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Literature Review怎么写?留学生论文Literature Review写作范文参考

论文价格: 免费 时间:2017-03-24 10:48:11 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
萨拉蒙解释非政府组织在社会导向和社会功能方面:“这是一个非盈利性志愿给公民和组织在地方、国家和国际水平。一个由区人民的利益,非政府组织提供各种服务的即插即用功能主义(反映问题,关心的公民到政府监督和鼓励政策,在社区一级。本说明解释的经典理论在国家与社会分离的美国市场。
考虑到非营利组织的定义,萨拉蒙意见有一定的权威。实证研究和分析后,对非营利组织的导热,在超过40个国家,萨拉蒙把经营结构的定义是其中的五个特征:非营利组织的结构和运作模式1。A组的官方或非官方的某些人或组织结构关系;2。私人的一部分,即非政府机构;3。无利润分配;4。自治;5。这样的支持和自愿,沃尔夫之间的关系分析的非营利组织和政府的存在是必要的把“政府失效理论”。他相信从整个社会的角度,政府,非营利组织和市场是重要的方法满足公民的需求。由于他们的功能限制的自相互作用的影响。特别是,当政府和市场的位置,一些公共品和公共职能,非营利组织的存在往往有价值。提出我国非营利组织存在的情况基本符合的理论。
 
Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
2.1 Introduction of this chapter
This chapter reviews theory and empirical research related to this study, so as to point out the theoretical innovation of this study.

2.2 Theory
2.2.1 Concept of non-profit organization (NPO)
Salamon and Anheier (1997) explained non-governmental organizations from the aspects of social orientation and social function: “It is a kind of non-profit and voluntary citizen organization in local, national or international level. Pushed by people with same interests, non-governmental organizations offer various services and play a role in humanitarianism, reflect the problems concerned by the citizens to the government, and supervise policies and encourage to take part in the community level......” (Salamon and Anheier, 1997). This explanation interprets the classical theory on the separation of nation, market and society. 
Considering the definition of NPO, Salamon and Achier’s (1999) opinion has a certain authority. After conducting empirical researches and analysis on NPO in more than 40 countries, Salamon and Achier (1999) put forward the structural-operational definition, which stressed the five features of NPO from structure and operation mode: 1. a certain people groups of official or unofficial organization or structured relationship; 2. private part, i.e. non-governmental organs; 3. None profit distributing; 4. self-governing; 5. voluntarily constituted and supported (Salamon and Achier, 1999) 
Wolf (1990) analyzed the relationship between non-profit organizations and the government by demonstrating the necessity of existence of NPO. Wolf (1990) put forward “government failure theory”. He believed that from the perspective of whole society, the government, NPO and market were the important approaches to satisfy citizens’ individual demands. Due to their limits on self-functions, mutual substitution effects existed among them. Especially, when the government and market lacked some public goods and public functions, NPO had their existence value thereby (Wolf, 1990). What such theory proposes basically meets with the existence situation of NPO in China. 
On the other hand, in accordance with the distinctions for profit organizations and NPO, Wolf (1990) believed that for profit organizations have a certain limit from the aspect of constraint force allocation. NPO does not have the characteristic and influence of constraint force allocation. Such important characteristics not only differentiate for profit organizations from NPO, but also play an important supporting role on wining social resources for NPO, and giving play to the social function of NPO (Wolf, 1990).
Based on many scholars’ researches, we could find that, when scholars define and use the word of “non-profit organization”, they always expand based on two basic attributes, i.e. non-profit and non-governmental, and emphasize on agreeing that NPO have the important feature of “non-governmental”. Therefore, in the course of research, based on the actual situation of Red Cross Society of China, the author of this study especially stressed the relationship between Red Cross Society of China and Chinese Government, and emphasized on the strong dependency of Red Cross Society of China on the government. This special relationship between the Chinese Red Cross and the Chinese Government is an important dimension for the analysis of the problems existing in the Chinese Red Cross.

2.2.2 Concept and basic feature of public trust
Li (2011) thought that trust means putting self-interests in the risk of other people’s dishonesty, fault or failure. Trust relationship will inevitably undertake such risk. The public is the supporter and capital provider of NPO establishment; interest relationship generates along with the trust risk. Donors, due to the limit on ability and time, could not help others to realize wishes, therefore, they provide goods and materials for NPO, entrust NPO to realize their wishes, public trust is generated thereby (Li, 2011). From the perspective of interest relationship, when the actions and results of NPO satisfy the public’s expectation, the public trust will be reinforced; on the contrary, when the public is disappointed in the things done by NPO, the subjective wishes giving trust is reduced, and the public trust is weakened inevitably (Li, 2011). Meanwhile, public trust exists in social environment and social relationship, therefore, the influence of social environment shall not be ignored. 
Speaking of the concept of public trust, its core is trust. Regarding trust, most scholars tend to regard trust as a kind of psychological anticipation (Li, 2014). Three problems, i.e. “who trust”, “trust who”, “why trust”, exist in the trust relationship.
On the statement, the author of this study was apt to agree with Zheng’s (2001) opinion. From the perspective of psychology, Zheng (2001) believed that trust belongs to a kind of irrational behavior, especially being affected by external factors, which results in a certain uncertainty and risk for trust. Regarding the expression of trust, trust psychology is always reflected and proofed through trust actions under special circumstance, for example, offer support in the attitude, issue supporting speech, or provide help on the action (Yang, 2014). The relationship between trust psychology and trust action is causal relationship that psychology is the cause, and action is the result (Zheng, 2011). In this study, the author thought that there are many similarities on the understanding of trust, that is external factors will have huge influences on other people’s consciousness. There is an idiom “repeat what others have said” in China (Li, 2014), i.e. one people follows and believes other one’s word or opinion no matter what the word is or what the opinion is. And the idiom “a repeated slander makes others believe” states that when many people set forth the same opinion, other people are apt to believe this opinion. Trust is affected by the external factors so much. It also indirectly illustrates that people’s trust is always wrong or is misguided. In “Guo Meimei event”, the phenomenon that the public was misguided existed (Li, 2014). 
The above theories on public trust are mainly from two aspects to expound the causes of public trust. First is that the behavior of NPO does not meet what the public expects and needs, which leads to the loss of public trust. To solve this problem, NPO needs to improve its management, making their behavior conform to and meet the needs of the public. Second, the influence of social and public opinion environment on public trust, the misunderstanding of the public caused by incorrect information can also harm public trust of NPO. To solve this problem, NPO needs to communicate with the public.

2.2.3 The theory of organization externalization
The theory of organization externalization was conceived by Meyer and Rowan in the 1970s, Meyer and Rowan (1977) thought that the aims, objectives, departments, posts, functions and other contents of an organization determined based on an organization should be detailed and clear, there should be a close contact, mutual cooperation between various departments to form an organic whole to achieve organizational goals. However, an organization in the actual operation process is often inconsistent with its aims and objectives, and sometimes it is even contrary to its aims and objectives, so there has been the appearance of the situation of organization externalization. In addition, scholars such as Wolf (1990) noted that for the realization of organizational objectives, organizational elements are connected through their actual activities, they should act in unity, their paces should be consistent, their forms and their actual activities are closely linked to work together to achieve the desired effect. However, it has been found through Wolf’s (1990) study that these organizational elements are not closely linked, most of them are loosely linked, which often leads to that an organization's decision-making is not implemented, the operating system rules are often violated, evaluation and inspection systems are often abandoned.
Red Cross Society of China (Hereinafter referred to as the Red Cross) as a social aid group has a clear phenomenon of organization externalization. First, considering from the perspective of organizational form, although the Red Cross is defined as a social assistance group by the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Red Cross Society", its members are included in the national administrative system of administrative institutions, it is more like a government department. Second, judging from the operation process, there is the existence of low efficiency, bureaucracy and other undesirable phenomena in the daily work of the Red Cross, and these undesirable phenomena is precisely contrary to the purpose of the Red Cross, resulting in the phenomenon of organization externalization of the Red Cross.#p#分页标题#e#

2.2.4 Voluntary failure theory
Voluntary failure theory was raised by a famous American scholar named Salamon. In addition to market failure, government failure, Salamon (1994) was through research on the global non-profit sectors to find that the phenomenon of failure also exists in non-profit organizations (NPOs), which is mainly reflected in that, first, resources that public welfare organizations obtain are not enough to meet the expenditure for operation of public welfare projects and daily work, leading to that public welfare organizations can not be self-sufficient, let alone relying entirely on themselves to develop and grow up, they can only continue to rely on the financial subsidies from government. The lack of financial independence often leads to the problem of less democracy in the operation of projects, those who actually grasp economic resources according to their own preferences to determine the operation of projects and how to use limited resources without having to seek the views of the majority (Salamon, 1981). Second, work of public welfare organizations is often carried out by volunteers who are caring and enthusiastic. Based on the lack of training for volunteers and the lack of sufficient volunteers, the quality of public goods provided by public welfare organizations for the society is not high and the results are not satisfactory. At the same time, as public welfare organizations do not have the financial resources to hire professionals to join, it leads to the failure to provide quality public goods, thereby affecting the organizational performance and playing the roles of organizational effectiveness (Salamon, 1981; Lane, 2011). Finally, the limitations of the objects of public welfare organizations, namely the objects that public welfare organizations carry out activities to help are not all the public, they are often some specific social groups, result in that costs of public goods provided by public welfare organizations are very high, and the efficiency is very low and difficult to produce scale effect (Salamon, 1981; Lane, 2011). As a kind of NPO, the Red Cross also has the phenomenon of volunteer failure. Thus it should make full use of volunteer failure theory to discuss how to remedy these defects so as to ensure the better work of the Red Cross.

2.2.5 Trust theory
Coleman's (2007) trust theory is based on the basic assumption and the starting point of “rational person”, it is believed that trust is the process of interaction and game for interest between the two rational actors, the premise of his assumption is that these two people are purposeful actors, the purpose is to meet personal interests, for a trustee, it is faced with the problem of trustworthiness or dishonesty, and the principal is faced with the problem of whether it can trust the trustee. For the same reason, a charitable organization faces the problem of trustworthiness or dishonesty, and donors are faced with the question of whether they can trust the charitable organization, which organization they can trust, when the phenomenon of dishonesty occurs in a charitable organization for their own interests, donors’ interests will be harmed, if there is not remediation, donors will no longer trust the charity organization, the trust of donors towards the charitable organization is declining, and the charitable organization will bear the consequences of loss for its’ losing donors’ trust (Coleman, 2007; Long, 2016).
As a rational client, in order to assure their donation can be sent to those who need it, donors will take various measures to mitigate their risk of trust through collecting as much information as possible about a charitable organization, and make full use of the information to make the decision about whether they can trust and be loyal to a charitable organization; for charitable organizations as trustees, performance in work activities and disclosure of information is an important way to prove that they are trustworthy, therefore, to deepen the mutual understanding between donors and charitable organizations, as well as effective communication can help to improve the trust of donors towards charitable organizations (Coleman, 2007).

2.2.6 Social psychology theory
Social psychology mainly studies individual social psychological phenomenon and group social psychology phenomenon (Long, 2016; Long and Yang, 2016). Individual social psychological phenomenon refers to that social individuals are affected and constrained by other people or social groups to have reactions such as interpersonal attraction, interpersonal perception, inhibition and compliance, and so on in thinking, feelings, behaviors and other aspects. Group social psychological phenomenon is mainly reflected in group decision-making, group cohesion, social and psychological atmosphere, etc., it is the unique psychological characteristics that a group has. In comparison, in most cases, individual social psychology is more susceptible to outside influence, and group social psychology is generally more mature and stable (Long, 2016; Long and Yang, 2016). Public trust of the Red Cross mainly depends on the psychological cognition and psychological identification of social individuals and social groups. Subjective evaluation of the public on the Red Cross finally forms public trust of the Red Cross, high subjective evaluation shows the high public trust of the Red Cross, low subjective evaluation reflects the low public trust of the Red Cross. Social individuals’ psychology is easily affected by opinions of public figures, reports of news media and other aspects, initially this effect is mainly represented as the simply following the trend, when the impact reaches a certain level, it will form a more stable psychological positioning of the social group for the Red Cross (Long, 2016). The “Guo Meimei” event initially affected only part of the public to have a negative view on the Red Cross. However, with the expansion of the event, and more inside story was blown out, the public became more and more dissatisfied with the Red Cross to form a kind of “snowball" effect "Red Cross", eventually leading to social groups’ negative impression and positioning for the Red Cross, which led to the devastating blow towards public trust of the Red Cross (Long, 2016; Long and Yang, 2016).
Theory Content involved
The theory of organization externalization Management of NPO
Voluntary failure theory Human resources management of NPO
Trust theory Performance, donation effect, social and economic benefits of NPO
Social psychology theory Public relations management, public relations at the time of crisis, marketing and other issues of NPO
 
The above theories illustrate the reasons for the loss of public trust of NPO from different perspectives. The theory of organization externalization mainly expounds the reasons for the loss of public trust of NPO from the structure and management of organization. Voluntary failure theory is mainly from the perspectives of management, professional quality of organizational staff, as well as the level of service and social effects of NPO to explain the reasons for the loss of public trust. Trust theory mainly explains the loss of public trust of NPO from the perspective of public demand. Social psychology theory is from the perspective of communication to explore the reason for loss of public trust of NPO. Based on the above theories, the author of this study constructed the evaluation system of public trust of the Red Cross, and elaborated on how to improve the public trust in the Red Cross in the future.

2.3 Empirical study on public trust in the Red Cross
2.3.1 Relationship between government and charitable organizations
There are two kinds of views on the relationship between government and charitable organizations,
one is that government should strengthen the support for the Red Cross. Han (2016) believed that the third sector is not a perfect organization of virtue, it also has flaws such as the problem of a voluntary failure in the third sector, the government should strengthen support and guidance to improve the public trust in the third sector. In his view, the inherent flaws of the third sector are manifested in four aspects: insufficient supply of charity, special charity, paternalism of charity organizations, amateur charity. Han (2016) thought that NPO in China should enhance the establishment of a relationship with the government, use the government’s capacity to perfect its own development environment, and show the achievements got under the supporting of the government. Actually, Chinese government always imposes relatively strong support on NPO with the Red Cross as their representative. But the author of this study thought that the method and direction on support should be changed (Han, 2016).
Another point of view is that NPO should reduce dependence on government to ensure independence, avoiding interference and obstacles of government towards the development of NPO.
Chui and Jordan (2016), Najam (2005) studied the relationship between NPO and government. He proposed “theory on the relationship between the government and the non-profit organizations” (cooperation, confrontation, complementary, cooptation), which deems that “necessary tension” exists between the government and NPO. Even the relationship between government and NPO is friendly, it is mutually attractive and repulsive with various patterns of manifestation, such as constructive, destructiveness, conflict and compromise (Najam, 2005). “Necessary tension” is the fundamental feature of the relationship between government and NPO. Under the framework of “necessary tension”, Najam (2005), based on the purpose and executive strategies of government and NPO, generalized the relationship between government and NPO into four patterns, i.e. cooperative relationship, conflicting relationship, complementary relationship and absorptive relationship (Najam, 2005). Under the overall framework of these four relationship, although government may have one kind of relationship with NPO, but meanwhile, different institutions and members of government may establish other different relationship with NPO; different branches and member in one NPO may establish another relationship with one department of the government (Najam, 2005). On this point, the author of this study believed that the relationship between government and NPO with the Red Cross as their representative mainly reflect on the constructive of the government imposed on NPO, and the dependency of non-profit organizations on the government (Najam, 2005). Meanwhile, these two features are relatively obvious; in the course that the government helps NPO to develop, the government may also become the potential hinder strength for the development of NPO (Najam, 2005). It should pay attention to this point. #p#分页标题#e#

2.3.2 Imperfect management system 
He (2014) pointed out that for profit organizations or enterprises, NPO should pay attention to management, improper management system will derive many problems such as: low professional quality of staff, facilitating the conduct of corruption, failing to achieve the desired social and economic benefits, once these issues are known to the public, it will inevitably affect the public's trust for NPO. 
Chui and Jordan (2016) cited NGO acts of dishonesty, such as the abuse of power, failure in deserving the name, unfair competition, involving in partisan politics, changing into interest groups, setting up scams and other acts. Through the empirical research, Liu (2013) found that vile practices such as the abuse of privilege, high wages, corruption, and changing into special interest groups existing in non-profit organizations, the roles of non-profit organizations are not as perfect as what people think.
Xu (2011) was based on the internal mechanism and the defects in the external system design of non-profit organizations to analyze the problems of NPO, pointing out that moral anomie and lack of systems are the main reasons leading to the lack of public trust in civil organizations. Zuo (2013) figured that the lack of public trust in NPO is reflected in the inefficient use of funds, the incoordinate proportion of funds penetrated by market operation mechanism and the personal use of regulatory vacuum and unlimited power for personal gain. Wand (2014) and Lane (2011) believed that there are four reasons for the lack of public trust in NGO in China, namely, the lack of public responsibility, lack of supervision, opacity of information and chaos of internal governance structure. In terms of the lack of public trust in China, Saich (2000), Zhang, Zhang, Comfort and Chen, (2016) were from the perspectives of internal and external factors to identify the internal factors, such as the lack of social responsibility and public awareness, lack of property rights mechanisms, serious administrative tendencies and imperfections of internal management systems, as well as the external factors consisting of weak social trust and law systems, dual management systems and difficulties in supervision.
The above study summarizes the problems of NPO due to the imperfect management system, these problems also exist in the Red Cross in China. This thesis investigated whether these problems have an impact on the public's trust in the Red Cross, as well the extent of the impact.

2.3.3 Information disclosure of charitable organizations
Regarding right of supervision, Eisenberg (2000) believed that the public have the right to know about the NPO, and have right of supervision and supervision responsibilities, at the same time, which enhance the supervisory authority and responsibilities of the public on NPO (Eisenberg, 2000; Yong and Zhou, 2011). He thinks that such right of supervision should be established on the basis of open and transparent NPO information. Right of supervision will not be realized once such basis missing. And for the NPO taking the Red Cross Society of China as their representative, its information is not open and it is not transparent enough, which is one of their disadvantages, which become the barrier for the public to implement the right of supervision.
Herzlinger (2000) established information disclosure mechanism on the transparency of NPO based on the successful experiences of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on securities trading management. Its core contents contain: information disclosure, information analysis, information dissemination, and sanction, i.e. “disclosure --- analysis --- dissemination --- sanction” (DADS method) (Herzlinger, 2000). The theory believes that: NPO lacks mandatory responsibilities mechanism commercial field has; in essence, DADS integrates information disclosure, information evaluation, supervision and sanction, with the purpose to not only require NPO to disclose information, but also emphasize on improving the information disclosed (Herzlinger, 2000). On this research, the author also referred to this theory to analyze the special reasons on public trust missing based on some particular situation existing in Chinese government and Chinese society, especially based on the dependency of Red Cross Society of China on the government, and work out optimizing strategies for the problems based on the causes. 
The above-mentioned literatures introduce the problems in the establishment of public trust for NPO from the aspects of relationship between NPO and government, supervision and information disclosure. This study was based on the above research to discuss how the Red Cross in China has lost the trust of the Chinese public and how to restore the public trust, based on these literatures to build the evaluation system of the public trust in the Red Cross.

2.3.4 The evaluation indicators of public trust of NPO
Roney (2011) analyzed the dimension of evaluating the public trust of NPO and put forward a multi-dimensional analysis framework, which is manifested in three dimensions, first is the public trust of NPO for trustees, that is, upward public trust; second is the public trust of NPO for itself; third is the public trust of NPO for service objects (community or society), that is downward public trust.
Gao, Faff and Navissi (2012) put forward seven dimensions of evaluation on public trust: to ensure the provision of services, to ensure the interests of donors, to protect the interests of service objects, to protect the interests of organizations, to ensure the effectiveness and achievement of government funding, to maintain a competitive environment, to protect the interests of private sectors competing with NPO. 
He (2011) was from five aspects: organizational governance, public responsibility, financial responsibility, social responsibility, the use of funds to establish individual indicators to carry out a case analysis on evaluation on public trust of NGO, which is a more empirical research on the public trust of NGO in China, it is indexing and quantitative to provide a better reference for this study.
The above studies construct the evaluation indicators of the public trust of NPO from different angles, but their research has some limitations. Gao, Faff and Navissi’s (2012) indictor system is too complicated to promote its evaluation system. The studies of Roney’s (2011), Ma’s (2006), He’s (2011) mainly focus on the evaluation on management and honesty of NPO, while neglecting the evaluation on the economic and social benefits of NPO. The standard of Saich’s (2000) is scientific, but it mainly focuses on the formulation of economic indicators of NPO, and it is not enough in the inspection on the quality of service and honesty. The author of this thesis mainly referred to Chu’s (2012) public trust evaluation system of NPO. Its system is simple and clear, but it is more comprehensive and meets the needs of this research. Therefore, this thesis developed the evaluation system and indicators of the public trust of the Red Cross according to Chu’s (2012) research.
Chu (2012) believed that evaluation of the public trust of charitable organizations is mainly reflected in four areas: the extent of integrity of charitable organizations, the extent of service of charitable organizations, the charitable extent of charitable organizations and the open and transparent extent of charitable organizations.

2.3.4.1 Organizational integrity level
Integrity of a charitable organization is the basis for the charitable organization to continue to obtain public trust, if public trust continuously declines, the public trust of the charitable organization is difficult to be improved. The public trust of charitable organizations can be divided into three aspects: whether the public are willing to donate to the organization, whether the public are willing to trust the organization, whether the public are willing to participate in the charity activities hosted by the organization (Chu, 2012).

2.3.4.2 Degree of service
According to Coleman's trust theory, it is vital for charitable organizations as NPOs with public charity to obtain the public's trust and support. Thus it is necessary to strengthen charitable organizations’ moral construction, improving the moral quality and service, awareness the organization staff (Chu, 2012). Considering from the staff themselves, the moral quality of staff of charitable organizations is more important than staff of other organizations, while the work attitude and efficiency are the embodiment of the quality of staff of charitable organizations, the degree of service of charitable organizations is reflected in the concise procedures, the proportionality of organizational expenses and scale of activities, and the effect of aid and donation (Chu, 2012).

2.3.4.3 Degree of performing acts of charity according to laws
The degree of abiding laws in the process of performing its duties of a charitable organization reflects the extent of the charitable organization’s following standards in the conduct of its duties and whether it is in accordance with the laws and regulations, whether it is protected by laws, of course, when it is protected by laws, it should also do its duty. Therefore, the leading indicators of degree of charitable organizations’ doing their duty according to laws can be divided into two types of responsibility mechanisms and the degree of performing duties according to laws, of which the responsibility mechanisms include accountability mechanism, appointment or dismissal of responsibility mechanism and supervision mechanism; the degree of performing duties according to laws includes the normative nature of procedure, fairness and legitimacy of performing duties (Chu, 2012).#p#分页标题#e#

2.3.4.4 Openness and transparency of information disclosure
The openness and transparency of charitable organizations include the cost of fundraising, the destination of funds, the annual budget, accounting standards, annual financial reports, financial reports of affiliated institutions, openness of channels, transparency of channels, board behavior and operations, organizational structure of the council, the use of charitable funds, it is also an important measure indicator of whether a charitable organization is open and transparent (Chu, 2012).
 
Indicators of evaluation on public trust of NPO First level indicator Second level indicator Theoretical basis
Organizational integrity level whether the public are willing to donate to the organization Social psychology theory; trust theory
whether the public are willing to donate to the organization
whether the public are willing to donate to the organization
Service Concise procedures The theory of organization externalization;
trust theory
Consistency between organizational expenditure and activity scale
Relief and donation
effect
Level of performing acts of charity in accordance with laws Responsibility mechanisms include accountability mechanisms The theory of organization externalization;
voluntary failure theory
Mechanism of appointment and removal of power and supervision mechanism
The normative nature of the procedure, the righteousness of performing acts of charity in accordance with laws
Openness and transparency of information disclosure Situation of use of funds Social psychology theory
Organizational structure
 
2.4 Relevant researches on Guo Meimei event and the Red Cross
Li’s (2014) study affirmed the fact that public trust in the Red Cross was severely damaged after Guo Meimei event. He compared the organizational structure and management system among the Red Cross Society of China and the Red Cross in Hong Kong, the American Red Cross. It also analyzed the reason of the low public trust in the Red Cross Society of China from the aspects of information disclosure, supervision, and maintenance of public relations. However, its research paid less attention to personnel training, improving work efficiency and professional skills of staff of the Red Cross.
Liu (2013) was from the perspective of public image to analyze the impact of Guo Meimei event on the public trust in Chinese Red Cross, her point of view was relatively new, and she provided a more feasible reference on how the Red Cross dealt with public relations at the time of crisis. However, it was undeniable that the low public trust in Chinese Red Cross was not only because of it failed to deal with public relations at the time of crisis well, the Red Cross did have a lot of problems, resulting in low public trust.
Liu (2013) pointed out in his study that the Chinese Red Cross has long lack of effective building of public trust, Guo Meimei event is a cause of public concern on problems existing in the Red Cross. He believed that the problems of the Chinese Red Cross was mainly non-public, opaque operation, the main reason for this phenomenon was monopoly of power. He mentioned that the Chinese Red Cross refer to advanced experience from other countries to establish an information disclosure system, an effective accountability system, an effective supervision mechanism to rebuild public trust in the Red Cross. His research mainly focused on how to curb the corruption in the Red Cross, but there was no specific strategy on how to improve the management efficiency and professional quality of staff of the Red Cross.
Zuo (2013) mainly analyzed the reasons for the low public trust in the Red Cross from the official background of the Red Cross. He thought that the public's dissatisfaction with Guo Meimei event was closely related to the official background of the Red Cross. He believed that the government should be more active in management of the Red Cross and strengthen supervision towards the Red Cross. His views are consistent with the current Chinese government’s vigorous anti-corruption policy, which also has a certain value strategy. However, it is questionable that whether the government alone can guarantee the long-term integrity and efficiency of the Red Cross.
According to the influence of Guo Meimei event, Cui (2015) was through literature research, case study and summary induction to carry out a comprehensive research on the internal control of the Red Cross. He believed that the reform of the internal control system of the Red Cross included five aspects, the scientific organizational structure, efficient risk response programs, comprehensive control of activities, a sound information disclosure system, a sound monitoring mechanism. His research has great reference value to improve the management and public trust in the Red Cross, but his strategy was based on the experience from European countries and the United States, whether it is feasible still needs to be tested.
Mao (2014) was mainly through the cause of Guo Meimei event and the social repercussions of the event to analyze the status quo of lack of public trust in the Red Cross, the research focused on analysis of legal reasons for the lack of public trust in the charitable organizations in China, he was from three aspects: making clear legal position of charitable organization, improving internal governance mechanism and external supervision mechanism of charitable organizations to explore ways to improve and enhance the public trust in China's charitable organizations. His research has great help to analyze the causes of low-level public trust in the Red Cross.
There are many researches on Guo Meimei event and the public trust in the Red Cross, but most of these researches focus on the public trust in Red Cross from one or two aspects. The conclusions are not very comprehensive. This study builds a public trust evaluation system to carry out a comprehensive understanding and analysis of the low public trust in Chinese Red Cross.

2.5 Critical analysis and theoretical innovation significance
In Europe and the United States, the researches on the public trust of NPO are earlier than that of in China, and they are also more mature, they have built a set of mature theoretical system and empirical research methods (Salamon, 1997). However, the Red Cross in China is largely different from the western NPO in the general sense, namely, the Chinese Red Cross has very close relationship with the government, it is directly under the management and control of the Chinese government, thus research on the Chinese Red Cross can not be fully learnt from relevant experience from European and American countries. There is increasing number of study on public trust of the Chinese Red Cross after Guo Meimei event (Liu, 2013), but these studies have a major flaw of analyzing the problem of the Red Cross only from one or two aspects, the low public trust in the Red Cross was caused by a variety of reasons, a systemic concept should be taken, from multiple angles and levels to analyze problems in the Red Cross in China. The theoretical innovation of this thesis lies in being based on relevant theories at home and abroad to build a set of evaluation indicators of the public trust of the Red Cross, which are more suitable for China's national conditions. The establishment of this set of indicators provides an effective tool to have an accurate understanding of the public trust of the Red Cross from different angles and multiple levels, and it also provides a meaningful reference for the conduct of relevant research.

2.6 Summary
This chapter reviews theoretical researches and empirical results relating to the public trust in Red Cross. Next chapter describes the methodology of this study.  
                   
 
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