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代写essay范文:the Goodness and Evilness of Human Nature

时间:2015-10-13 11:06来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:代写essay 点击:
代写essay:the Goodness and Evilness of Human Nature

1.Introduction
Mencius and XunZi , are famous thinkers of the Qin Dynasty.They had contributed a great thought over the problem of humanity: Mencius advocated goodness of human nature, which is a typical representative of goodness theory; XunZi advocated human evil, which is a typical representative of the evil nature of humans. Although their humanity ideological opposites, but their purpose is with the same orientation, which is to constantly improve people themselves by advocating and strengthening acquired moral education.
2.A Discussion over Human Nature
Mencius believed that human nature is innate[1]. He pointed out that the four cardinal virtuesare within people and not given by the outside world. Human nature and wisdom are deeply rooted in the heart. From the perspective of Mencius, the human wisdom, etc., are not given by someone else, but the inherent of nature although people has not seriously thought about it.[2] He also noted that, Yao and Shun, who have the great nature. Yao and Shun has been able to carry out righteousnessbecause of their nature rather than any other reason. XunZi said that where the human nature who are something that is born with. It could not be learnt and done.It is the something that can notbe learnt and done in person, thatmakes the human nature.Like Mencius, XunZialso thought human nature was innate. This is a common Mencius and XunZi on human issues.[3]
Consistent with the premise does not lead to the conclusion of unity. Mencius and XunZi but there are fundamental differences over what is human nature. Mencius opposed to label human nature as eating and enjoying of life.And it isthe four cardinal virtuesthat is human nature. XunZi believes that people's wisdom and moral behavior is not innate, but acquired through learning before they get, and therefore cannot serve as human nature. XunZi said: people are born with the instinct of eating food and satisfying desire. However people have a moral goodness afterwards. Moral goodness and moral consciousness is not human innate, but the innate is human nature.
Different answers to humanity content will inevitably lead to different attitudes to human nature. Mencius take man's four cardinal virtuesas man’s nature[4], which is different from the essential attribute of the animal.He believes human nature is good. Man's goodness is also natural as the water goes downnaturally. Humanity is good, because people have the good end of Wisdom. Conscience, the wisdom of the inside, politeness, courtesy, shame and righteousnessas well as compassion are the great wisdom of human.People is good because they have the desire to achieve righteousness. Since XunZiseen the natural instinct of human nature as innate, he believes human nature is evil.[5] He pointed out that man's evil nature and those who pretend to be good are hypocritical. Why ishuman nature evil? XunZi argued that people wants to do goodness and be restrained by moral customs and laws which is the evidence of people’s guilty of violent disorder. In his opinion, what is missing on is what people need, people pursue good because of this reason.Because people lack good, human nature is evil. If human nature is good, then there is no moral etiquette longer necessary.
Formally, Mencius and XunZi treat human attitude as a good one and opposite evil one.But from the perspective of orientation of view, they are the same to some extent. Mencius Wisdom regarded the human nature of man as man, but he did not completely deny the natural resistance and acknowledged the human instinct of eye, ear, nose and mouth as human nature.But he do not think people's essence of nature to corrode the social nature. XunZi regarded the human nature of human nature, but he cannot make people think naturalness left unchecked.He think people should follow the development of human nature, otherwise social life will not be in order.Thus there is need of social ethics and etiquette to the pretense of human nature.So by people "artificial" doing goodness, the society will be overall in order. Mencius and XunZi holds a different perspective, a different approach to content humanity affirmative and negative. Although there are some differences in the specific operation, but the basic stance is to advocate human moral behavior; although the essence of nature is indispensable, but they think it should be limited.
Any person who proposed the theory of human natureaccordingly proposed a method of finding others or orientation. Mencius proposed "to store the heart, to raise its nature"on the basis of human goodness, XunZiproposed "to remove nature and to advocate imitation" on the basis of evil human nature.Mencius emphasize self-cultivation in his theory of deliberately cultivation.XunZiemphasize the role of education and external guidancein his theory.
Mencius believed that "goodness of humanity is natural like water goes down. No people is there to have no goodness;No water is there to goes up. Mencius makes an metaphorthat the phenomenon of water going down to explain the inevitability of human nature goodness.But he cannot answer the social reality of evil people. To resolve this conflict,Mencius made ​​deliberately cultivation theoryto escape censure from social pressure. Mencius believed that human nature (heart) is good, which is different from that of beasts.However some people do not know their own original mind and makes no effort to conserve and strengthen their own goodness. They put the original mind down and destroy the nature. As a result,people and animals become almost the same.[6]In Mencius view, it’s like beauty of wood was chopped down, the mountain grass is eaten by sheep. Therefore, if people want to become a man, they do not want to make themselves beast, they must strive to conserve human nature. Keeping the heart can develop and cultivate the nature of human being. Knowingnature of human being and people know the meaning of his life. Keeping its heart, raising its nature, so can the nature of life be found. It is advocated that human nature should be cultivated and people 's kindness should be kept with best efforts to accomplish heart.
XunZi believes that man’s nature is evil and those who pretend to be good are fake or artificial. Human nature is evil, so good is acquired by artificially behavior. XunZi think the reason why people have the goodness rather than evilness is entirely the result of acquired etiquette education. Although XunZiarguesthat human nature is evil, but he also argues that human nature is not entirely impossible to change. Through enlightenment and ritual law, resistance from the false, people can change the nature of evil to the good nature.[7]
In short, Mencius and XunZi, one starts from the goodness of human nature, ends at paying attention to prevent from becoming evil.There comes the need for morality and moral education of the conclusions; another starts from that human nature is evil,it needs to nurture moral etiquette enlightenment to change human nature in order to departure from the evil human nature. The former is to keep people's goodness through enlightenment, which is by changing people's evilness through enlightenment. In fact, no matterit is deliberately cultivation, or resistance from the false, the key lies in advocatingto practice moral and ethical behavior to acquirebeautiful social life.They both emphasized the need for moral education acquired.
Finally, whether XunZior Mencius view of human nature, are both negative and positive aspects of the combination. Their humanity ostensibly stands that everyone has a universal common humanity which isin fact, the ruling class of humanity. Mencius insists that human mankind and merely talks about humanitywisdom and abstract the feudal landlord class’s concepts such as morality. Mencius' view of human nature is to demonstrate the feasibility of benevolent, so people are convinced of the implementation of benevolent.Supporting benevolent goodness of ethics for the maintenance of the feudal ruling class and government services, it has a certain hypocrisy and deceptive in the entire history of feudal society.The ruling class it as a theoretical tool has negative effects of playing anembellishing feudal rule and palsying the will of people. But Mencius doctrine still has its positive side, Mencius tried to elaborate the difference between humanity and animalism.Common sense of humanity andthat of animals cannot be taken as human nature. Rather, the four cardinal virtues which are completely different from that of animals should be treated as human nature.This view of the development of human knowledge has made an outstanding contribution in the history of ancient China. Furthermoreon the basis of the establishment of the goodness of the Benevolent,he also pays attention to concerns of people's suffering, cherishing the social productive forces and warning landlords to strengthen moralityalso plays a very important rolesin future generations which should be fully affirmed.
XunZi talked that every people can become Yu. This acknowledges the possibility and potential of people. However, it is not the goal that everyone can achieve.And that would not be necessarily. Villain can become a gentleman.ButXunZi said villain refused to do so.The same is in the case of a gentleman becoming villain, but XunZi said, the gentleman would absolutely not do this.As can be seen, in the eyes ofXunZi, humanity is clear to have class boundaries. He abstract the understanding of human nature leaving the social relations of people behind.He refused to take human nature as social attributes and see it as a natural essence of human being.The human nature is purely biological from his point of view; he does not know humanity is in a certain something specific social relationships with people rather than see it as a living social relations shared by abstract things to leave.This is a one-side understanding. On the positive side, Evil Human mainly in his denial to some extent innate moral values ​​, and he stressed the important role of self-cultivation, to strengthen the ideological and moral cultivation, improve people's moral character has a positive meaning.


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