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美国作业:古斯塔夫·库尔贝的生活和工作

时间:2015-11-18 17:10来源:www.ukassignment.org 作者:留学生作业 点击:

美国作业:古斯塔夫·库尔贝的生活和工作
The Life And Work Of Gustave Courbet

库尔贝出生在法国的阿珥楠。阿珥楠是瑞士边境附近的一个小村庄。阿尔卑斯山脚交叉区域树满山坡,悬崖峭壁。溪水也在该地区上方和地下流淌。
注意任何信息你能够找到有关艺术家父母的资料。
古斯塔夫·库尔贝的父亲瑞吉斯·库尔贝,是一个富裕的地主。他拥有田地和葡萄园, 在Flagery拥有许多土地,它距离阿珥楠村有八英里。在这两个村庄,库尔贝家都有房子。瑞吉斯·库尔贝爱他周围的财产,是一个有社交能力且极具创造力的人。古斯塔夫的母亲西尔维比她的丈夫大四岁,是家庭中非常具有实用性的人。她不仅管理整个家庭,而且管理农场和葡萄园。
古斯塔夫是家里五个孩子中的老大,也是唯一的男孩,。他的妹妹佐伊生于1824年,是一个执拗的女孩。Zelie生于1828年,有点虚弱但很虔诚。朱丽叶,生于1831年,在精神上更像是她的哥哥;逞能,也是一个老姑娘。古斯塔夫对朱丽叶很亲密,他们共同奉献做事从来没有吵架。他的妹妹克拉丽斯生于1821年,但在13岁的时候去世了。他经常以他的姐妹作为模型。

Courbet was born in Ornans, France. Ornans is a small village near the Swiss frontier. The Alpine foothills cross the area with tree filled slopes and cliffs rising above them. Streams also flow above and below ground in the region.

注意任何信息你能够找到有关艺术家父母的资料。——Note any information you were able to find on the parents of the artist.

Gustave Courbet s father, Regis Courbet, was a wealthy landowner. He owned fields and vineyards that covered much land in the area of Flagery, which was a village about eight miles from Ornans. Courbet s family had homes in both villages. Regis Courbet loved the nature around his properties, and was a gregarious and inventive man. Gustave s mother Sylvie was four years older than her husband, and was the practical one in the family. She not only managed the household, but also the farms and the vineyards.

艺术家有兄弟或姐妹吗?——Did the artist have any brothers or sisters?

Gustave was the only boy and the eldest of five children. His sister Zoe was born in 1824 and was a difficult girl. Zelie, born in 1828 was frail and pious and Juliette, born in 1831, was more like her brother in spirit; conceited and a spinster. Gustave was closet to Juliette and their mutual devotion was never broken. His sister Clarice was born in 1821, but died at the age of 13. He often used his sisters as models.

艺术家有什么早期重要的童年经历生活吗?——What were some of the significant childhood experiences in the early life of the artist?

It is significant that Courbet loved nature as a child. He knew every little path, hill, and field in the area so well that he would lead outdoor excursions.
During Courbet s time at the seminary, according to his confessor, the number and kind of sin he confessed were considerably greater than other children of the same age

记录艺术家教育方面的信息。——Note any information on the education of the artist.

When Courbet was young, he appeared to be a promising student. At the age of twelve, he entered and spent six years at the seminary at Ornans. Courbet refused to study or take part in religious instruction. His essays were so entertaining that the teacher would save his for last. Original composition was the exception to his poor academic record at the seminary. Nevertheless, his father wanted Gustave prepared for a profession such as the law.
When Courbet was fourteen, Gros, a teacher from Ornans and former student of the Neo-Classical painter introduced him to painting.
In 1837, when Gustave was eighteen, his father sent him to a near-by college to study philosophy. Gustave complained about everything to his parents and wanted to leave, but his father wouldn t allow it. Finally, in 1840, Gustave left college without taking any of his final exams. He moved to Paris studied Spanish, Flemish and French painters on his own. Gustave s father disapproved, and tension grew between them. However, his father continued to send Gustave an allowance. From Paris, he returned regularly to Ornans to visit his family and to enjoy the landscape that inspired many of his paintings.

艺术家年代早期职业生涯怎么样?——What was the artist s early career like? Was it as an artist or was it in another field?

Except for a short employ or internship at the studio of Steuben and Hesse in Paris, none of the sources I used mentioned Courbet doing any other work besides producing art. During his first four or five years in Paris, he produced many paintings. Courbet was conflicted as far as style and spent most of the time painting romantic and literary subjects. He complained to his parents about the high cost of producing art, but as far as making money on his own, he thought that would hinder his ability to produce art.

年轻的成年生活和艺术的开端——Young Adult Life and Artistic Beginnings

1. Did the artist marry? If so, note any information on the marriage.
Courbet never married, but had a mistress with whom he had a child in 1847. The mistress left with the child in the early 1850s.
There were many women in his life, but his relations with them were mostly physical.

2. Did the artist have children? If so, note any information on the children.

3. What were the artist s early experiences as an artist?

Courbet s first works in Paris were Odalisque inspired from a poem by Victor Hugo, and Lelia from a novel by George Sands. According to Gerstle Mark, author of Gustave Courbet, These early works were rigid, wood like, and sometimes sentimental.
He painted his only commissioned altarpiece for the church of the local parish in 1847. He didn t gain much attention until he embraced realism in 1849; before that, he relied on the submission of paintings to the Salon, where few were accepted each year.

4. What were the significant early works of art and what were they like?

The first painting of Courbet s that was accepted to the Salon exhibition was Self-portrait with the Black Dog in 1844. Gustave is cloaked in black holding a pipe, with a book and walking stick nearby, and he is holding his new dog; a black spaniel. Posed on a hill or cliff, his up-close form takes up a good part of the canvas. He is young and handsome and has a prideful look on his face; it looks like he is trying to appear clever.

历史资料——Historical Information

1. What major historical events took place around the world during the time the artist was alive? Give 2 3 significant historical events for each continent.

a. Europe
1) In July of 1830, there was an uprising of the middle classes against King Charles attempt at absolutist monarchy. King Charles gave up the throne and fled.
2) Queen Victoria took the British throne in 1837 and ruled until her death in 1901
3) Russian Czar Alexander II abolished serfdom in the Russian empire. This was a result of pressure by progressive groups in Russia.

b. Asia
1) In 1839, the first Anglo-Afghan war began. The British wanted to protect their colony of India.
2) Hong Xiuquan led the Taiping Rebellion in China from 1851 through 1866. Impoverished peasants believed that he was Jesus younger brother, and sent as their savior.

c. Africa
1) In 1830, the French occupied Algeria. Abd al-Qadir, led a resistance to the French occupation until he was exiled in 1847.
2) In 1838, Sir James Alexander produced an academic study of the rock paintings and engravings found throughout southern Africa called An Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of Africa: Through the Hitherto Undescribed Countries of the Great Namaquas, Boschmans, and Hill Damaras, Performed under the Auspices of Her Majesty's Government and the Royal Geographic Society. He concludes that the works are images that reflect the life and culture of the indigenous San peoples.

d. North America
1) The United States Civil War took place between 1861 and 1865.
2) The United States Indian Removal Act of 1830 was an attempt to get Indians that lived east of the Mississippi River to give up their land and move west. This led to the final Trail of Tears march whereby 18,000 Cherokee were marched out of their land to Oklahoma; the conditions were so bad, that 4,000 died on the trail.
3) In 1848, gold was discovered in the Sierra Nevada foothills, and as a result, more than 80,000 migrants arrived in California.

e. South America
1) Spanish rule ended in Central and South America in 1824 after the defeat of the Spanish at Ayacucho, Peru.
2) In 1852, Dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas was driven from Buenos Aires. Afterwards, the Argentine Federalist constitution was established.



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