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文献综述范文-有关绩效管理的Literature Review

时间:2019-08-22 10:22:12 来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:未知 点击:50
Literature Review 文献综述
1.1绩效管理的定义
绩效管理是指组织、团队或个人在特定资源、条件和环境下实现目标的效率和结果水平(Blackburn,2014)。在管理实践中,绩效主要强调工作活动的过程及其结果。一般来说,绩效包括个人素质、工作行为、工作作风和工作成果。为了理解绩效随着研究和实践的发展,这是从一开始就不断深化对质量的追求,逐渐认识到质量的重要性。此外,一个满足需求的事件,从最初的价值到现在注重行为表现的结果,从关注当前的回报到强调未来的表现等等,生产的内涵也不断丰富和完善。绩效可以从组织、团队和个人层面进行查看。对于一个组织来说,绩效与组织的战略和目标密切相关。绩效是组织在实现目标和履行职能过程中的管理有效性。对于团队而言,绩效通过提高团队成员的合作水平和满意度,提高团队能力,更好地为组织服务。对于个人而言,绩效管理是指个人通过其行为能力来实现团队和组织的目标,并在过程中实现目标的努力(Rana,2011年)。可以说,绩效反映了一个组织、一个团队和一个个人在某个特定时间以某种方式实现目标的整个过程。
1.1 The definition of the performance management 
Performance management refers to the efficiency and result level of an organization, a team or an individual in achieving a goal under specific resources, conditions, and circumstances(Blackburn, 2014). In management practice, performance mainly emphasizes the process of work activities and their results. Generally speaking, performance includes personal quality, work behavior, work style and work results. For the understanding of the performance with the development of the research and practice, which is deepening from the beginning the pursuit of quantity, gradually realize the importance of quality.  In addition, an event to meet the demand, from the initial value to now focus on the results of the performance of behavior, from attending the current return to emphasize the future performance and so on, the connotation of production are also enriched continuously and perfect. Performance can be viewed from the organizational, team and individual levels. For an organization, performance is closely related to the organization's strategy and goals. Performance is the management effectiveness of an organization in the process of achieving goals and fulfilling functions. For the team, performance improves team capability and serves the organization better by improving team members' cooperation level and satisfaction. For an individual, performance management refers to an individual's efforts to achieve the goals of the team and organization through his or her behavioral ability and to achieve the goals in the process (Rana, 2011). It can be said that performance reflects the entire process of an organization, a team, and an individual making the desired goal in a certain way at a particular time.
作为组织的战略和绩效管理或经营计划,普通成员虽然是内部组织运作、过程和文化变化的因素,但他们认为这并不是绩效管理关注的主要对象。他指出,绩效管理是将每个员工或经理的工作与整个工作单位的目标联系起来,以支持组织的整体职业目标(Orozco,2018年)。企业绩效评价的历史发展过程,对企业自身绩效评价的研究框架和方法进行研究,进而考察企业战略绩效评价的效果。在企业绩效评估过程中,必须避免误会(West&Blackman,2015)。运用不同的沟通技巧,保证绩效评价的有效性和准确性。
As the organization's strategy and performance management or business plans, although ordinary members are internal to the organization operation, process and culture change factors, but they think it is not performance management focus on the primary object. He pointed out that performance management is to connect the work of each employee or manager with the purpose of the whole work unit, to support the overall career goals of the organization (Orozco, 2018). The historical development process of enterprise performance evaluation, to the study on the performance evaluation of their own to study its framework and method, then examine the effect of performance evaluation of enterprise strategy. In the process of enterprise performance evaluation, it is necessary to avoid falling into misunderstandings (West & Blackman, 2015). The effectiveness and accuracy of performance evaluation should be guaranteed by using different communication skills.
1.1.1 performance management methods绩效管理方法
At present, popular performance appraisal methods mainly include 360-degree appraisal method, key performance index method, balanced scorecard method, and target management method. An important research direction of performance management methods is the study of performance evaluation methods. Edward points out that 360-degree assessment can serve both organizational development and organizational management (Amerine, et al., 2016). Most enterprises start to use it for internal control, but in the process of enterprise performance evaluation, employees may worry about their remuneration, promotion and so on. Enterprises of economic power in the top 12 performance evaluation research, are performance management domain the new evaluation method is proposed. Namely, the balanced scorecard method referred to as BSC; they suggest that enterprise managers or operators from closely related to corporate customers, internal business processes, innovation and learning, and four angles such as financial management to measure and determine enterprise performance level. In this paper, different interview methods of performance appraisal are studied in depth (Blackburn, 2014).
Model for academic performance management research focuses on the general performance management model and the application of quantitative evaluation model, performance management, performance comprehensive evaluation model and its use, performance management implementation model, strategy-oriented performance management model, etc. Due to the complexity of the construction and use of performance management application model, many management scientists have made relatively slow progress in the study of performance management application model due to the limitation of the professional and technical level. With bp's oil business as an object to establish a strict performance management model, to obtain about the key performance indicators and performance stipulated in the contract the action effect of reliable information (Rana, 2011).
1.1.2 Dimensions of performance management
Early, most scholars believe that performance is unidimensional, its task is to put as the main content of the performance review, for example, that performance is in a specific period, have a particular job function or activity of output records. Last century, however, with the development of the economy and the transformation of the organizational structure, the scholars found that the performance is not just a unidimensional concept, its connotation is beyond the traditional sense of the behavior. As a result, extends to the attention to behavior process. Put forward the performance of the model, the production is divided into eight different aspects, namely the work proficiency, proficiency in non-work related, work performance, written and oral communication skills, assist colleagues with the team, discipline, supervision, management and administrative ability and leadership, etc., these efforts in the work performance, work-related proficiency performance and control were the main factors. It is considered that job performance is a multi-dimensional concept, and the behavior and results of production should be understood from multiple perspectives. Although the model is lengthy, it shows that there are two kinds of actions related to job performance, which are named task performance and peripheral performance respectively through research. Task performance is an in-job behavior clearly defined, and its useful predictors are cognitive ability. Task performance is adjusted with the change of position and position. Peripheral performance is considered. Besides that, the production of organizational characteristics and organization are closely related to the factors such as psychological environment. Behavior is a relationship between the organization and randomness of employees in production, including the motivation to maintain the excellent working relationship, interpersonal relationships and help others to finish the work efficiently (Pater, 2012). They are in different positions and duties between the difference is not apparent. Chinese scholars make adopted confirmatory factor analysis method, such as in Chinese culture under the background of inspection on the structure of the task performance and the surrounding performance difference. The results show that the two can be a strict distinction between in the structure, and the research under the background of Chinese culture also verified the two factors of the performance of scientific nature and rationality of the model. Later, some scholars by task performance and contextual performance increase adaptive performance, the performance of three-dimensional structure model is put forward, namely to seek to adapt to unfamiliar or change the situation of employees. People to adapt to the production, such as exploratory study, eight factors of adaptive performance classification model is put forward (Ulrych, 2011). Namely, deal with emergency and crisis, deal with work pressure, creative problem solving and dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situation, job skills, and procedures, show interpersonal adaptability, show a cultural flexibility, show the body orientation of resilience and so on. By studying various performance models, a four-dimensional conceptual model of work performance, namely, task performance, relational performance, learning performance and innovation performance, is proposed. They believe that the performance dimensions of these four dimensions are a continuous dynamic and continuous cycle of rising process. Through the above, the literature work performance of induction, which is beneficial to clarify the connotation of the production and development, and also for the choice of performance measurement dimension in this study provides an essential theoretical basis.#p#分页标题#e#
 
1.1.3 Factors influencing performance management in a term of the measurement 
There are many factors influencing job performance. They usually interact with each other and jointly influence job performance. The trait theory at the early stage believed that individual trait was the main factor determining the level of work performance, and some scholars also believed that organizational structure was an important factor influencing performance(Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017). Modern management science and psychology studies have shown that the factors affecting employee performance mainly comes from the three aspects: individual, organization, and work. This formula shows that job performance is a person, organization, the function of three variables (Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017). It is the interaction and influence of these three relatively independent factors that eventually produce the realistic individual work performance. The following is a detailed discussion of these three influencing factors.
1.1.3.1 Personal factors
Personal factors include employees' ability, attitude, and personality. Ability is the most necessary psychological characteristic for an individual to complete an activity or task successfully. It can be divided into general ability and special ability. Through the comprehensive analysis of objective things, individuals can complete an activity by utilizing the knowledge and skills they have mastered, which is the ability. Under the premise that other factors remain unchanged, the stronger the employee's ability to work is, the more significant the work performance will be, that is, the employee's ability is directly proportional to the work performed. Ability plays an important decisive role in the level of individual performance (Anuradha & Ghuman, 2017). Attitude is a person outside the object is relatively stable; by three components to cognition, scene, tendencies of natural psychological tendency, it decided the people to choose what kind of object, how to process the information for the object, and the appropriate reaction to information. Attitude has a direct impact on work performance by influencing learning efficiency, work efficiency, social cognition and judgment, tolerance, team compatibility and cohesion, and motivation. Individuals in the social life, by psychological process of cognition, emotion, will reflect the objective things, reflect these gradually be preserved and strengthened, and finally form an individual's attitude to objective things, and reflected in the individual's social behavior, this is a character. Personality includes three different types: volitional, intellectual and emotional. There is nothing good or bad about personality per se, but those that involve positive, proactive, uplifting thoughts and behaviors will help improve performance (Wegrich, 2015).
1.1.3.2 organizational factors
Organizational factors include group pressure factors, motivation factors, performance assessment factors, organizational culture factors, etc. Group pressure refers to the binding effect of existing group norms on individual psychology and behavior, which will force individuals to comply with group norms (Raines, 2011). Group pressure is a double-edged sword to improve employee performance. When an individual's work performance is significantly lower than or higher than that of the majority of the group, the existence of group pressure will be felt. In this case, the individual is prone to a psychological state of tension or fear, worry by other group members crowding out or ignored, which prompted him to increase or decrease performance, returns to a state of relatively consistent with groups. Motivation refers to motivating the initiative, sex, enthusiasm, and creativity of the management to achieve the work goals by setting the working output result conditions. Incentives include external incentives and internal incentives (Balakrishnan& S, 2015). External incentives include benefits, promotion, rewards, etc., which can significantly improve employee performance during certain periods. Intrinsic motivation including good training system, promotion system, provide a variety of support for employees realize their value, and so on, this way usually needs a long time but can achieve lasting incentive effect. For organizations, scientific incentives can effectively stimulate employees' work enthusiasm and innovative spirit, to improve their work performance. Performance appraisal is to objectively understand employees' working conditions, abilities, and adaptability, and evaluate employees' personalities, abilities, attitudes and work output results. Performance appraisal itself can affect employee's work performance, behavior and results need to be clarified in the inspection plan of performance standards, and to be strict, fair to produce positive role to employees; On the contrary, ambiguous and unfair performance appraisal methods will cause employees to have negative emotions and boycott behaviors, thus affecting work performance (Showail, McLean Parks & Smith, 2013). Organizational culture refers to all members of an organization together with the collection of values, beliefs, opinions, and code of conduct, usually can be divided into power culture, role culture, supportive culture, and achievement. Organizational culture provides an important organizational environment for employee performance. For example, innovative organizational culture can stimulate the innovation spirit of employees, encourage employees to try new things and methods boldly, and continuously inject vitality and spiritual force to improve their work performance. 
1.1.3.3 work factors
The working factors include the task itself, the working method and the working environment. The task itself has a certain influence on job performance, task goal is clear, whether must work fully, task emergency degree, whether there is a history lesson here will affect the job performance (Arrowsmith & Parker, 2013). The working method refers to the way and method adopted by employees to complete tasks, including the use of working tools, the design of working process and the coordination of work, etc. The quality of working methods directly affects the efficiency and quality of work output: the use of working tools affects the speed and quality of task completion; The workflow is the work step, and its scientific and reasonable determine the logic and organization of the work. Whether the work coordination is appropriate or not directly affects the work coordination and effect of employees (Bezuijen, et al., 2010). Working environment refers to the scope and space for employees to carry out their work, which usually includes material conditions, equipment, and raw materials supply in the workplace (Eaglebarger, 2017). Though the work environment is the external factors that affect job performance but plays a considerable role, only provide high-quality resources and conditions of the necessary to complete the tasks, to let employees concentrate on my work, improve the efficiency of work output. 'so, there are many factors which can affect work performance, and in this paper, the study of the knowledge employee engagement exactly should belong to the category of individual factors of attitude factors, and the assumptions of this study was the work performance of other factors unchanged.
 
1.2 Employee engagement 
1.2.1 The definition of employee engagement
Participation is defined as: "the employment and self-expression, both at work and at the same time, and by organizing member on physical, cognitive and emotional positive fully demonstrate role to promote the individual contact work with others" (Alfes, et al., 2013). Studies of engagement to consultancy, originated in the western developed countries, with the deepening of the consultancy to employee engagement practice and research, as well as the gradual development of psychology, academia beginning to let more and more attention to the study of the engagement. At home, though the word "professional" familiar, but a proposition of employee engagement for scholars to explore, and the domestic-related research is still in its infancy. So far, there is no unified definition of employee engagement, domestic and foreign researchers or consultants (Boiral & Paillé, 2012). Although scholars and research institutions understanding of employee engagement each is not identical, they all emphasize the point together (Eaglebarger, 2017). Namely, the employee engagement refers to the employees in the emotion and knowledge for a commitment and investment in the enterprise and work. Based on predecessors' research for reference, the author thinks that employee engagement is through the physical, psychological and externalizing behaviors of employees of the organization and the degree of identity and commitment of the work itself. The discretion of the employee engagement to take on staff willing to will be able to decide to apply to the work of degree ", the higher the extent of application, the higher the employee engagement, the higher the role and the work have a positive impact to the enterprise (Bal & De Lange, 2015).
 
1.2.2 Measurements of employee engagement
Experts, scholars, and consultancies have also divided the measurement dimensions of engagement while proposing the concept of participation respectively. Based on academics and consultants their point of view, it could summarize the engagement dimensions for the unidimensional knot hook model and multidimensional structure model (Daniels, 2016).  Two categories of the dimensional model in academic research and application at present relatively authority is put forward . "vigor, dedication, are focus on" three factors model, and the related academic studies both at home and abroad has been widely used.#p#分页标题#e#
 
1.2.3 Employee Engagement measurement scale
After the related concepts of employee engagement are given, the scholars to a more in-depth understanding of employee engagement influence on individual and organization, investigate employee engagement with the relationship between the antecedent and consequence variables, scholars respectively by their theory, began to make different employee engagement measurement scale. According to given engagement structure model, which produces a contains a pre-test scale of the project, a result of exploratory factor analysis didn't get the default three independent and stable dimension (Burkett, 2011).  So they pick out of the project, the plan can be permanent to reflect the physiological, cognitive, and emotional three aspects, which constitute an overall engagement scale, it is used for engagement activities. Used to think that such as engagement measurement can be directly from the job burnout questionnaire for reference, using the individual in the profession self-efficacy, emotional exhaustion and cynicism of reverse on three dimensions, such as scores to assess, "for example, scored higher on professional self-efficacy dimensions, and on the dimension of emotional exhaustion and cynicism" low is as a professional. Have challenged this view, such as through a large number of interviews, eventually toppled the hypothesis about engagement is opposite job burnout, repudiated the scale reverse pattern can be used to measure engagement point of view (Alt, Díez-de-Castro & Lloréns-Montes, 2015). The scale includes dedication, energy, and dedication to a project, etc. 'in the years after they have for a country of several subjects to statistical analysis of survey data (Drew & Grant, 2017).  The scale of the project is from a reduced to a, after feeding the level of the three dimensions are right internal consistency, and the two factor model (employee engagement and job burnout of optimal fitting. The results show that employee engagement can be regarded as the direct opposite of job burnout, the scale of middle school teachers and tested its reliability and validity (Forck, 2014). Through the preliminary test of a high school teacher, two items with meager identification degree were deleted, and confirmatory factor analysis was carried out (Bhatnagar, 2007,). Finally, a revised scale suitable for localization background was formed. In the study of engagement, adopted the revised "engagement scale" by Zhang viewed, which once again proved that the scale had excellent reliability and validity. In addition, in the research field of scale-revised, it gets a high reliability and validity of the engagement of measuring range, applied in this study, the conclusions show that job resources, requirements.  In addition, organizational commitment has good prediction effect to employee engagement, and found that different organizational variables impact on employee engagement way of diversity, and the revised engagement three-dimensional structure model can well adapt to local Chinese background (Monica& Krishnaveni, 2018). Scholars from many countries have tested the scale, and the test results have mostly verified the three-factor model, and the internal consistency and cross-cultural stability of the range have been adequately verified. In general, all the indicators of the Chinese version of the engagement scale meet the requirements of psychometrics, which can be used for reference in future studies on engagement. The measurement scale for domestic and foreign many consultants are let engagement measurement scale, but is recognized by the international Gallup consulting company employee engagement of the measurement system is put forward, namely the Gallup survey in the workplace (Gupta & Sharma, 2016).
 
The questionnaire, a total of a research project, including two categories, one kind is used for measuring the employees have the attitude of sex. As a result, another kind is used to confirm the first-line managers can control the factors affecting attitude variables. Employee engagement measures how happy employees are to stay with the company and work hard to serve it (de Souza & Beuren, 2018). Dedicated employees behavior has three levels. First level is willing to promote, namely, employees will often to colleagues, willing to join in enterprise, customers and potential customers for enterprise speech; the second aspect is the willingness to stay, that is, employees have a strong desire to stay in the organization; The third level is full commitment, that is, employees can not only devote themselves to their work but also are willing to pay extra efforts to promote the success of the enterprise, which is the highest level of employee engagement. Two main ways are summed up. The first is a crowd-oriented measurement tool, such as Gallup's measurement scale (Döring, Downe & Martin, 2015). This measurement tool is based on the most direct influencing factors of employee engagement, and these factors are often highly executive. This way can usually get more real information and is advantageous to the organization based on the measured results to take effective measures in time, but the disadvantage is not intuitively understood the individual level of engagement. This method is mainly applied to understand the status of the organization's overall worship, study and analyze the influence of individual engagement organizational management factors and environmental factors so that the organization has targeted to improve employee engagement. The second is an individual-oriented measurement tool, such as the measurement scale and the proposed measurement scale (Monica & Krishnaveni, 2018). This kind of measurement method based on the essence of engagement, direct measurement of the actual circumstances of the individual engagement, but the downside is that may be due to the high surface validity and authenticity appears to reduce the measurement result. This measurement method is mainly applicable to study the concept and structure of engagement or to study its relationship with other organizational variables. In this paper, the author focuses on the relationship between employee engagement and job performance, so it is suitable to use this kind of individual-oriented measurement tool (Crick,et al., 2013). Model is proposed for employee engagement three necessary and decisive psychological conditions, namely the psychological sense of security, psychological meaning and availability than he further put forward the three organization environmental factors affecting the psychological conditions. Among them, the factors influencing psychological security include organizational management mode, internal and inter-organizational dynamics, working procedures, organizational rules and regulations, and decision-making, etc. (Haddock-Millar, Sanyal& Müller-Camen, 2016,) The factors influencing the psychological sense of meaning include task characteristics, job interaction, and duty characteristics. Factors influencing psychological usability include emotional and cognitive resources, job role safety, work psychology and leisure activities. Therefore, this model includes the multiple factors that affect employee engagement, such as personal factors, organizational environment factor, work factor, the combination of these factors and degree of individual's perception determines the level of employee engagement. Improve the premise of the company's performance is to clarify the key factors that affect employee engagement, the integration of values, career development opportunities, employee involvement, and good communication mechanism, improve the company's reputation, and so on (Bititci, Cocca & Ates, 2016). There are many factors which can affect employee engagement, including the organization's resources policy, working environment, the organization's management style and communication mechanism, and management process, the work itself, the enterprise values, work reward, work/life balance, leadership and the company's reputation, resources support and so on. Efforts to create an organizational atmosphere and working environment suitable for employees to display their intelligence and intelligence are the key factors affecting employees' engagement level. Enterprise top managers in understanding employee engagement situation, must according to the features of organization characteristics and the current development stage to identifying key drivers of employee engagement, and points out that the enterprise culture, interpersonal relations, leadership style, job content, total compensation, collaborative development opportunities, quality of life, organization system factors such as the driving factors is the key to influence employee engagement (Siddiquee, 2014). Employees pay more attention to the overall salary, corporate culture, development opportunities and work coordination of the company when choosing a career. In addition, individual differences among employees have a great impact on engagement. Such studies have shown that employee engagement is related to gender, and the overall level of male engagement is slightly higher than that of the female (Kaur, 2017). The relationship between personality traits and engagement was studied, and the results showed that employees with high engagement generally had the following characteristics: extroversion, flexibility and low neuroticism. Factors that affect employee engagement survey, the conclusion shows: according to the influence degree from high to low arrangement are personal career development opportunities and space, the higher management level directly, the company's recognition, benefits, personal, professional degree, challenging work, etc. According to the research achievements of different scholars and consultants, the author divides the influencing factors of knowledge employee engagement for the following three categories: first, job factors, including tasks, resources and a sense of achievement, work-life balance, etc. (Denman-Cleaver & van Tuijl, 2018) Secondly, organizational factors, including corporate culture and values, organizational management system and decision making, leadership and management level, teamwork, personal growth and career development, and comprehensive compensation, etc. Third, personal factors, including personality traits, demographic variables and so on.#p#分页标题#e#
 
From the dynamic point of view, organizational performance is a multidimensional concept, the concept of the extension will be as the change of time and space and produce a different derivative effect, effect, and efficiency, and utility is organization must focus on the three levels of performance. Government performance evaluation is the critical link of government performance management, which provides the scope and object of performance evaluation, and makes decisions and improvements on the basis of performance evaluation (Nielsen, P2014). High performance organization is the result of enterprise internal attaches great importance to, only define the organization's strategic objectives and organizational internalization, problems such as the organization's each work can be developed orderly, to ensure that every link of enterprise performance management activities is always in a deviation within the valid range, thus improving the ultimate goal of government administrative efficiency and administrative efficiency (Han, Huang & Macbeth, 2018).
1.3 The performance management and employee engagement
There is a high correlation between employee engagement and enterprise performance, and there is a significant positive correlation between employee engagement and shareholder return. The higher employee engagement, shows that the higher the recognition to the company, to be able to agree with the company for the realization of the vision and strategic objectives set by the organization structure, business process, management mode and way of working, 'and is willing to actively, fully realize the maximization of the value in the organization to promote organization performance improvement (Bryon, 2017).
 
Based on enterprise performance management abroad the induction, consolidation, and summary of the study, we found that the foreign research has the characteristics of the following two aspects: on the one hand, enterprises and government performance management is still is given priority to with normative analysis, by using the research methods and research results of the practical application value and the reality of a business or government performance management, a direct result of performance management of quantitative research progress is slow, the application of research results and operability is low (Burney, Radtke & Widener, 2017). On the other hand, there is a lack of relevant literature on the influence of psychological factors on enterprise performance management (HALL,2017). Enterprise performance management research should not be limited to the performance management process and link and internal organization, but also the enterprise or the government human resource management system, the researchers should also be considered at the same time the psychological impact on enterprise performance management research and value preference (Bourne,et al., 2018).
 
Human resource management thought has been widely spread and application in our country, since the 21st century, in the continuous development of human resource management practice, pushed by the prevailing in the west of enterprise performance management movement began emerging in our country (MEGHA, 2016). With the constant evolution of China's performance management practice, both enterprises, governments and other organizations have adopted performance management methods to improve their performance and promote their innovative development. Performance management since the 1970 s after years of progress and perfection has gradually become the critical, indispensable link of human resource management system and content, and in the process of performance management theory and practice of development mainly formed three representative views: first, performance management is a management system of organization performance(PATRICK & ROLLINS, 2015). The core content of this view is the organization performance, emphasizing the organization structure, organization, process and organizational environment influence on organizational performance, although individual performance will also have an impact on organizational performance, it's not a significant consideration in the organization; Second, performance management is a system for managing individual performance. This viewpoint is based on the consistency of the contract between the organization and the individual, emphasizing that the realization of individual performance is the basis and guarantee of the understanding of organizational performance, and paying attention to the direct participation and investment of employees (Onesti, Angiola & Bianchi, 2016). Third, performance management is the management organization and individual performance of the system, the view is recognized and accepted by most domestic scholars point of view, the view from the Angle of the dialectical relationship between organizational performance and individual performance (Kroll, & Moynihan, 2015).
 
Performance appraisal is an integral part of performance management, which is a critical link in the process of performance management, performance management and performance evaluation of contact mainly reflected in three aspects: first, performance management is the basis of the performance appraisal and the safeguard (Kataria, Rastogi & Garg, 2013). Performance management includes mostly performance plan, essential performance indicators selection and classification, the performance of the implementation of process control and supervision, application of performance assessment results and feedback, performance appraisal is based on the performance of the plan and key performance index system on the basis of through specific evaluation methods of enterprise and employee's work performance and contribution to measure the process of sorting. Without other aspects of performance management as a guarantee, performance appraisal is just like a castle in the air, which cannot be implemented and played its due role (Hvidman & Andersen, 2016). Therefore, performance management is the basis and basis of performance appraisal and an essential guarantee for the smooth implementation of performance appraisal. Secondly, performance appraisal is the critical link of performance management. Compared with performance appraisal, performance management is the relationship between whole and part. Performance management is a complete management system, and performance appraisal is an essential and vital system and link in this system. The performance plan is the foundation of performance management; performance plan is scientific directly determines the effectiveness and accuracy of performance appraisal, in the process of performance plan to encourage all levels of managers and employees to participate, responsibilities, job objective and the task of time and progress to reach a consensus. Selection and performance index system of performance appraisal is the primary basis, the selection of performance indicators can adopt methods such as weighted method and sorting method of each index to carry on the critical degree of sorting, and with the responsibility of each department (Langford, 2010). And performance appraisal as employees work objectives and work performance of test method is a vital link in the process of performance management, through the improvement of the performance evaluation can be for enterprise employee performance and provides essential reference basis and standards, continuously improve the performance management level of enterprise management, so as to realize the overall efficiency of enterprises (Pryshlakivsky & Searcy, 2017). Performance appraisal is not the end of the performance management, performance communication, and the application of performance results and feedback is an essential link of performance management in the process, according to the effect of performance appraisal, enterprise managers according to the assessment results to separate examination rank low staff communication and interviews, through interviews communication helps employees find the problems existing in work, and improve the assessment of the next cycle (Chen, 2015). Finally, the objectives of performance management and performance appraisal are consistent. Performance appraisal is not the ultimate goal of performance management, performance appraisal is just check staff work efficiency and work performance, is the means to help employees to achieve more performance, performance management, and performance appraisal goal is consistent, just fill out a form in the form of type assessment and rewards and punishment for the purpose of the inspection is not desirable (Brown, 2017).
 
1.4 the performance management of the Chinese government 
With the continuous development of China's economy and the advance of Chinese enterprises, China's enterprise performance management theory and the practice of research has made significant progress, but because the enterprise performance management research of China starts relatively late, foundation is weak, there are some shortcomings in the field of study and practice and problems: first, enterprise performance management of the lack of systematic analysis. From the usual point of view, the performance management of the enterprise at present in China study only focused on performance management itself, and for the enterprise performance management related environment, extension field of shortage (Thompson, 2014). In addition, due to the early stage of the performance management in the running cost is larger, the application of enterprise performance management in the domestic general not very extensive, this led directly to the available for study and use for reference the experience of the case of very few, therefore, the research progress of China's enterprise performance management theory and practice has been slow. Secondly, the research on enterprise performance management is not scientific (Jayawardana, O'Donnell & Jayakody, 2013). First of all, according to the analysis of the existing research literature most of China's research has focused on qualitative research and normative analysis, quantitative and empirical study is less, and targeted for the investigation of enterprise performance management system to build more, and on the basis of the data collection of the performance evaluation analysis research compare deficient (Conkright, 2015). Second, as China's enterprise performance management related training, rarely tube enterprise management personnel performance management the lack of awareness, coupled with the current performance management and evaluation methods of pluralism and diversity, natural to cause the enterprise management personnel performance management traps, thus to affect the Chinese enterprise performance management is scientific research (Patrick & Rollins, 2015). Finally, the study of Chinese government performance management is characterized by decentralization and disorder. China both for enterprise performance management and government performance management research is limited to within the organization, and for enterprises and between enterprises, between enterprise and government, between the government and government performance management theory, the comparative study of literature is scarce, the systemic research on Chinese government performance management and the lack of relevance, lack of empirical and quantitative research methods, on the specific countermeasures of government performance management, often become a mere formality, not operable and practical (Brewer & Kellough, 2016).#p#分页标题#e#
References
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