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Organizational behavior literature review:Family support’s i

论文价格: 免费 时间:2019-08-12 09:58:42 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学作业网
基于上述文献,我们可以看到,在财政支持下,个人将拥有获得所需教育和相关职业培训的资源。教育和培训将给他们更多的机会去探索自己和他们所遇到的任何未来的职业环境(Fouad等人,2007年,Palo&Drobot,2010年)。更重要的是,对他们开放的职业选择和他们的家庭提供的经验方面的知识也可以带来更多的探索机会。研究发现,与没有太多信息的人相比,获得更多信息和支持的人更有机会从事与职业相关的探索(Schultheis等人,2004年)。适当的情感支持也将有助于探索过程:开展的研究认为,情感支持将创造具有鼓励和信心的个人,这将使他们发现自己和低焦虑的环境(Ainsworth,1982年,Gomez等人2001年)。在青春期,对同龄人的依恋和对母亲的依恋都与职业探索和职业承诺的增加有关(Felsman和Blustein,1999年)。Sarason等人(1990)强调了支持对勘探的影响,并认为它提供了一个“安全网”,允许积极参与和勘探。职业探索在职业发展理论(Super,1957;1990)中有着突出的作用。Jorddan(1963)认为,有了充分的职业探索,个人将对自己的个性、能力等以及未来的环境特征有更多的了解。super(1990)的自我概念理论提出,职业探索的主要结果是帮助人们形成自我概念,从而建立与自我概念相关的职业偏好。
Based on the literature discussed above, we can see that with financial support, individuals will have the resources to acquire the education and the relative career training needed. The education and training will give them more opportunities to explore themselves and any future career environments they encounter (Fouad et.al,2007,Palo&Drobot, 2010). What is more, knowledge about career options open to them and experiences provided by their family could also lead to more exploration opportunities. Studies have found that compared with people who didn’t have much information, people who receive more information and support will have more chance to engage in career related exploration (Schultheiss et al., 2004). The proper emotional support will also contribute to the exploration process: research carried out argued that emotional support will create individuals with encouragement and confidence, and this will allow them to discover themselves and the environment with low anxiety (Ainsworth,1982, Gomez et al., 2001). ..In adolescence, both attachment to peers and attachment to mother have been linked to increased career exploration and career commitment (Felsman&Blustein, 1999). Sarason et al. (1990) highlightedthe impact of support on exploration and argued that it provides a "safety net" that permits active participation and exploration. Career exploration has a prominent role in the career development theory (Super, 1957; 1990).Jorddan(1963)argued that, with sufficient career exploration, individuals will have more understanding of their personality, ability etc. as well as future environmental characteristics. Super (1990)’s self-concept theory has proposed that the primary outcome of career exploration was helping people to shape their self-concept and thus, build a vocational preference associated with self-concept.  
此外,一些实证研究也认为,那些广泛探索自己和环境的人选择的职业是令人满意的,并且与其特征一致的。(Blustein,1997;Brooks,Cornelius,Greenfield,&Joseph,1995)个人工作适合理论也认为人们倾向于寻找或停留在一个能让他们表现出他们的特征的工作中。
人-工作匹配理论的论断(提出)与那些实证研究的论断是一致的。Moreover, several empirical studies have also argued that individuals who extensively explore themselves and their environments choose careers that are satisfying and congruent with their traits. (Blustein, 1997; Brooks, Cornelius, Greenfield, & Joseph, 1995)Theperson-job fit theory alsoargues that people tend to seek out or stay in a job that allows them to behaviorally manifest with their traits.
What the person-job fit theory argued(proposed) is consistent with those empirical studies argued.
 
Therefore, based on the discussions above, we can argue that family support will lead to active exploration of career decisions, and may further positively result for P-J fit.
1a Financial support from family will positively relate to higher degree of person-job fit. 
Family border ability between the two areas will affect the work and family resources, the flow of emotion, generally Gao Bianjie elastic will promote the flow of liquidity is the necessary condition to gain family work, but the increase of liquidity and could lead to work family conflict (such as the two domain boundary maintain, feel not adapt to the change of liquidity, destructive), and want to gain the effect. So there has been considerable details, such as: low family support is low on a member in the family border flexibility capabilities, then the individual tend to integrate family and work, as a result, management difficult family work boundaries, finally brought low family work gain; Another case: lower family support to someone in the family members might bring higher ability of family border flexibility (the particularity of individual cognition), result prompted the two fields of liquidity increases, causing the work family conflict(Chhabra, 2015). As a consequence, the financial support from family will positively relate to higher degree of person-job fit.
1b. Informational support from family will positively relate to higher degree of person-job fit.
The higher the spouse support for individual work, individual work related results more significantly, include individual job satisfaction, physical health and job satisfaction, such as: family support, and employee job satisfaction is related to an individual's health situation and family support, job satisfaction and employee job satisfaction is related. The higher the support the enterprise gives to individual working families, the more loyal employees will be to the enterprise, which has nothing to do with how much the individual gains from it.
Individual to transfer from one area to another area of ability belief can be found, the individual characteristics of situation in the field of perceived boundaries to maintain existence and attitudes, behavior, and influence to an area where they leave another ability and in the field of cognition, attitude, in particular, tend to hold against the boundary of the attitude and tolerance behavior than hold lenient attitude and maintain the individual against the behavior of the border to maintain a feeling of more resistance, both sides of the border, especially family, the number of family members in general around the border crossing is less than the work area, the number of people across the affected by the family members will both centralized and varied from person (family), the people usually do at values family ties will be regarded as more important than interpersonal relationships at work and is one of the most important link (even energy distribution is not the case in reality, across the family attitude, behavior, and finally, can across from existing fields in the degree and frequency of the judgment, and take in account for a large weight, family support can make the person clearly felt in the domain of its change is accepted, be hold, understood (bao-yu cheng,, has the obvious signal than other practical factors of the family, such as the scarcity of time at home, the elderly, women and children need to take care of, family suite migration, because of work together, etc.) of resistance can be reduce across, even into a power in the field of transformation, because can be used to the other side of the border to compensate the family in another way. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that family support can promote the flexibility of family boundaries. Therefore, Informational support from family will positively relate to higher degree of person-job fit.
1c. Emotional support from family will positively relate to higher degree of person-job fit.
Emotional support from family is the cornerstone of employees work, significant influence on individuals, it allows individuals to generate positive emotions, such as care, attention, etc., these positive emotions can affect the individual in the enterprise( Mauno, & Ruokolainen, 2017). Based on the basic role of the family, the definition of family support for individuals of all kinds of support from relatives support including resource type, judgment, etc, this thesis mainly discusses the family members of the influence degree of the parents and spouse support for individuals to work. Employees from family support is mainly support and judgment of resource support, resource support mainly focus on the spouse and parents care, motivation and help individuals, usually involving the spouses and children of staff awareness, to the affirmation of the work and cooperation degree, etc.; While judging types support mainly reflects on the bear the housework, spouse and parents in their daily chores on the more positive, things will reduce the individual in the family in the amount of time, increase the working time, improve the staff's job ( AlAzzam, AbuAlRub,  & Nazzal, 2017). Thus, Emotional support from family will positively relate to higher degree of person-job fit.
Intergrating P-J fit with Affective Commitment: 
As stated in the previous section, the link between P-J fit and organizational commitment is well-established in the empirical literature. (Cable & Edwards, 2004; Edwards, 1996) Social Exchange Theory (SET) can be applied here to guide the link between P-J fit and affective commitment. (Straatmann,2017) SET argued that the exchange processes between a job and an employee may be understood as ‘a series of interactions between parties who are in a state of reciprocal interdependence’ (Saks, 2006) These interactions include the social exchange of tangible and intangible resources. The person-job fit was defined as the match between individuals’ skills and abilities and requirements of their jobs.Greguras&Diefendor(2009) argued that if there is a fit,employees are more likely to satisfy their competence needs.SET proposed that, such perceptions of social exchange will lead employees to the emotional factors on the formation of both is accompanied by the gradual development of the process of social exchange. (Blau, 1964) Settoon et al(1996) further argued that such attitude could be the affective commitment. Thus, it is hypothesized that,#p#分页标题#e#
H2:Person-Job fit will positively relate to the affective commitment.
(here, I want to continue use set, but change some wording, make it to look like affective commitment)
Intergrating P-J fit with Job security:
As stated in the previous section, the perception of job security is cognitive based and depends on whether the job features satisfy an individuals’ needs. (Lee&Ashford,2017) The more they desire the job they get, the higher job security gained. The P-J fit was used to measure whether the features of a job fulfill employees’ personal desires. The higher degree of P-J fit indicates the higher match of job attributes with personal desires. Thus, we can argue that, with a higher P-J fit, individuals will have a higher perceived job security. Therefore, it is hypothesized that,   
H3: P-J fit will positively relate to the job security.
Maybe use similarity attraction theory to develop argument 
However, similarity attraction theory has pointed that people like and are attracted to others who are similar, rather than dissimilar (Van Hoye & Turban, 2015) which means that companies promised not to because of their reason (e.g., depression) and lay off workers, was not in the management process of threats to fire employees. For employees, the employment guarantee is the subjective expectation that the current working condition can be carried on continuously, and it is the perception of the employee's employment guarantee policy and its actual impact. It should be pointed out that, enterprise's job security policy does not protect those unable to staff to perform the job correctly, but stress management own responsibility, with staff to seek long-term survival and common development. 
H4: P-J fit as a mediator of family support and affective commitment 
P - J fit for family rights interests including family support and the affective commitment dimensions, among them, the work refers to the development of the family's devotion to work to get individual and redefined to view and deal with the problems of skills, knowledge, and methods and so on, which will undoubtedly make employees better family members; Emotional refers to work for the family can produce into positive emotions and positive attitude, which can help individuals become better family members: working capital refers to the work for the family investment can improve, confidence and a sense of accomplishment and manage resources, these also manage resources can help employees become better family members. Home to work, on the other hand, raised interest including family work for development, the family of feelings and family, home to work namely development's devotion to the family can get individual redefined to view and deal with the problems of skills, knowledge, behavior and the way and so on, this will undoubtedly make individuals better employees; A family's devotion to work is a positive emotion or positive attitude towards family life, which helps individuals become better employees. The family's commitment to work efficiency means that the investment in family life can increase individual focus and sense of urgency, which will help the individual become a better employee. Therefore, it is hypothesized:
H4: P-J fit as a mediator of family support and affective commitment
H5: P-J fit as a mediator of family support and job security 
P-J fit could be related to the family support and job security. Individuals in daily work to feel superior value, and the spirit of fair and corporate welfare can improve employees' job satisfaction, these factors can reduce a person's turnover rate and improve the individual's loyalty and engagement, increase the individual job satisfaction; support to individual work put forward his supervisors and colleagues negative emotions has significant negative correlation, and the superior and colleagues support can reduce individual of depression; the research indicates that higher level support can reduce the employee's absenteeism rate and work fatigue, and the two are positively correlated. Study and found that, for executives, individual support degree is higher, the employee's job satisfaction is higher, the two relations are related, this just shows that executive support is advantageous to the enterprise, this support can promote individual job satisfaction, strengthen team daily management, increase the rate of work on time, improve work efficiency, etc (Tseng, & Yu, 2016).After the study of American universities staff found that the higher the individual's perception of the degree of enterprise organization, the better, the support organization, the higher the job satisfaction of the individual, the stronger the organizational behaviour orientation, the higher the commitment of organization, the lower the staff turnover rate. Has been put forward, and the higher leadership support, individual turnover rate and missing rate is lower, the higher the more concerned about the staff, suggests that the support staff, this will greatly decrease the rate of employee turnover and delays. Therefore, it is hypothesized:
H5: P-J fit as a mediator of family support and job security 
 
bibliography
AlAzzam, M., AbuAlRub, R. F., & Nazzal, A. H. (2017). The Relationship Between Work-Family Conflict and Job Satisfaction Among Hospital Nurses. Nursing Forum, 52(4), 278-288. doi:10.1111/nuf.12199
Ardıç, K., Oymak, Ö., Özsoy, T., Uslu, O., & Özsoy, E. (2016). Comparing person organization fit and person job fit. Journal Of Economics & Management, 25(3), 5-13. doi:10.22367/jem.2016.25.01
Chhabra, B. (2015). Person - Job Fit: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction & Organizational Commitment. Indian Journal Of Industrial Relations, 50(4), 638-651.
Mauno, S. s., & Ruokolainen, M. (2017). Does Organizational Work–Family Support Benefit Temporary and Permanent Employees Equally in a Work–Family Conflict Situation in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Emotional Energy at Work and at Home?.Journal Of Family Issues, 38(1), 124-148. doi:10.1177/0192513X15600729
Tseng, L., & Yu, T. (2016). How can managers promote salespeople’s person-job fit?. Learning Organization, 23(1), 61-76. doi:10.1108/TLO-03-2015-0023
Van Hoye, G., & Turban, D. B. (2015). Applicant-Employee Fit in Personality: Testing predictions from similarity-attraction theory and trait activation theory. International Journal Of Selection & Assessment, 23(3), 210-223. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12109
van Loon, N. M., Leisink, P., & Vandenabeele, W. (2017). Clarifying the Relationship Between Public Service Motivation and In-Role and Extra-Role Behaviors: The Relative Contributions of Person-Job and Person-Organization Fit. American Review Of Public Administration, 47(6), 699-713. doi:10.1177/0275074015617547
 
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