Zwass, 1996); it not only includes communicating with customers, as well as with channel partners, especially the connection and co-operation with suppliers. Therefore, it can be said that these literatures which 留学生论文Literature review-留学生论文文献综述范文-英语论文文献综述范例discussed the nature of e-commerce have linked e-commerce application with enterprise business processes together. Wu, Vijay and Sridhar (2003) divided e-commerce application according to the different business functions, Zwass (1996) analyzed from the perspective of organizational processes, Apigian et al (2005) construed from the perspective of business process. These literatures provided this study with a basis for analyzing the nature of e-commerce application from the perspective of business process. To sum up, this study can draw the following conclusions: the nature of enterprises’ e-commerce application is through information technology and communication networks to achieve the electronic business processes.
2.2.2 Research on the impact of e-commerce activities on enterprise performance
Based on the results of studies of the real cases, George, Ray and Georgios (1999) made use of simulating method for the assessment of the positive and negative effects of EDI on enterprise performance. Differing from other researches, their measurement towards enterprise performance was implemented in three dimensions: time for ordering, time for reversing orders and delivery time. Studies have shown that single use of EDI can only add the performance of the main process (time for completing orders) to a certain extent, rather than commendably improve the time for completing orders as it has been expected.
Wu, Vijay and Sridhar (2003) used regression analysis to construe the impact of e-commerce applications impact on the performance of U.S. companies. In the analysis, they break down enterprise e-commerce application in four areas: communication, internal management, order reception and e-procurement. The results showed that e-commerce application did not have a very significant impact on enterprise performance, but only had much more impact on customer satisfaction and improving relationship to a certain level and less affected efficiency and sales performance. There is a positive correlation between overall level of e-commerce application and four indicators of enterprise performance (including: customer satisfaction, relationship improvement, efficiency, sales performance), the different aspects of e-commerce application show the different relationships with the indicators of performance, of which, there is a positive correlation between communicate and four indicators, especially there is a high degree of correlation with efficiency, sales performance and customer satisfaction; internal management has an impact on two indicators of performance: customer satisfaction and relationship improvement, but has nothing to do with the efficiency and sales performance; order reception and e-procurement are independent with the four indicators.
Shao B. J. and Cai Z. G. (2005) considered that enterprises added values into product or services through certain activities and the behavior of e-commerce to make customers more willing to purchase the product which had a more high price than the original, which could enable enterprise performance increase. They used regression analysis method to analyze the role e-commerce activities play in enterprise performance. The study found that e-commerce could increase enterprises’ income, improving the operational efficiency of enterprises and increasing. A summary of the relevant research literatures has shown that e-commerce can enhance enterprise performance, however, both the researches which study on the impact of e-commerce application on the overall enterprise and literatures on the impact of e-commerce application on enterprise function performance have linked e-commerce application with enterprise performance directly, they do not implement an in-depth analysis towards whether there is some intermediate variable or what intermediate variable existing between e-commerce application and enterprise performance.
As the researches of Barua and Mukhopadhyay (2000), Tippins and Sohi (2003), Sambamurthy, and Bharadwaj Grover (2003) on the relationship between information technology applications and enterprise performance have shown that, simple information technology can not directly bring a competitive advantage effectively, there should be an important intermediate variables between enterprises’ information technology and competitive advantage, there should be more researches to analyze what intermediate variable information technology uses to affect enterprise performance (Tanriverdi, 2005). As many researches on e-commerce application are built on the basis of the study of information technology. Therefore, in this study, it is believed that separating the impact of other factors on the performance, simply research on the relationship on e-commerce application and enterprise performance do not take into the other variables which is likely to affect the relationship between the two. There are many methods used for analysis of e-commerce currently, methods of data analysis which many scholars have used are more traditional exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis, because of the existence of multi-collinearity and neglect of variables measurement error, the objectivity of the analysis has always been questioned. The delayed research methods have a negative impact on the tightness of argument of the relationship between e-commerce application and enterprise performance. Therefore, this study introduces marketing capacity as an intermediate variable, through applying structural equation model to explore the impact of e-commerce on enterprises’ marketing performance, thereby improving the objectivity and preciseness of research results.
2.2.3 Research dimensions of e-commerce application
A large number of scholars implemented analysis on e-commerce application from different perspectives. Porter (2001) analyzed the status of e-commerce application of eight major activities of the value chain. In measuring the difference of the existing e-commerce application in U.S. enterprises, Wu, Vijay and Sridhar (2003) mainly focused on the four major business functions: communication, internal management, order reception and procurement. Apigian et al (2005) broken down relevant content into the Internet-driven market channels, the internal operations in the Internet, the interaction with customers through the Internet, the interaction with suppliers through the Internet and distribution supported by the Internet from the perspective of the use of the Internet. After contrast it can be seen that, the frame provided by Wu, Vijay and Sridhar (2003) is the most succinct and which is more in line with the requirements of this study, therefore, this study uses it as a basic reference object.

As the purpose of this study is to explore the role marketing capability playing between e-commerce application and marketing performance. Accordingly, it is essential to extract marketing from the various business processes of commerce application. Therefore, Wu, Vijay and Sridhar’s (2003) frame model cannot fully meet the needs of this study, after careful comparison, it found that the segment of ‘order reception’ in the frame set by Wu and others was an over-simplification, even it has been added the content of ‘communication with customer’ in ‘information communication’, this measurement content still cannot cover the content of marketing and sales, because in addition to order reception and communication with customer, corporate marketing and sales may also include: the establishment of online sales channels including Web sites and network market, opening with the real-time path of internal and external channels which relate to customer information, product catalog, dynamic pricing, inventory, online quotes and orders, on-line product configuration; special marketing for customer through customer segmentation; marketing promotion advertising; build on-line channels for customers, implement of feedback tracking of marketing and promotions towards opt-in (opt) / opt-out (opt-out) mode through the web-based survey to gain real-time customer feedback (Porter, 2001). Therefore, based on Wu, Vijay and Sridhar’s (2003) frame, this study selects ‘communication’, ‘internal management’ and ‘e-procurement’ together with ‘marketing and sales’. These constitute the indicators of the measurement towards enterprises’ e-commerce application in this study. Specifically, these four indicators are:
(1) Communication: including interaction and exchange of information between enterprises and customers, enterprises and suppliers, enterprises and the public as well as their partners through computer networks.
(2) Internal management refers to enterprises’ realization of managing enterprise infrastructure, human resources, technology development, internal logistics and operational management through computer networks.
(3) e-procurement refers to enterprises’ procurement activities of the raw material through computer networks.
(4) Marketing and sales: including enterprises’ activities of marketing strategy, sales, customer service, as well as the marketing survey through the use of computer networks.

2.3 Researches on marketing capability
2.3.1 Researches on the nature of marketing capability
Marketing capability is a unique, aggregative, dynamic, intangible capacity of an enterprise’s which has functions of co-ordination (Grham, et al, 1999.). It is the survival and development basis of an enterprise, it is also an enterprise’s basis to obtain a competitive advantage, but it eventually emerges in an enterprise in the form of materialization, there must be a carrier of transmission between an enterprise’s capability and the final materialized result, which is a necessary condition for an enterprise to play its role, without such transmission links, the enterprise’s capability is meaningless. Such capability includes both an enterprise’s abilities to effectively mobilize and make good use of the internal and external resources and its abilities of technological innovation and innovation in marketing and management (Xia, 2002), and the development and the establishment of the key marketing capability are considered an important means to gain a competitive advantage in an organization (Day & Wensley, 1988; McKee et al, 1989; Day& George 1994; Sheth, Sisodia & Sharma, 2000). According to the analysis results of Yu, et al (2003) on 167 pieces of researches on the core competence at home and abroad since 1990, it can be drawn a conclusion that marketing capability is an important component factors of an enterprise’s core competence. Therefore, the deepening of researches on enterprises’ capability is bound to elicit researches on marketing capability. To define the content of enterprises’ marketing capability includes: hypothesis of capability of resource integration, which takes enterprises’ marketing capability as capability of resource integration, for example, Day (1994), Grant (1991), Paolo and Gabriele (2006,2007), Vorhies (1998 ) looked on marketing capability as an integrated process, which aims at using the accumulated knowledge, skills and resources to solve market-related issues and to create superior customer value. Day (1994) believes that marketing capability is an enterprise’s integrated process and capability of making use of the comprehensive knowledge, skills and resources to meet market demand, win products and the value of services, according to the different marketing process, it can be divided into three kinds of capability: from exterior to interior (that is an enterprise’s capability in areas such as judging the market, cultivating customer relationships, channel control, and technical controls, and so on, from interior to exterior (mainly focused on enterprises’ internal resources and capability, such as financial management, cost control, technology research and integrated logistics, and so on) internal and external integration (mainly including the completion of customer orders, pricing, procurement, customer service and the development of new products, services, etc.). To integrate these views, this study holds that marketing resources and marketing capability are intertwined, without marketing capability, enterprises can not improve marketing performance, marketing capability is different from marketing resources, it is an enterprise’s potential which enables the enterprise configure and organize resources to meet the needs of customers through effective and rapid business processes and activities, which is the complex model of coordinating human resources and marketing resources through leaning from others in practice, it is an enterprise’s cumulative results of marketing practice.#p#分页标题#e#
2.3.2 Marketing capability and enterprise performance
The overall marketing performance: some researchers have pointed out, there is an influence relation between marketing capability and enterprise performance, For example, McKee et al (1989), Slater and Narver (1995) found that, enterprises with a high level of product development and marketing implementation capacities have access to better marketing performance than enterprises without them. Through analysis and arguments, Jay and Aron (2004), Jay (2003) have shown that enterprises’ marketing capability has an extremely important influence on organizational innovation and ability of gaining sustainable competitive advantage, enterprises which have a special marketing capability would create a higher value than their competitors in the target market, and they also proposed the logical model of the relationship of marketing capability and enterprises’ sustainable competitive advantage. Vorhies and Morgan (2005) found in studies that the eight different elements of marketing capability (pricing, product development, channel management, marketing communication, sales, marketing information management, marketing plan and marketing implementation) has a significant positive effect on enterprise performance, however, when looking at those relevant marketing capability as a whole would have a more significant impact on enterprise marketing performance, indicating that these constituent elements of marketing capability relate to each other. Morgan et al (2003) found that enterprises which concern about marketing investment in all areas of the process of forming strategy would significantly improve their enterprise performance than enterprises which contribute less to marketing.
The above suggest that an enterprise’s marketing capacities has positive effects on improving enterprise performance, but there is no literature which directly link marketing capability with marketing performance, therefore, it is necessary to carry out analysis and empirical research in this area.

2.3.3 Research dimensions of marketing capability
Day and George (1994) pointed out, it is impossible to enumerate all enterprise's capability, because different businesses have their particular abilities. Even so, specific capability can be identified according to the core processes of created economic value in all businesses, therefore, there will be research reports for different classification of marketing capability (Day& George, 1994; Slater & Narver, 1995; Vorhies et al, 1998; Fahy et al, 2000). However, Paolo and Gabriele (2006; 2007) point out that the literatures are generally accepted that an enterprise’s marketing capability contains two important elements: learning about markets and relating to customers. Learning about markets is related to an enterprise’s capability of perceiving the situation and expectations of customer needs, forecasting the future demand or market share (Day, 1994; Sinkula, 1994; Slater & Narver, 1995; Dutta et al, 1999; Jay, 2003). Customer management mainly refers to the capability of establishing and maintaining a mutually satisfactory relationship with customers (Day& George, 1994; Dutta et al, 1999; Vorhies et al, 1999; Day et al, 2003). Zhou Jizhong (2002) measure marketing capability from the perspective of customers, competition and market, the corresponding measuring dimension includes customer cognitive capability, cognitive ability to compete and market development capability. Based on the system of measurement, Wang (2004)and Zhou (2002) used the actual status to measure the two dimensions of enterprises’ marketing capability. These two dimensions are: market cognitive capability and marketing promotion capability. Among them, market cognitive capability is corresponding to the above customer cognitive capability and cognitive ability to compete, marketing promotion capability is corresponding to the above market development capability.#p#分页标题#e#
Two important aspects of enterprises’ marketing capability summarized by Day (1994), Slater and Narver (1995), Vorhies et al (1999), Fahy et al (2000), Paolo and Gabriele (2006, 2007) are: learning capacity and customer-related capacity, together with what Wang (2004) has mentioned in Zhou (2002) study that capability of market promotion constitutes the measurement of marketing capability in this study.
2.4 Study on the effect of e-commerce on marketing performance
2.4.1 The relationship between marketing performance and the overall enterprise performance
There are many views on the exposition of enterprise performance in academia, the main points include: Zhou (2002) figured that performance should be defined as the result of work, because the results of these efforts is most closely related with the organization's strategic objectives, customer satisfaction and the investment. Zhang (2002) defines performance as that performance refers to behaviors and results. He (Zhang 2002) thought that enterprise performance is an enterprise’s management benefit and the performance of operators in a certain period of time. The former are mainly profitability, operation standards of assets and the follow-up development capacity, the latter is mainly reflected through the operator’s contributions to the enterprise’s growth, development and achievements in the course of operation and management. Judging from relevant scholars’ definitions for performance, financial performance, marketing performance, operational performance are the important contents.
Indicator system of performance evaluation for modern enterprise is essentially a comprehensive evaluation indicator system. Its evaluation indicator comes down to the key elements related to enterprise development. Since the 20th century, many scholars have put forward the system frame of performance evaluation, which aims at translating enterprise performance evaluation into the evaluation of enterprises from different perspectives, thereby integrating the research results in all fields into the frame to form an integrated performance evaluation System (Luo &Yu, 2004). Typical comprehensive evaluation systems include Kaplan and Norton’s (1992) balanced scorecard, it consists of four dimensions: finance, customer, internal business, innovation and learning. The financial aspects reflect how the organization meets the needs of shareholders; the content of customer reflects how the organization meets customer needs; the aspect of internal whether the organization does better in its core work. The status of innovation and learning can reflect the organization’s capability of improvement and innovation. The four dimensions are closely related to form a complete performance evaluation system. Practice and the application of balanced scorecard have proved that indicators of enterprise performance such as finance, customer, internal business and so on have played a increasingly important role in the implementation of corporate strategy and the realization of the enterprise’s overall goal. Therefore, enterprises with good overall performance pay more attention to use indicators of marketing performance evaluation than other enterprises.#p#分页标题#e#
In terms of the contents of performance, marketing performance is an important content of an enterprise’s overall performance, judging from the indicators of performance evaluation, marketing performance evaluation is paid an increasingly attention by enterprises. Therefore, in this study, it will take marketing performance as the representative of the overall performance of enterprises to determine if e-commerce application has an impact on enterprises’ marketing performance.
2.4.2 The selection of indicators of marketing performance in research
According to the previous overview on measurement methods of enterprise performance, it can be found that indicators of marketing performance evaluation are the important constituent elements of indicator system of performance evaluation for enterprises. Marketing performance evaluation is a prerequisite for marketing decisions, whether an enterprise can properly evaluate its own marketing activities, whether it can find the problems in marketing activities, whether it can settle and perfect these problems in the follow-up marketing activities determine whether the enterprise can make better marketing decisions and develop targeted marketing plan. Marketing performance evaluation is enterprise managers’ making use of a certain indicator to make a general evaluation towards the enterprise’s marketing effect in order to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing activities and deal with the urgent problems existing and needing to be solved (Fu & Li, 2003). Different elements such as guiding theory, corporate marketing strategy, the enterprise’s background, variables of task environment would result in complex and diverse indicators of marketing evaluation (Morgana et al, 2003). As Clark (1999) pointed out in his studies, the current indicators which can be selected for evaluating marketing performance include more and more contents, in addition to traditional financial indicators (profits, sales, cash flow), the evaluation for marketing performance has also been extended to non-financial indicators (market share, quality, customer satisfaction, loyalty, brand equity), it also extends to a wider range of marketing audit, implementation and orientation. In recent years, the amount and categories of measurement indicators can be used by enterprises have been significantly increased (Meyer, 1998). A thesis which has summarized five major marketing journals and found nineteen measurement indicators for expressing ‘successful’ marketing, the most commonly used are sales, market share, profit contribution and purchase intentions (Ambler, et al, 2003).
In terms of various indicators, it should be based on appropriate standards. Assmus, Farley and Lehmann (1984) believe that in addition to internal and external benchmarks, performance evaluation at any time require for adjustments in allusion to the effects in the past and future, for example, the effects of some ads would have a lag period of more than a year, which will affect the subsequent fiscal year. #p#分页标题#e#
Based on the analysis of predecessors, Ambler, et al (2003) considered that it should use three criteria to select the indicators of marketing performance evaluation: (1) the selected indicators can be compared with the internal (plan) performance benchmarks; (2) The selected indicators can be compared with external (competitors’) performance benchmark; (3) through changes in marketing assets to adjust marketing performance.
Based on the recommendations of above literatures, Ambler, et al (2003,2004) proposed the selection criteria of indicators of marketing performance evaluation is more suitable for this study, because the standard not only considers the internal reference but also takes into account the external benchmarks, while it also takes into account the adjustment of long-term marketing performance. Therefore, it is in line with the study on the impact of e-commerce on marketing performance in this dissertation.
Based on the indicators selection criteria of marketing performance of Ambler et al (2003), the dissertation goes further to consider how to select the corresponding indicators.
The evaluation criteria of Ambler and others determine that the selected indicators must be a system, otherwise it is unable to reflect the principle of considering the internal and external benchmarks at the same time. In this study, it decides to adopt a method of classification of the relevant indicators, each type of indicator select lots of for a comprehensive investigation. In order to classify indicators of marketing performance of numerous categories, in this study, it has reviewed literatures related to marketing performance, according to search results, with reference to Kokkinaki and Ambler’s (1999) classification for indicators of marketing performance, their classification is based on the collection and collation of indicators of the real marketing performance, which is based on the content of control theory, agency theory, market orientation theory related to marketing performance, it holds that the evaluation indicators of marketing performance can be divided into six categories, namely, accounting, trade customer, competitor, consumer intermediate, consumer behaviour and innovativeness. The six indicators reflect the six areas that enterprises concern. Through the comparison of these six categories, this study found that direct customer indicator, consumer intermediate variable indicators and indicators of consumer behavior in fact can be integrated into one group of indicators, namely, whether it is from direct customers or consumers, they are both measurement indicators for customer value. Therefore, in order to make the measurement indicators of marketing performance can both reflect different aspects of measurement and minimize the number of targets, in this study, these three types of indicators are integrated into one: the indicators of customer value, coupled with the other two types of competition and innovation, these constitute the evaluation of marketing performance. In addition, according to recommendations of Ambler et al (2003), this study also selects marketing assets indicators to regulate short-term indicators.#p#分页标题#e#

2.5 Gaps
Thus, the measurement dimensions of marketing performance built in this study are: the accounting performance indicators, customer value indicators, competition results indicators, product innovation indicators and marketing assets indicators.
Based on the previous researches on the relationship between e-commerce and enterprise performance, it can be found that there are two issues, namely, there is a lack of intermediate variables, which has separated the impact of other factors on performance, it simply studies the relationship between e-business applications and enterprise performance, it does not take into account other variables which is likely to interfere with this relationship. The other is, the lagged research methods influence the tightness of researches on the relationship between e-business applications and enterprise performance. This study selects marketing capability as intermediate variables for discussion in the study. At the same time, in terms of the return of marketing performance for the investment for e-commerce applications, it can both reflect the short-term gains, but also be on behalf of company's future earning potential. Therefore, it is selected as the dependent variable in this study. This study uses structural equation model approach to explore how e-commerce has an impact on enterprise performance by affecting marketing capability.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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